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The Handbook of High Performance Virtual Teams: A Toolkit for Collaborating Across Boundaries

Book Description

The Handbook of High-Performance Virtual Teams is an essential resource for leaders, virtual team members, and work group leaders. The editors provide a proved framework based on five principles for working collaboratively across boundaries of time, space, and culture. Written by experts in the field, the contributors offer practical suggestions and tools for virtual team who need to assess their current level of effectiveness and develop strategies for improvement. This important resource also contains an array of illustrative cases as well as practical tools for designing, implementing, and maintaining effective virtual work.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Web Ancillaries
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. The Editors
  5. The Contributors
  6. The Challenges of Virtual Teaming
    1. ISSUES SURROUNDING THE SIX CHALLENGES
      1. Distance
      2. Time
      3. Technology
      4. Culture
      5. Trust
      6. Leadership
    2. ORGANIZATION OF THE HANDBOOK
    3. SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS
    4. FINAL THOUGHTS
  7. References
  8. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
  9. I. Working Collaboratively
    1. 1. A Framework for Working Across Boundaries
      1. 1.1. THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF COLLABORATION
      2. 1.2. CROSSING BOUNDARIES
      3. 1.3. A FRAMEWORK FOR EDUCATING TEAM MEMBERS
        1. 1.3.1. Principle 1: Map Out Collaborative Work Structures and Processes
        2. 1.3.2. Principle 2: Craft a Supportive Culture
        3. 1.3.3. Principle 3: Develop Continuously Evolving Knowledge-Sharing and Management Systems
          1. 1.3.3.1. Knowledge Sharing
          2. 1.3.3.2. Knowledge Management
        4. 1.3.4. Principle 4: Define New Roles for Leaders
        5. 1.3.5. Principle 5: Align and Sustain Support Systems
        6. 1.3.6. Using the Framework
      4. 1.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 1.5. REMINDERS
    2. References
    3. 2. Design Principles for Successful Virtual Teams
      1. 2.1. PRINCIPLE 1: SELECT AND POSITION LEADERS FOR SUCCESS
        1. 2.1.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.1.2. How to Do It
          1. 2.1.2.1. Select for Key Competencies and Attributes
          2. 2.1.2.2. Use a Comprehensive Selection Process
          3. 2.1.2.3. Leverage Executive Leadership
          4. 2.1.2.4. An Executive Point of View
          5. 2.1.2.5. Position Leaders for Success
      2. 2.2. PRINCIPLE 2: ENGAGE ALL IN A COMMON VISION, PURPOSE, AND DESTINY
        1. 2.2.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.2.2. How to Do It
      3. 2.3. PRINCIPLE 3: CREATE THE CONTEXT FOR ENERGY AND UNDERSTANDING
        1. 2.3.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.3.2. How to Do It
      4. 2.4. PRINCIPLE 4: CREATE A UNIVERSAL LANGUAGE IN OPERATING PRINCIPLES
        1. 2.4.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.4.2. How to Do It
      5. 2.5. PRINCIPLE 5: DOCUMENT RELIABLE, REPEATABLE WORK PROCESSES
        1. 2.5.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.5.2. How to Do It
      6. 2.6. PRINCIPLE 6: ESTABLISH ROLES AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR DECISION MAKING
        1. 2.6.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.6.2. How to Do It
      7. 2.7. PRINCIPLE 7: CREATE GOALS AND MEASURES ACCESSIBLE TO ALL
        1. 2.7.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.7.2. How to Do It
      8. 2.8. PRINCIPLE 8: SET UP MECHANISMS FOR FEEDBACK AND CELEBRATION
        1. 2.8.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.8.2. How to Do It
          1. 2.8.2.1. Leaders Play a Critical Feedback Role
          2. 2.8.2.2. Issue Management Is a Critical Part of Effective Virtual Collaboration
      9. 2.9. PRINCIPLE 9: CREATE A PLAN TO "CAST" THE NET WIDER
        1. 2.9.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.9.2. How to Do It
      10. 2.10. PRINCIPLE 10: DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY
        1. 2.10.1. Why It Matters
        2. 2.10.2. How to Do It
          1. 2.10.2.1. Hold Periodic Checkpoints
          2. 2.10.2.2. Conduct Periodic Surveys
      11. 2.11. FINAL THOUGHTS
      12. 2.12. VIRTUAL COLLABORATION DESIGN REMINDERS
      13. 2.13. RELATED ITEMS ON THE WEB
    4. References
  10. II. Building a Collaborative Culture
    1. 3. The Three-Fold Path of Expanding Emotional Bandwidth in Virtual Teams
      1. 3.1. WHAT IS WORK, AND WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN?
