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The Global Intercultural Communication Reader, 2e, 2nd Edition

Book Description

The Global Intercultural Communication Reader is the first anthology to take a distinctly non-Eurocentric approach to the study of culture and communication. In this expanded second edition, editors Molefi Kete Asante, Yoshitaka Miike, and Jing Yin bring together thirty-two essential readings for students of cross-cultural, intercultural, and international communication. This stand-out collection aims to broaden and deepen the scope of the field by placing an emphasis on diversity, including work from authors across the globe examining the processes and politics of intercultural communication from critical, historical, and indigenous perspectives.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Dedication: In Honor of Dr. Everett M. Rogers (1931–2004)
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction: New Directions for Intercultural Communication Research
  9. Part I: The Emergence and Evolution of Intercultural Communication
    1. 1. Notes in the History of Intercultural Communication: The Foreign Service Institute and the Mandate for Intercultural Training
      1. Background: The Foreign Service Institute
      2. Microcultural Analysis
      3. Proxemics, Time, Paralanguage, Kinesics
      4. The Linguistic Model
      5. Culture and Communication
      6. Conclusion
      7. Notes
      8. References
    2. 2. The Evolution of International Communication as a Field of Study: A Personal Reflection
      1. The 1960s and the Birth of a Field of Study: International Communications
      2. International Communications as a Field of Study Within International Relations
      3. World War II: Systems Theory and the Evolution of International Communications
      4. Post-World War II
      5. Notes
    3. 3. The Centrality of Culture in the 20th and 21st Centuries
      1. Research on Intercultural Communication: 1980–1990
      2. Research on Intercultural Communication: 2006–2011
      3. Intercultural Communication in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Cultural Imperative
      4. An Intracultural Communication Research Agenda for the Future
      5. Conclusion: Back to the Future
      6. Notes
      7. References
    4. 4. Theories of Culture and Communication
      1. Culture
        1. Form
        2. Function
        3. Locus
      2. Communication
        1. Form and Function
        2. Locus
        3. Research Goals
        4. Relationship of Culture and Communication
      3. Implications for Acculturation
        1. Traditional
        2. Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM)
      4. Ethnography of Communication
        1. Conclusion
      5. References
    5. 5. Mapping Cultural Communication Research: 1960s to the Present
      1. Shifting Terminology
        1. Understanding Culture
        2. Ethnicity and Identity
      2. Approach to Present Study
        1. General Trends and Patterns
      3. Review of Literature Related to the Four Modes of Inquiry
        1. Intracultural
        2. Intercultural
        3. Cross-Cultural
        4. Critical Cultural
      4. Conclusion and Implications
      5. References
    6. 6. Sojourning Through Intercultural Communication: A Retrospective
      1. A Sense of Direction
      2. Grasping What Lies Beyond the Reach
      3. Where the Known Meets the Other
      4. Responsiveness to What We Cannot Control
      5. Conclusion
      6. Author’s Note
      7. References
  10. Part II: Issues and Challenges in Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Inquiry
    1. 7. Afrocentricity: Toward a New Understanding of African Thought in the World
      1. The African Origin of Philosophy
      2. Earliest African Philosophers
