The Fifth Quark
Discovery of the and the B meson, 1977–1987.
The discovery of the J/ψ and charmed quark seemed to complete a family of fermions, (c, s, νµ, µ), entirely analogous to (u, d, νe, e). If this pattern were indicative, then the τ and its neutrino presaged a new pair of quarks. Both e+e– annihilation and hadronic production of lepton pairs, the techniques that had uncovered the charmed quark, were extended in the search for the next quark.
Leon Lederman and his co-workers (Ref. 11.1) pressed the search for peaks in the µ+µ− spectrum to high energies by studying the collisions of 400 GeV protons on nuclear targets at Fermilab. Their ...