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The Electronics of Radio

Book Description

This fascinating book provides a stimulating introduction to analog electronics by analysing the design and construction of a radio transceiver. Essential theoretical background is given along with carefully designed laboratory and homework exercises. The author begins with a thorough description of basic electronic components and simple circuits and goes on to describe the key elements of radio electronics, including filters, amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, and antennas. Laboratory exercises lead the reader through the design, construction, and testing of a popular radio transceiver (the NorCal 40A). A diskette containing the widely known circuit simulation software, Puff, is included in the book. This was the first book to deal with elementary electronics in the context of radio. It can be used as a textbook for introductory analog electronics courses, for more advanced undergraduate classes on radio-frequency electronics, and will also be of great interest to electronics hobbyists and radio enthusiasts.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. 1 The Wireless World
    1. 1.1 Kirchhoff’s Laws
    2. 1.2 Frequency
    3. 1.3 Modulation
    4. 1.4 Amplifiers
    5. 1.5 Decibels
    6. 1.6 Mixers
    7. 1.7 Filters
    8. 1.8 Direct-Conversion Receivers
    9. 1.9 Superheterodyne Receivers
    10. 1.10 The NorCal 40A
  7. 2 Components
    1. 2.1 Resistors
    2. 2.2 Sources
    3. 2.3 Dividers
    4. 2.4 Look-Back Resistance
    5. 2.5 Capacitors
    6. 2.6 Energy Storage in Capacitors
    7. 2.7 RC Circuits
    8. 2.8 Diodes
    9. 2.9 Inductors
    10. 2.10 Energy Storage in Inductors
    11. 2.11 RL Circuits
    12. PROBLEM 1. Resistors
    13. PROBLEM 2. Sources
    14. PROBLEM 3. Capacitors
    15. PROBLEM 4. Diode Detectors
    16. PROBLEM 5. Inductors
    17. PROBLEM 6. Diode Snubbers
  8. 3 Phasors
    1. 3.1 Complex Numbers
    2. 3.2 Exponential Function
    3. 3.3 Phasors
    4. 3.4 Impedance
    5. 3.5 RC Filters
    6. 3.6 Series Resonance
    7. 3.7 Parallel Resonance
    8. 3.8 Phasor Power
    9. PROBLEM 7. Parallel-to-Series Conversion
    10. PROBLEM 8. Series Resonance
    11. PROBLEM 9. Parallel Resonance
  9. 4 Transmission Lines
    1. 4.1 Distributed Capacitance and Inductance
    2. 4.2 Telegraphist’s Equations
    3. 4.3 Waves
    4. 4.4 Phasors for Waves
    5. 4.5 General Lines
    6. 4.6 Dispersion
    7. 4.7 Reflections
    8. 4.8 Available Power
    9. 4.9 Resonance
    10. 4.10 Quality Factor
    11. 4.11 Lines with Loads
    12. PROBLEM 10. Coaxial Cable
    13. PROBLEM 11. Waves
    14. PROBLEM 12. Resonance
  10. 5 Filters
    1. 5.1 Ladder Filters
    2. 5.2 Filter Tables
    3. 5.3 Examples
    4. 5.4 Band-Pass Filters
    5. 5.5 Crystals
    6. 5.6 Impedance Inverters
    7. PROBLEM 13. Harmonic Filter
    8. PROBLEM 14. IF Filter
  11. 6 Transformers
    1. 6.1 Inductance Formulas
    2. 6.2 Transformers
    3. 6.3 Ideal Transformers
    4. 6.4 Magnetizing Current
    5. PROBLEM 15. Driver Transformer
    6. PROBLEM 16. Tuned Transformers
  12. 7 Acoustics
    1. 7.1 Equations of Sound
    2. 7.2 Hearing
    3. 7.3 Masking
    4. 7.4 rms Voltages
    5. PROBLEM 17. Tuned Speaker
    6. PROBLEM 18. Acoustic Standing-Wave Ratio
  13. 8 Transistor Switches
    1. 8.1 Bipolar Transistors
    2. 8.2 Transistor Models
    3. 8.3 Transistor Switches
    4. PROBLEM 19. Receiver Switch
    5. PROBLEM 20. Transmitter Switch