      3. Characteristics of Afrocentricity
        1. (1). An Intense Interest in Psychological Location as Determined by Symbols, Motifs, Rituals, and Signs
        2. (2). A Commitment to Finding the Subject-Place of Africans in any Social, Political, Economic, or Religious Phenomenon With Implications for Questions of Sex, Gender, and Class
        3. (3). A Defense of African Cultural Elements as Historically Valid in the Context of Art, Music, and Literature
        4. (4). A Celebration of “Centeredness” and Agency and a Commitment to Lexical Refinement That Eliminates Pejoratives About Africans or Other People
        5. (5). A Powerful Imperative From Historical Sources to Revise the Collective Text of African People
      4. Racism and the Question of Race
      5. Author’s Note
      6. References
    2. 8. The Asiacentric Turn in Asian Communication Studies: Shifting Paradigms and Changing Perspectives
      1. Introduction: Afrocentricity as the Model of Asiacentricity
      2. Asiacentricity and the Power of Communication
      3. Asiacentricity and the Importance of Cultural Traditions
        1. Cultural Tradition in Kawaida Perspective
        2. Culture as Text and Culture as Theory
        3. Cultural Center and Cultural Rootedness
        4. Asiacentricity and Intercultural Learning
      4. Asiacentricity and the Issue of Cultural Ecology
      5. Asiacentricity and the Question of Criticality
      6. Conclusion: “Outwardly, Be Open; Inwardly, Be Deep”
      7. Author’s Note
      8. Notes
      9. References
    3. 9. Indigenous and Authentic: Hawaiian Epistemology and the Triangulation of Meaning
      1. Hawaiian Epistemology: The Specifics of Universality
      2. 1. Spirituality and Knowing: The Cultural Context of Knowledge
      3. 2. That Which Feeds: Physical Place and Knowing
      4. 3. The Cultural Nature of the Senses: Expanding Our Ideas of Empiricism
      5. 4. Relationship and Knowledge: Self Through Other
      6. 5. Utility and Knowledge: Ideas of Wealth and Usefulness
      7. 6. Words and Knowledge: Causality in Language
      8. 7. The Body/Mind Question: The Illusion of Separation
      9. Hawaiian Epistemology: Implications for Research
      10. The Triangulation of Meaning: Body, Mind and Spirit
      11. The Number Three
      12. Reaching for Wholeness
        1. Body: The Gross and Physical Knowing of Life—First Point in the Triangulation of Meaning
        2. Mind: The Subtle and Subjective Knowing of Life—Second Point in the Triangulation of Meaning
        3. Spirit: The Causative and Mystical Knowing of Life—Third Point in the Triangulation of Meaning
      13. Ha’ina mai ka puana: Thus Ends My Story
      14. Author’s Note
      15. Notes
      16. References
    4. 10. The Four Seasons of Ethnography: A Creation-Centered Ontology for Ethnography
      1. Background
      2. Birth of the Four Seasons as Ontology for Ethnography
      3. Ontology and Methodology
      4. Guiding Ideals of the “Received View” of Ethnography
        1. Received Guiding Ideal #1: Opportunism
        2. Received Guiding Ideal #2: Independence of Researcher
        3. Guiding Ideal #3: Entitlement
        4. Guiding Ideal #4: Primacy of Rationality
      5. Guiding Ideals of the Four Seasons
        1. Four Seasons Guiding Ideal #1: Natural Cycles (Appropriateness)
        2. Four Seasons Guiding Ideal #2: Interdependence of All Things (Awareness)
        3. Four Seasons Guiding Ideal #3: Preparedness
        4. Four Seasons Guiding Ideal #4: Harmony/Balance (Discipline)
      6. The Nature of the Four Seasons
        1. Spring
        2. Summer
        3. Fall
        4. Winter
      7. Afterward
      8. Notes
      9. References
    5. 11. Encounters in the Third Space: Links Between Intercultural Communication Theories and Postcolonial Approaches