        1. 3.1.1. Mind Shift 1: Work Is Becoming People-Centric, Not Place-Centric
        2. 3.1.2. Mind Shift 2: Connecting Through Networks Is the Process of Work
        3. 3.1.3. Mind Shift 3: Commitment Beyond "Doing My Job"
      2. 3.2. EXPANDING EMOTIONAL BANDWIDTH
      3. 3.3. THE TAO OF VIRTUAL TEAM FUNCTIONING: THE THREE-FOLD PATH
        1. 3.3.1. Path 1: Create a Cohesive Team Culture
          1. 3.3.1.1. Team Atmosphere
          2. 3.3.1.2. Learning and Information Sharing
          3. 3.3.1.3. Self-Image and Team Identity
          4. 3.3.1.4. Personalities and Habits
          5. 3.3.1.5. Practical Tools
          6. 3.3.1.6. Team Development and Planning Process
        2. 3.3.2. Path 2: Support the Team Community
          1. 3.3.2.1. Celebrations
          2. 3.3.2.2. Touching Base
          3. 3.3.2.3. Trusting Actions
          4. 3.3.2.4. Creating Stories Together
          5. 3.3.2.5. Helping Out
          6. 3.3.2.6. Negotiating Style Differences
          7. 3.3.2.7. Preventing Problems
          8. 3.3.2.8. Virtual Team Maintenance
          9. 3.3.2.9. Perpetuating Team Synergy
          10. 3.3.2.10. The Rolling Present: Entry and Reentry
        3. 3.3.3. Path 3: Produce Successful Outcomes
      4. 3.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 3.5. REMINDERS
      6. 3.6. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    2. 4. Getting Virtual Teams Right the First Time: Keys to Successful Collaboration in the Virtual World
      1. 4.1. KEY INGREDIENTS FOR EFFECTIVE VIRTUAL COLLABORATION: A RECIPE FOR SUCCESS
      2. 4.2. VIRTUAL COLLABORATION: A WIN-WIN EFFORT
      3. 4.3. TRUST: BELIEVING IN YOUR TEAM MEMBERS
      4. 4.4. SHARED UNDERSTANDING: THE BIG PICTURE
      5. 4.5. DEPTH OF RELATIONSHIPS: GETTING TO KNOW ONE ANOTHER
      6. 4.6. MIXING THE INGREDIENTS TOGETHER
      7. 4.7. ACHIEVING VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
        1. 4.7.1. How Organizations Can Promote Successful Virtual Collaboration
        2. 4.7.2. How Individual Team Members Can Promote Successful Virtual Collaboration
      8. 4.8. A CASE EXAMPLE
      9. 4.9. FINAL THOUGHTS
      10. 4.10. REMINDERS
    3. References
    4. 5. Sensemaking to Create High-Performing Virtual Teams
      1. 5.1. A SENSEMAKING PROCESS MODEL FOR VIRTUAL TEAMS
        1. 5.1.1. Constructive Accountability
        2. 5.1.2. Dynamic Relationships
      2. 5.2. THE FIVE C'S AND THE ROLE OF A SENSEMANAGER
        1. 5.2.1. Clarity
        2. 5.2.2. Connection (Coordination)
        3. 5.2.3. Candor
        4. 5.2.4. Co-creation
        5. 5.2.5. Commitment
      3. 5.3. FINAL THOUGHTS
      4. 5.4. REMINDERS
      5. 5.5. RELATED ITEMS ON THE WEB
    5. References
    6. 6. Trust Building Online: Virtual Collaboration and the Development of Trust
      1. 6.1. TRUST IN THE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT
      2. 6.2. THE REINA TRUST AND BETRAYAL MODEL
        1. 6.2.1. Contractual Trust
        2. 6.2.2. Communication Trust
        3. 6.2.3. Competence Trust
      3. 6.3. TRANSACTIONAL TRUST AS THE FOUNDATION FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
        1. 6.3.1. Development of Trust Building Online
          1. 6.3.1.1. The Query Space
          2. 6.3.1.2. The Discussion Center
        2. 6.3.2. Learning from the Initial Design
      4. 6.4. APPLICATION OF TRUST BUILDING ONLINE: TRANSACTIONAL TRUST AND VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
        1. 6.4.1. Virtual Contractual Trust
        2. 6.4.2. Virtual Communication Trust
        3. 6.4.3. Virtual Competence Trust
      5. 6.5. TRANSFORMATIVE TRUST