  14. 9 Transistor Amplifiers
    1. 9.1 Common-Emitter Amplifier
    2. 9.2 Maximum Efficiency of Class-A Amplifiers
    3. 9.3 Amplifier Gain
    4. 9.4 IV Curves
    5. 9.5 Base Resistance
    6. 9.6 Emitter Degeneration
    7. 9.7 Emitter Follower
    8. 9.8 Differential Amplifier
    9. 9.9 Field-Effect Transistors
    10. 9.10 Source Follower
    11. PROBLEM 21. Driver Amplifier
    12. PROBLEM 22. Emitter Degeneration
    13. PROBLEM 23. Buffer Amplifier
  15. 10 Power Amplifiers
    1. 10.1 Class-C Amplifiers
    2. 10.2 NorCal 40A Power Amplifier
    3. 10.3 Class D
    4. 10.4 Class E
    5. 10.5 Class F
    6. 10.6 Class B
    7. 10.7 Thermal Modeling
    8. PROBLEM 24. Power Amplifier
    9. PROBLEM 25. Thermal Modeling
  16. 11 Oscillators
    1. 11.1 Criteria for Oscillation
    2. 11.2 Clapp Oscillator
    3. 11.3 Variable-Frequency Oscillator
    4. 11.4 Gain Limiting
    5. 11.5 Crystal Oscillators
    6. 11.6 Phase Noise
    7. PROBLEM 26. VFO
    8. PROBLEM 27. Gain Limiting
  17. 12 Mixers
    1. 12.1 Gilbert Cell
    2. 12.2 Mixer Mathematics
    3. 12.3 Spurious Responses
    4. 12.4 Broad-Band Receivers
    5. 12.5 Key Clicks
    6. PROBLEM 28. RF Mixer
    7. PROBLEM 29. Product Detector
    8. PROBLEM 30. Transmit Mixer
  18. 13 Audio Circuits
    1. 13.1 Audio Amplifier
    2. 13.2 Op Amps
    3. 13.3 JFETs as Variable Resistors
    4. PROBLEM 31. Audio Amplifier
    5. PROBLEM 32. Automatic Gain Control
    6. PROBLEM 33. Alignment
  19. 14 Noise and Intermodulation
    1. 14.1 Noise
    2. 14.2 Noise Phasors
    3. 14.3 Nyquist’s Formula
    4. 14.4 Attenuator Noise
    5. 14.5 Cascading Components
    6. 14.6 Measuring Noise
    7. 14.7 Intermodulation
    8. 14.8 Dynamic Range
    9. PROBLEM 34. Receiver Response
    10. PROBLEM 35. Intermodulation
    11. PROBLEM 36. Demonstration
  20. 15 Antennas and Propagation
    1. 15.1 Radio Waves
    2. 15.2 Impedance
    3. 15.3 Directions and Solid Angles
    4. 15.4 Transmitting Antennas
    5. 15.5 Receiving Antennas
    6. 15.6 Friis Formula
    7. 15.7 Antenna Theorem
    8. 15.8 Reciprocity
    9. 15.9 Dipoles
    10. 15.10 Whip Antennas
    11. 15.11 Ionosphere
    12. 15.12 Radio Waves in the Ionosphere
    13. 15.13 Critical Frequency
    14. 15.14 Maximum Usable Frequency
    15. PROBLEM 37. Antennas
    16. PROBLEM 38. Propagation
    17. PROBLEM 39. Listening
  21. A Equipment and Parts
    1. A.l Equipment
    2. A.2 Vendors
    3. A.3 Parts
  22. B Fourier Series
    1. B.l Fourier Coefficients
    2. B.2 Square Wave
    3. B.3 Rectified Cosine
    4. B.4 Narrow Pulses
  23. C Puff 2.1
    1. C.l Windows
    2. C.2 Getting Started
    3. C.3 Scattering Parameters
    4. C.4 Examples
    5. C.5 Parts Window
    6. C.6 Layout Window
    7. C.7 Board Window
    8. C.8 Plot Window
    9. C.9 Component Sweep
  24. D Component Data
    1. Table D.l. Resistors, inductors and capacitors
    2. Table D.2. Iron and ferrite cores
    3. 1N5817 Schottky barrier rectifier
    4. MVAM108 silicon tuning diode
    5. P2N2222A general purpose npn silicon transistor
    6. 2N3553 2.5-W high-frequency npn silicon transistor
    7. 2N3906 general purpose pnp silicon transistor
    8. 2N4124 general purpose npn silicon transistor
    9. J309 n-channel VHF/UHF JFET
    10. MC78L08AC three-terminal low-current, positive-voltage regulator
    11. LM386N-1 National Semiconductor low-voltage audio power amplifier
    12. 1N4148 high-speed diode
    13. SA602AN double-balanced mixer and oscillator
  25. Index