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The Geometry of Physics by Theodore Frankel

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APPENDIX C

Symmetries, Quarks, and MesonMasses

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At the end of Section 20.3b we spoke very briefly about “colored” quarks and the resulting Yang–Mills field with gauge group SU(3). This was not, however, the first appearance of quarks. They appeared in the early 1960s in the form of “flavored” quarks, independently in the work of Gell–Mann and Zweig. Their introduction changed the whole course of particle physics, and we could not pass up the opportunity to present one of the most striking applications to meson physics, the relations among pion, kaon, and eta masses. This application involves only global symmetries, rather than the Yang–Mills ...

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