      6. 6.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 6.7. REMINDERS
      8. 6.8. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    7. References
  11. III. Leading Collaboratively
    1. 7. Transformational Leadership Attributes for Virtual Team Leaders
      1. 7.1. LEADERSHIP OVERVIEW
      2. 7.2. FOUNDATION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
      3. 7.3. CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS IN A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT
        1. 7.3.1. A Genuine Concern for Others
        2. 7.3.2. Politically Sensitive and Skillful
        3. 7.3.3. Decisive, Determined, and Self-Confident
        4. 7.3.4. Trustworthy, Honest, and Open
        5. 7.3.5. Developer of Potential in Others
        6. 7.3.6. Networkers, Promoters, and Communicators
        7. 7.3.7. Encouraging
        8. 7.3.8. Accessible and Approachable
        9. 7.3.9. Visionary of the Future
        10. 7.3.10. Sensitive and Relationship Oriented
      4. 7.4. ACTUAL AND IDEAL TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTES
      5. 7.5. WEAKNESSES IN TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
      6. 7.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 7.7. REMINDERS
      8. 7.8. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    2. References
    3. 8. Going Beyond Leadership Style: When and How Do We Lead Change?
      1. 8.1. A LEADERSHIP ACTION MODEL FOR FAIR CHANGE
      2. 8.2. RELATING THE ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE TYPES TO TEAM LEADERSHIP
      3. 8.3. TRIGGERS FOR WHEN TO LEAD CHANGE
      4. 8.4. SUGGESTED ACTIONS FOR HOW TO LEAD CHANGE
      5. 8.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 8.6. REMINDERS
    4. References
    5. 9. Leading Virtual Teams: Potential Problems and Simple Solutions
      1. 9.1. MOTIVATION
        1. 9.1.1. Providing a Compelling Vision
        2. 9.1.2. Managing Conflicting Goals
        3. 9.1.3. Providing Feedback
        4. 9.1.4. Establishing a Team Identity
        5. 9.1.5. Leadership Behaviors That Motivate
      2. 9.2. COORDINATION
        1. 9.2.1. Relationship Building
        2. 9.2.2. Choice of Communication Medium
        3. 9.2.3. Applying Face-to-Face Coordination Techniques to Virtual Teams
        4. 9.2.4. Summary
      3. 9.3. DEVELOPMENT
        1. 9.3.1. Team Building
        2. 9.3.2. Team Coaching
        3. 9.3.3. Gathering Performance Information for Feedback
        4. 9.3.4. Summary
      4. 9.4. LEADER FUNCTIONS ACROSS THE VIRTUAL TEAM LIFE CYCLE
      5. 9.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 9.6. REMINDERS
      7. 9.7. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    6. References
  12. DESIGNING HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
  13. IV. Setting Up a Collaborative Team
    1. 10. Team Composition and Member Selection: Optimizing Teams for Virtual Collaboration
      1. 10.1. TEAM STAFFING STRATEGY
        1. 10.1.1. A Framework for Team Staffing and Team Performance
          1. 10.1.1.1. Mental Models
          2. 10.1.1.2. Trust
          3. 10.1.1.3. Cohesion
          4. 10.1.1.4. Collective Efficacy
      2. 10.2. STEPS IN A TEAM STAFFING STRATEGY
        1. 10.2.1. Step 1: Identify Mission and Skill Requirements
        2. 10.2.2. Step 2: Select Members Based on Task and Team Generic Skill Markers
        3. 10.2.3. Step 3: Identify Specific Task Work Skills
        4. 10.2.4. Step 4: Determine Appropriate Mix of Team Skills
      3. 10.3. FINAL THOUGHTS
      4. 10.4. REMINDERS
    2. References
    3. 11. Generational Differences in Virtual Teams
      1. 11.1. FOUR GENERATIONS AT WORK