      1. The Challenge of Intercultural Communication
      2. The Rise of Intercultural Communication Theories in the United States
      3. Silent Languages and Hidden Differences: The Approach of Edward T. Hall
      4. Towards a Critique of Intercultural Communication Theory
      5. A Plea for the Integration of Postcolonial Insights Into Intercultural Communication Theories?
      6. Problems With Postcolonial Theory
      7. The Concept of Transdifference—A Way Out of the Dilemma?
      8. Notes
    6. 12. Thinking Dialectically About Culture and Communication
      1. Four Paradigms
        1. Functionalist Paradigm
        2. Interpretive Paradigm
        3. Critical Humanist Paradigm
        4. Critical Structuralist Paradigm
      2. Beyond the Paradigms
      3. Toward a Dialectical Perspective
      4. A Dialectical Approach to Studying Intercultural Interaction
        1. Cultural–Individual Dialectic
        2. Personal/Social–Contextual Dialectic
        3. Differences–Similarities Dialectic
        4. Static–Dynamic Dialectic
        5. Present-Future/History-Past Dialectic
        6. Privilege–Disadvantage Dialectic
      5. Dialectical Intersections
      6. Conclusion
      7. Notes
      8. References
  11. Part III: Cultural Wisdom and Communication Practices in Context
    1. 13. Nommo, Kawaida, and Communicative Practice: Bringing Good Into the World
      1. Scope and Framework
      2. Tradition and Themes
      3. Nommo and the Reaffirmation of the 1960s: Sociohistorical Setting
      4. Nommo, the Creative Word
      5. The Asantean Initiative
      6. Kawaida and the Concept of Mdw Nfr
      7. Excursus: Revisiting Aristotle
      8. Return to the Kemetic Paradigm
      9. Classical African Rhetoric as Communal and Ethical Practice
        1. The Dignity and Rights of the Human Person
        2. The Well-Being and Flourishing of Community
        3. The Integrity and Value of the Environment
        4. The Reciprocal Solidarity and Cooperation of Humanity
      10. References
    2. 14. Ubuntu in South Africa: A Sociolinguistic Perspective to a Pan-African Concept
      1. Ubuntu: A Pan-African Concept
      2. Some Core Values of Ubuntu
        1. Ubuntu as Communalism
        2. Ubuntu as Interdependence
      3. Ubuntu, Culture and the Business Sector in South Africa
        1. Ubuntu and Culture
        2. Ubuntu and the Business Sector
        3. Disseminating Ubuntu in the Business Sector
        4. Ubuntu in Other Cultures
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    3. 15. Communication and Cultural Settings: An Islamic Perspective
      1. Introduction
      2. The Islamic World
      3. Definition of Terms
      4. Communication and Ethics: Their Boundaries and Frontiers
      5. Tabligh and Ethical Thinking and Practices in Islamic Societies
      6. The Theory of Tawhid
      7. The Doctrine of Responsibility, Guidance, and Action
      8. Tabligh and the Concept of Community
      9. The Principle of Taqwa
      10. Conclusion
      11. Notes
    4. 16. The Functions of Silence in India: Implications for Intercultural Communication Research
      1. Functions of Silence in India
        1. Functions of Silence at the Individual Level
        2. Functions of Silence at the Interpersonal Level
        3. Functions of Silence at the Public Level
      2. Implications for Intercultural Communication Research
      3. References
    5. 17. Language and Words: Communication in the Analects of Confucius
      1. Confucian Philosophy as Key to Asian Communication—Current Interpretations
      2. Issues of Words and Speaking in the Analects
        1. Words Define and Reflect Moral Development
        2. Beautiful Words Lacking Substance Are Blameworthy
        3. Actions Are More Important than Words
        4. Appropriate Speaking Relies on Rules of Propriety
      3. Rethinking Attitudes Toward Language and Words in Confucian Societies
        1. Recapturing the Confucian Vision
        2. Problems of Current Interpretation
      4. Epilogue
      5. Notes
      6. References
    6. 18. The Two Faces of Chinese Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. The First Face of Chinese Communication
      3. The Other Face of Chinese Communication
      4. Comments and Conclusion
      5. References
