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The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits, Second Edition by Thomas H. Lee

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CHAPTER TENVOLTAGE REFERENCES AND BIASING

10.1 INTRODUCTION

The previous chapter on amplifier design generally ignored the issue of generating suitable bias voltages or currents. This neglect was by conscious design in order to minimize clutter in the circuit diagrams. In this chapter we finally take up the study of this important topic, focusing on a variety of ways to generate voltages and currents that are relatively independent of supply voltage and temperature. Because CMOS offers relatively limited options for realizing bias circuits, we’ll see that some of the most useful biasing idioms are actually those based on bipolar circuits. A parasitic bipolar device exists in every CMOS technology and may be used, for example, in a bandgap voltage ...

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