      2. 11.2. GENERATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN APPROACHES TO TECHNOLOGY
      3. 11.3. CONSIDERING GENERATIONS IN APPROACHES TO CHANGE MANAGEMENT
      4. 11.4. IMPACT ON VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
      5. 11.5. RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. 11.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 11.7. REMINDERS
    4. References
    5. 12. Assessing Training Needs for Virtual Team Collaboration
      1. 12.1. ORGANIZATIONAL NEEDS ANALYSIS
        1. 12.1.1. General Guidelines for Organizational Needs Analysis
        2. 12.1.2. Methods for Collecting Data
      2. 12.2. ASSESSING TRAINING NEEDS FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
        1. 12.2.1. Organizational Level of Analysis
        2. 12.2.2. Work Group Level of Analysis
        3. 12.2.3. Individual Learner Level of Analysis
      3. 12.3. TRAINING CONTENT AREAS FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION NEEDS
        1. 12.3.1. Organizational Knowledge
        2. 12.3.2. Cross-Cultural Skills
        3. 12.3.3. Work Content and Subject Matter Expertise
        4. 12.3.4. Collaborative Technology Skills and Knowledge
        5. 12.3.5. Collaborative Work Process Skills and Knowledge
        6. 12.3.6. Competency Assessment Questions by Level of Analysis
      4. 12.4. GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT INDIVIDUAL LEARNING NEEDS
        1. 12.4.1. Assumptions About Adult Learners
        2. 12.4.2. Individual Learning Styles
        3. 12.4.3. Generational Differences in the Workplace
      5. 12.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 12.6. REMINDERS
    6. References
    7. 13. Design Concepts for Virtual Work Systems
      1. 13.1. DESIGNING WORK PROCESSES
        1. 13.1.1. Case Study 1: Task Division for a Spatially and Temporally Distributed Virtual Team
        2. 13.1.2. Case Study 2: Nonverbal Coordination and Communication
        3. 13.1.3. Case Study 3: Coordination During Plan Adaptation and Replanning
      2. 13.2. USING TECHNOLOGY TO COMMUNICATE AND COORDINATE
        1. 13.2.1. Case Study 4: Planning Contingencies
        2. 13.2.2. Case Study 5: Use of Video for Coordination and Communication
        3. 13.2.3. Case Study 6: Mediating Coordination Using Auditory Technologies
        4. 13.2.4. Case Study 7: Synchronous and Asynchronous Problem Solving Using Shared Virtual Work Spaces
      3. 13.3. BUILDING SHARED PERSPECTIVES
        1. 13.3.1. Case Study 8: Establishing Common Ground and Building Shared Perspectives
        2. 13.3.2. Case Study 9: Sharing Knowledge and Data to Build Shared Mental Models
      4. 13.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 13.5. REMINDERS
    8. References
  14. V. Working on a Collaborative Team
    1. 14. The Technology That Supports Virtual Team Collaboration
      1. 14.1. A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY
        1. 14.1.1. Asynchronous or Synchronous Interaction
        2. 14.1.2. Social Presence
        3. 14.1.3. Media Richness
        4. 14.1.4. A Tool for Assessing Collaborative Technology
      2. 14.2. TYPES OF COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY
        1. 14.2.1. Electronic Message Systems
        2. 14.2.2. Audio and Video Systems
        3. 14.2.3. Collaboration Supporting Systems
          1. 14.2.3.1. Electronic Whiteboarding
          2. 14.2.3.2. Softboard
          3. 14.2.3.3. Team Web Template
          4. 14.2.3.4. Discussion Database
          5. 14.2.3.5. Group Decision Support Systems
      3. 14.3. ENABLING COLLABORATION IN THE ABSENCE OF FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION
      4. 14.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 14.5. REMINDERS
    2. References
    3. 15. Training for Virtual Collaboration: Beyond Technology Competencies
      1. 15.1. THE CHALLENGES AND KEY SUCCESS FACTORS OF WORKING VIRTUALLY
        1. 15.1.1. The Challenges
          1. 15.1.1.1. Complexity
          2. 15.1.1.2. Invisibility
          3. 15.1.1.3. Restricted Communication
        2. 15.1.2. Critical Success Factors for Effective Virtual Collaboration
          1. 15.1.2.1. Shared Understanding
          2. 15.1.2.2. Trust
          3. 15.1.2.3. Effective Communication
        3. 15.1.3. Virtuous and Vicious Cycles
      2. 15.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
      3. 15.3. A MODULAR LEARNING PROGRAM FOR VIRTUAL TEAMS
      4. 15.4. GLOBAL HR SUPPORT TEAM
      5. 15.5. CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESS
        1. 15.5.1. Organizational Support
        2. 15.5.2. Transparent Funding
        3. 15.5.3. Support from ICT
      6. 15.6. CREATING A VIRTUAL TEAM TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
      7. 15.7. FINAL THOUGHTS
      8. 15.8. REMINDERS
      9. 15.9. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    4. References
    5. 16. Combating Confusion: Virtual Teams That Cross Borders
      1. 16.1. HOW HARD CAN IT BE? COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT WORKING ACROSS BORDERS
        1. 16.1.1. Misconception 1
        2. 16.1.2. Misconception 2
        3. 16.1.3. Misconception 3
        4. 16.1.4. Misconception 4
      2. 16.2. WHY AND HOW CULTURE MATTERS
        1. 16.2.1. Individual Versus Group Orientation
        2. 16.2.2. Directness Versus Indirectness
        3. 16.2.3. Egalitarian Versus Hierarchical (Power Distance)
        4. 16.2.4. Task Versus Relationship Orientation
        5. 16.2.5. Data Versus Dialogue
        6. 16.2.6. Risk Tolerance Versus Uncertainty Avoidance
      3. 16.3. BUILDING EFFECTIVE CROSS-BORDER PROJECT TEAMS
      4. 16.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 16.5. REMINDERS
    6. References
    7. 17. Problem Solving in Virtual Teams
      1. 17.1. PREPARATION FOR PROBLEM SOLVING
      2. 17.2. PROBLEM TYPES
        1. 17.2.1. Simple Problems
        2. 17.2.2. Complex Problems
      3. 17.3. FINAL THOUGHTS
      4. 17.4. REMINDERS
    8. References
    9. 18. Correcting Chronic Decision-Making Problems Through Effective Collaboration
      1. 18.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND VALUE PROPOSITION
      2. 18.2. IMPACT OF BAD AND EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING AND COLLABORATION
      3. 18.3. KEY APPROACHES TO DECISION MAKING AND COLLABORATION
      4. 18.4. CURRENT COLLABORATION AND DECISION-MAKING PRINCIPLES
      5. 18.5. CURRENT DECISION-MAKING ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PROCESS STEPS
        1. 18.5.1. Phase 1: Data Gathering and Brainstorming
        2. 18.5.2. Phase 2: Collaboration and Decision Making
        3. 18.5.3. Phase 3: Commitment and Support
        4. 18.5.4. Phase 4: Execution and Course Correction
      6. 18.6. UNSPOKEN OR SILENT MICROMESSAGES
        1. 18.6.1. Impact of Personal Preferences Versus Individual Ideas
        2. 18.6.2. Impact of Emotional Attachment to One's Own Ideas
        3. 18.6.3. Impact of Risk Aversion and the Loss of Ideas
        4. 18.6.4. Impact of Premature and Silent Messages
        5. 18.6.5. Impact of Superficial and Halfhearted Commitment to a Decision
        6. 18.6.6. Potential Misuse of a Well-Intended Tool as a Weapon of Power and Control
        7. 18.6.7. Who Is Really Making the Decisions Around Here Anyway?