  12. Part IV: Identity, Multiculturalism, and Intercultural Competence
    1. 19. Popular Culture and Public Imaginary: Disney vs. Chinese Stories of Mulan
      1. Theory of Articulation and Popular Culture Texts
      2. Disney’s Mulan: Individualism as Universal
        1. Chinese Culture as Oriental Despotism
        2. Feminism as Racial Hierarchy
      3. The Ballad of Mulan: A Counter Narrative
        1. Principles of Filial Piety (孝) and Loyalty (忠)
        2. Collectivistic Feminism
      4. Concluding Remarks
      5. References
    2. 20. The Mexican Diaspora: A Critical Examination of Signifiers
      1. The Mexican Diaspora
      2. Chicano, Latino, Hispanic, Mexicano: The Lexicology
      3. Mexican/Mexicano
        1. Mexican American
        2. Chicano/a
        3. Hispanic
        4. Latino
        5. Conclusion
      4. Signifiers and Identity: Implications for Intercultural Communication
      5. Note
      6. References
    3. 21. The Masculine–Feminine Construct in Cross-Cultural Research: The Emergence of a Transcendent Global Culture
      1. Transcending Dichotomies, Melting Divides: A Case Study as a Point of Departure
      2. Preview
      3. Mediated Communication, Gender Roles, and Sexuality
        1. The Pervasiveness of Media
        2. Masculine and Feminine Images in Film
        3. Masculine and Feminine Representations Through Music
        4. Masculinity and Femininity on Social Networking Sites
      4. The Masculine–Feminine Construct in Cross-Cultural Communication Research
      5. A Global Transformation of Gender and Sexual Roles
        1. Global Television–Internet Franchises
        2. Global Values of These Franchises in Terms of Sexuality
      6. Changing Conceptions of Sexuality: The Emergence of Androgyny
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    4. 22. Encounters With the “Other”: Personal Notes for a Reconceptualization of Intercultural Communication Competence
      1. Intercultural Communication as Encounters With the “Other”
      2. Components of Intercultural Communication Competence
      3. Critical Issues for a Reconceptualization of Intercultural Communication Competence
        1. Moving Beyond Hegemonic Conceptions of Culture in Intercultural Communication
        2. Putting Power Back Into Intercultural Communication
        3. Reclaiming Ideology in Intercultural Communication Theory and Research
        4. Remembering History in Intercultural Communication
        5. The Centrality of Culture in Intercultural Communication Theory and Research
      4. “Other” Ways of Viewing Competence
      5. Notes
      6. References
    5. 23. Applying a Critical Metatheoretical Approach to Intercultural Relations: The Case of U.S.–Japanese Communication
      1. Comparing CD and Critical Approaches to Intercultural Communication
        1. Notion of Culture
        2. Similarity/Difference
        3. Relations of Power
        4. Historical Context
        5. Communication Competence
      2. Personal Experience as Evidence
      3. Taking Up the White Man’s Burden
      4. The Well-Worn Paths of “English Conversation”
      5. Role Models and Catalysts
      6. On Being a Racial Minority in Japan: Lessons From History
      7. A Power Shift in U.S.–Japanese Relations
      8. Conclusion: Intercultural Communication in a Postcolonial World
      9. References
    6. 24. Superheroes in Shanghai: Constructing Transnational Western Men’s Identities
      1. Introduction
      2. Theoretical Frameworks and Contextualizing Literature
      3. Method, Context and Participants
      4. Becoming Superheroes
      5. Zero to Hero
      6. ‘We Are Interchangeable’
      7. Conflicting Identities
      8. Men Behaving Badly
      9. Conclusion
      10. Acknowledgements
      11. References
    7. 25. Beyond Multicultural Man: Complexities of Identity
      1. Review of Literature
        1. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Concept of Self
        2. African American Views of the Self
        3. Gender Differences in the Concept of Self
        4. Postmodern Views of Identity
        5. Complexities of Identity
      2. Interviews With Multicultural People
        1. Research Methodology
        2. Four Women
      3. Analysis of Interviews and Essays
        1. Experiences With Sexism, Racism, Prejudice and Stereotyping
