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The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits, Second Edition by Thomas H. Lee

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CHAPTER THIRTEENMIXERS

13.1 INTRODUCTION

Most circuit analysis proceeds with the assumptions of linearity and time invariance. Violations of those assumptions, if considered at all, are usually treated as undesirable. However, the high performance of modern communications equipment actually depends critically on the presence of at least one element that fails to satisfy linear time invariance: the mixer. We will see shortly that mixers are still ideally linear but depend fundamentally on a purposeful violation of time invariance. As noted in Chapter 1, the superheterodyne1 receiver uses a mixer to perform an important frequency translation of signals. Armstrong’s invention has been the dominant architecture for 70 years because this frequency ...

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