        8. 18.6.8. Nagging Issues Associated with the Roles and Responsibilities of the Decision Maker
        9. 18.6.9. Impact of a Competitive Environment and the Erosion of Confidence and Trust
        10. 18.6.10. The Culture of Results Orientation and Its Impact on Shortsighted Decisions
        11. 18.6.11. The Impact of Not Representing and Aligning Key Stakeholder Interest
        12. 18.6.12. The Frequency of Overturned Decisions and the Impact on Low Morale
        13. 18.6.13. Potential Problems Associated with the Dilution of the Solution or Decision
        14. 18.6.14. The Impact of Lies, Deception, Jealousy, and Other Inappropriate Behavior
      7. 18.7. LEVERAGING COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE THROUGH EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION
      8. 18.8. NEW PRINCIPLES FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION AND EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKING
      9. 18.9. EFFECTIVE COLLABORATION USING THE CONSULTATIVE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
      10. 18.10. FINAL THOUGHTS
      11. 18.11. REMINDERS
    10. References
  15. VI. Tools and Assessments for Collaboration
    1. 19. Tools for Effective Virtual Team Start-Ups
      1. 19.1. DESIGNING NEW VIRTUAL TEAMS
        1. 19.1.1. The Technology Tether
        2. 19.1.2. The Personal System
      2. 19.2. FOCUSING NEW VIRTUAL TEAMS
        1. 19.2.1. Unique Challenges for Virtual Team Start-Ups
        2. 19.2.2. Bridging Cultural Distances
        3. 19.2.3. Creating a Team Charter
      3. 19.3. PRACTICAL TIPS FOR CHARTERING
        1. 19.3.1. Role Clarification
        2. 19.3.2. Operating Guidelines
        3. 19.3.3. Setting Technology Protocols
      4. 19.4. WORK AND HOME LIFE BALANCE
      5. 19.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 19.6. REMINDERS
    2. References
    3. 20. Tools for Effective Virtual Team Meetings
      1. 20.1. WHEN TO USE AND NOT TO USE VIRTUAL MEETINGS
      2. 20.2. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VIRTUAL TEAM MEETINGS
      3. 20.3. EDUCATING FOR VIRTUAL TEAM MEETINGS
      4. 20.4. USING VIRTUAL MEETING FACILITATORS AND COFACILITATORS
        1. 20.4.1. The Initial Virtual Meeting
        2. 20.4.2. Stages of Virtual Team Meetings
          1. 20.4.2.1. Premeeting
          2. 20.4.2.2. During the Meeting
          3. 20.4.2.3. Postmeeting
      5. 20.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 20.6. REMINDERS
    4. References
    5. 21. VEtiquette: What Is the Etiquette of Virtual Teams?
      1. 21.1. WHAT IS VETIQUETTE?
      2. 21.2. COMMON FEATURES OF VIRTUAL TEAMS AND COLOCATED TEAMS
      3. 21.3. COLLABORATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: THE IMPORTANCE OF AN OPEN CULTURE
      4. 21.4. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VIRTUAL AND COLOCATED TEAMS
      5. 21.5. VIRTUAL TEAM MEETING PRACTICES THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE
        1. 21.5.1. Set Expectations for Working Together
        2. 21.5.2. Ensure the Leader or Facilitator Has the Necessary Skills
        3. 21.5.3. Practice Virtual Meeting Skills
        4. 21.5.4. Use Adult Learning Principles
        5. 21.5.5. Measure Participant Reactions for Continual Improvement
      6. 21.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 21.7. REMINDERS
    6. Reference
    7. 22. Creativity Techniques for Virtual Teams
      1. 22.1. WHAT ARE CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES?