        2. Shifting Identities According to Context
        3. Having Deep Roots
        4. Commitment to Others
        5. An Alternative Image
      4. Further Considerations
        1. Marginality
        2. In-Betweenness
        3. Uniqueness
        4. Commitment to Community Action
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    8. 26. Moving the Discourse on Identities in Intercultural Communication: Structure, Culture, and Resignifications
      1. A Critique of Identity Theorizing in Intercultural Communication Research
      2. Critical Articulations: Performativity, Resignifications, and Translation
      3. Sample Case Studies
        1. Identity as Performative
        2. Identity as Double-Sided, Resignifiable, and Unforeclosed
        3. Identity in Dynamic Translation
      4. Conclusion
      5. Notes
      6. References
  13. Part V: Globalization and Ethical Issues in Intercultural Relations
    1. 27. Ethnic Discourse and the New World Dysorder: A Communitarian Perspective
      1. Globalism: Hegemonic Versus Communitarian
      2. Regionalism: Exclusionary Versus Inclusionary
      3. Nationalism: Totalitarian-Aggressive Versus Democratic-Benign
      4. Localism: Parochial Versus Liberal
      5. Spiritualism: Fundamentalist Versus Ecumenical
      6. Author’s Note
      7. Notes
      8. References
    2. 28. The Hegemony of English and Strategies for Linguistic Pluralism: Proposing the Ecology of Language Paradigm
      1. Dominance of English as Neocolonialism
        1. Linguistic and Communicative Inequality
        2. Linguistic Discrimination and Social Inequality
        3. Colonization of the Consciousness
      2. Dominance of English as Globalism
      3. Globalization as Anglo-Americanization
      4. Globalization as Transnationalization
      5. Globalization as Commercialization
      6. The Ecology of Language as Counterstrategy of the Hegemony of English
        1. The Right to Language
        2. Equality in Communication
        3. Multilingualism and Multiculturalism
        4. Implication of the Ecology of Language Paradigm
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    3. 29. Languages and Tribal Sovereignty: Whose Language Is It Anyway?
      1. Spanish–English Bilingual Programs
      2. The Pueblo Indian People
        1. Tribal Sovereignty
        2. A Brief History
        3. The Role of Language
      3. Language Loss in Pueblo Communities
      4. Language Teaching Among the Pueblos
      5. Indigenous Languages in the Schools
        1. Control Issues
        2. Principles
      6. Conclusion
      7. Notes
      8. References
    4. 30. Development and Communication in Sri Lanka: A Buddhist Approach
      1. The Sri Lankan Context of Development and Communication
      2. The Sarvodaya Movement, Buddhist Ethics, and Development
      3. The Buddhist Vision of Social Order and Self-Transformation
      4. Self-Reliance as an Approach to Development and Communication
      5. A Buddhist Paradigm of Development and Communication
      6. Four Approaches to Development and Communication
      7. Conclusions
      8. Author’s Note
      9. References
    5. 31. Global Village vs. Gandhian Villages: A Viable Vision
      1. Introduction
      2. Takers vs. Leavers
        1. Committed to the Harijans
        2. Against the System, Not Against the Person
      3. Gandhi’s Critique of Technological Culture: The Common Salt
        1. The Decisive Salt Struggle
        2. Curse of Industrialization
      4. Gandhian Vision of Village Economy: The Charkha
        1. The Ideal: Simple Village Life
          1. Rural Economics
          2. Transforming Villages
        2. The Goal: Basic Necessities for All
      5. Conclusion: Viable vs. Vicious Village
      6. Notes
    6. 32. The Context of Dialogue: Globalization and Diversity
      1. Globalization and the Human Condition
        1. From Westernization and Modernization to Globalization
        2. Local Awareness, Primordial Ties and Identity
        3. Dialogue as Mutual Learning
      2. Diversity and Community
      3. Common Values
        1. Humanity, Reciprocity and Trust
        2. Toward a Global Ethic
      4. Wisdom
  14. Appendix: Intercultural Communication as a Field of Study: A Selected Bibliography of Theory and Research
  15. Notes on Contributors
  16. Permissions
  17. Index