      2. 22.2. LINEAR CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
        1. 22.2.1. Attribute Listing
          1. 22.2.1.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.1.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.1.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        2. 22.2.2. Morphological Analysis
          1. 22.2.2.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.2.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.2.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        3. 22.2.3. Force Field Analysis
          1. 22.2.3.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.3.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.3.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        4. 22.2.4. Mind Mapping
          1. 22.2.4.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.4.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.4.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        5. 22.2.5. Idea Checklists
          1. 22.2.5.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.5.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.5.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        6. 22.2.6. Brainstorming
          1. 22.2.6.1. When to Use
          2. 22.2.6.2. Procedure
          3. 22.2.6.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
      3. 22.3. INTUITIVE TECHNIQUES
        1. 22.3.1. Imagery
          1. 22.3.1.1. When to Use
          2. 22.3.1.2. Procedure
          3. 22.3.1.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        2. 22.3.2. Analogical Thinking
          1. 22.3.2.1. When to Use
          2. 22.3.2.2. Procedure
          3. 22.3.2.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        3. 22.3.3. Drawing
          1. 22.3.3.1. When to Use
          2. 22.3.3.2. Procedure
          3. 22.3.3.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
        4. 22.3.4. Meditation
          1. 22.3.4.1. When to Use
          2. 22.3.4.2. Procedure
          3. 22.3.4.3. Tips for Virtual Teams
      4. 22.4. SELECTING APPROPRIATE CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
      5. 22.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 22.6. REMINDERS
    8. References
    9. 23. Using Assessments to Predict Successful Virtual Collaboration Performance
      1. 23.1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TALENT ASSESSMENT
      2. 23.2. GOOD PRACTICES AND THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
        1. 23.2.1. Reliability and Validity
          1. 23.2.1.1. Reliability
          2. 23.2.1.2. Validity
        2. 23.2.2. Evaluating Adverse Impact
        3. 23.2.3. Investigating the Options
      3. 23.3. ASSESSMENTS AS A TOOL FOR PREDICTING VIRTUAL COLLABORATION SUCCESS
      4. 23.4. USING ASSESSMENTS TO ASSOCIATE TRAITS WITH VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
      5. 23.5. BENCHMARKING FOR SUCCESS
        1. 23.5.1. Advantages of Benchmarking
          1. 23.5.1.1. Flexibility
          2. 23.5.1.2. Fairness
        2. 23.5.2. Disadvantages of Benchmarking
          1. 23.5.2.1. Time Investment
          2. 23.5.2.2. Cost
        3. 23.5.3. The Benchmarking Process
      6. 23.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 23.7. REMINDERS
      8. 23.8. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    10. References
    11. 24. Building the Business Case to Executives for Virtual Teams
      1. 24.1. THE BUSINESS CASE FOR VIRTUAL TEAMS
      2. 24.2. WHY MAKE THE EFFORT TO WRITE A BUSINESS CASE?
      3. 24.3. THE BUSINESS CASE AS A VEHICLE FOR GARNERING SUPPORT
      4. 24.4. DEMONSTRATING SUCCESS TO KEY STAKEHOLDERS
      5. 24.5. PURPOSE STATEMENT
      6. 24.6. SITUATION ASSESSMENT
      7. 24.7. COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS
      8. 24.8. SAMPLE STATEMENT: COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS
      9. 24.9. COMPARISON OF OPTIONS
      10. 24.10. SAMPLE COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES
        1. 24.10.1. Deliverables
      11. 24.11. SAMPLE DELIVERABLES LIST
        1. 24.11.1. Timeline
        2. 24.11.2. Summary and Recommendations
      12. 24.12. SAMPLE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      13. 24.13. FINAL THOUGHTS
      14. 24.14. REMINDERS
    12. References
  16. REAL WORLD EXAMPLES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
  17. VII. Case Studies
    1. 25. Virtual Teams in Medical Care Delivery
      1. 25.1. THE NEED FOR VIRTUAL TEAMS IN HEALTH CARE
        1. 25.1.1. Transition to New Models of Teams
        2. 25.1.2. Challenges to Virtual Collaboration in Medicine and Primary Care
      2. 25.2. VIRTUAL INTEGRATED PRACTICE MODEL
        1. 25.2.1. Standardized Processes
        2. 25.2.2. Communication Protocols
        3. 25.2.3. Patient Self-Management
        4. 25.2.4. Group Visits
      3. 25.3. AN APPLICATION OF THE VIP MODEL
      4. 25.4. A CASE EXAMPLE OF THE VIP MODEL
      5. 25.5. FINAL THOUGHTS
      6. 25.6. REMINDERS
    2. References
    3. 26. Distributed Work: Using Data to Drive Business-Focused Decision Making
      1. 26.1. BLACK BOX DECISION MAKING
      2. 26.2. DATA-DRIVEN DECISION MAKING
      3. 26.3. FUTURE-STATE ANALYSIS
        1. 26.3.1. Data Perspective 1: Business Objectives and Key Success Factors
        2. 26.3.2. System of Infrastructure Support
        3. 26.3.3. Data Perspective 2: Infrastructure Component Linkages
        4. 26.3.4. Scenario Selection
      4. 26.4. CURRENT-STATE ANALYSIS
        1. 26.4.1. Data Perspective 3: Current Work Profiles
        2. 26.4.2. Data Perspective 4: Individual Work Styles and Preferences
        3. 26.4.3. Data Perspective 5: Current Infrastructure Inventory
      5. 26.5. DISTRIBUTED WORK IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS
        1. 26.5.1. Creating an Effective Implementation Strategy
        2. 26.5.2. Measuring and Monitoring Decision Effectiveness
      6. 26.6. FINAL THOUGHTS
      7. 26.7. REMINDERS
      8. 26.8. RELATED ITEM ON THE WEB
    4. References
    5. 27. Virtual Collaboration in a Matrix Organization
      1. 27.1. WHAT IS A MATRIX?
      2. 27.2. A CASE EXAMPLE
        1. 27.2.1. Benefits of a Matrix
          1. 27.2.1.1. Flexibility
          2. 27.2.1.2. Integration
          3. 27.2.1.3. Learning
        2. 27.2.2. Pitfalls of a Matrix
          1. 27.2.2.1. Power Struggles
          2. 27.2.2.2. Determining "Best Practices"
          3. 27.2.2.3. Decision Strangulation
          4. 27.2.2.4. Personal Stress
      3. 27.3. DESIGNING A SUCCESSFUL MATRIX FOR VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
        1. 27.3.1. Build Social Capital
          1. 27.3.1.1. Design Principle 1: Networks and Relationships
          2. 27.3.1.2. Design Principle 2: Collaboration, Not Compromise
          3. 27.3.1.3. Design Principle 3: Managers Who Work Well Together
          4. 27.3.1.4. Design Principle 4: A Culture of Teamwork and Joint Accountability
        2. 27.3.2. Instill Disciplined Work and Management Processes
          1. 27.3.2.1. Design Principle 5: Clarity Around Roles and Responsibilities
          2. 27.3.2.2. Design Principle 6: Governance Mechanisms to Resolve Issues Quickly at the Right Level
          3. 27.3.2.3. Design Principle 7: Efficient and Effective Meetings
          4. 27.3.2.4. Design Principle 8: Minimum Management Rework
          5. 27.3.2.5. Design Principle 9: Objective Setting and Performance Management
      4. 27.4. FINAL THOUGHTS
      5. 27.5. REMINDERS
      6. 27.6. RELATED ITEMS ON THE WEB
    6. References
    7. 28. Knowledge Transfer and Learning on Virtual Design Teams
      1. 28.1. BACKGROUND AND DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE
      2. 28.2. STRATEGIES TO MEET CHALLENGES
        1. 28.2.1. Vertical Integration
        2. 28.2.2. Horizontal Integration
      3. 28.3. LEARNING AS KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER
      4. 28.4. LEARNING GROUPS WITH PARTNERS AND SUPPLIERS
      5. 28.5. TIGER TEAMS
      6. 28.6. INNOVATION AND USE OF IMPROVISATION
      7. 28.7. USE OF METAPHORS
      8. 28.8. ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
      9. 28.9. FINAL THOUGHTS
      10. 28.10. REMINDERS
    8. References
  18. VIII. Conclusion
    1. 29. Collaboration in the Real World: Virtual Team Key Take-Away Principles That Work
      1. 29.1. KEY TAKE-AWAY PRINCIPLES
        1. 29.1.1. PRINCIPLES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
        2. 29.1.2. DESIGNING HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
        3. 29.1.3. REAL-WORLD EXAMPLES OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE VIRTUAL TEAMS
      2. 29.2. BENEFITS OF VIRTUAL COLLABORATION
      3. 29.3. FINAL THOUGHTS
    2. References
    3. 30. The Virtual, Networked Organization: How One Company Became Transparent
      1. 30.1. THE BIRTH OF THE ORGANIZATION
      2. 30.2. LET'S HEAR IT FOR THE HIERARCHY
      3. 30.3. MEANWHILE, BACK AT ELEUM . . .
        1. 30.3.1. Strategy as a Network
        2. 30.3.2. How Virtual Is Virtual?
        3. 30.3.3. So What?
      4. 30.4. THE AGE OF THE NETWORK
    4. References