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The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits, Second Edition

Book Description

Presenting an expanded and thoroughly revised edition of Tom Lee's acclaimed guide to the design of gigahertz RF integrated circuits. A new chapter on the principles of wireless systems provides a bridge between system and circuit issues. The chapters on low-noise amplifiers, oscillators and phase noise have been significantly expanded. The chapter on architectures now contains several examples of complete chip designs, including a GPS receiver and a wireless LAN transceiver, that bring together the theoretical and practical elements involved in producing a prototype chip. Every section has been revised and updated with findings in the field and the book is packed with physical insights and design tips, and includes a historical overview that sets the whole field in context. With hundreds of circuit diagrams and homework problems this is an ideal textbook for students taking courses on RF design and a valuable reference for practising engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. 1 - A Nonlinear History of Radio
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Maxwell and Hertz
    3. 3. Pre–Vacuum Tube Electronics
    4. 4. Birth of the Vacuum Tube
    5. 5. Armstrong and the Regenerative Amplifer/Detector/Oscillator
    6. 6. Other Radio Circuits
    7. 7. Armstrong and the Superregenerator
    8. 8. Oleg Losev and the First Solid-State Amplifier
    9. 9. Epilog
    10. 10. Appendix A: A Vacuum Tube Primer
    11. 11. Appendix B: Who Really Invented Radio?
  9. 2 - Overview of Wireless Principles
    1. 1. A Brief, Incomplete History of Wireless Systems
    2. 2. Noncellular Wireless Applications
    3. 3. Shannon, Modulations, and Alphabet Soup
    4. 4. Propagation
    5. 5. Some Closing Comments
    6. 6. Appendix: Characteristics of Other Wireless Systems
  10. 3 - Passive RLC Networks
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Parallel RLC Tank
    3. 3. Series RLC Networks
    4. 4. Other Resonant RLC Networks
    5. 5. RLC Networks as Impedance Transformers
    6. 6. Examples
    7. Problem Set
  11. 4 - Characteristics of Passive IC Components
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Interconnect at Radio Frequencies: Skin Effect
    3. 3. Resistors
    4. 4. Capacitors
    5. 5. Inductors
    6. 6. Transformers
    7. 7. Interconnect Options at High Frequencies
    8. 8. Summary
    9. 9. Appendix: Summary of Capacitance Equations
    10. Problem Set
  12. 5 - A Review of Mos Device Physics
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. A Little History
    3. 3. FETs: The Short Story
    4. 4. MOSFET Physics: The Long-Channel Approximation
    5. 5. Operation in Weak Inversion (Subthreshold)
    6. 6. MOS Device Physics in the Short-Channel Regime
    7. 7. Other Effects
    8. 8. Summary
    9. 9. Appendix A: 0.5-μm Level-3 SPICE Models
    10. 10. Appendix B: The Level-3 Spice Model
    11. 11. Appendix C: Level-1 MOS Models
    12. 12. Appendix D: Some Exceptionally Crude Scaling Laws
    13. Problem Set
  13. 6 - Distributed Systems
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Link Between Lumped and Distributed Regimes
    3. 3. Driving-Point Impedance of Iterated Structures
    4. 4. Transmission Lines in More Detail
    5. 5. Behavior of Finite-Length Transmission Lines
    6. 6. Summary of Transmission-Line Equations
    7. 7. Artificial Lines
    8. 8. Summary
    9. Problem Set
  14. 7 - The Smith Chart and S-Parameters
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. The Smith Chart
    3. 3. S-Parameters
    4. 4. Appendix A: A Short Note on Units
    5. 5. Appendix B: Why 50 (or 75) Ω?
    6. Problem Set
  15. 8 - Bandwidth Estimation Techniques
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. The Method of Open-Circuit Time Constants
    3. 3. The Method of Short-Circuit Time Constants
    4. 4. Further Reading
    5. 5. Risetime, Delay, and Bandwidth
    6. 6. Summary
    7. Problem Set
  16. 9 - High-Frequency Amplifier Design
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Zeros as Bandwidth Enhancers
    3. 3. The Shunt–Series Amplifier
    4. 4. Bandwidth Enhancement with fT Doublers
    5. 5. Tuned Amplifiers
    6. 6. Neutralization and Unilateralization
    7. 7. Cascaded Amplifiers
    8. 8. AM–PM Conversion
    9. 9. Summary
    10. Problem Set
  17. 10 - Voltage References and Biasing
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Review of Diode Behavior
    3. 3. Diodes and Bipolar Transistors in CMOS Technology
    4. 4. Supply-Independent Bias Circuits
    5. 5. Bandgap Voltage Reference
    6. 6. Constant-gm Bias
    7. 7. Summary
    8. Problem Set
  18. 11 - Noise
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Thermal Noise
    3. 3. Shot Noise
    4. 4. Flicker Noise
    5. 5. Popcorn Noise
    6. 6. Classical Two-Port Noise Theory
    7. 7. Examples of Noise Calculations
    8. 8. A Handy Rule of Thumb
    9. 9. Typical Noise Performance
    10. 10. Appendix: Noise Models
    11. Problem Set
  19. 12 - Lna Design
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Derivation of Intrinsic MOSFET Two-Port Noise Parameters
    3. 3. LNA Topologies: Power Match Versus Noise Match
    4. 4. Power-Constrained Noise Optimization
    5. 5. Design Examples
    6. 6. Linearity and Large-Signal Performance
    7. 7. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range
    8. 8. Summary
    9. Problem Set
  20. 13 - Mixers
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Mixer Fundamentals
    3. 3. Nonlinear Systems as Linear Mixers
    4. 4. Multiplier-Based Mixers
    5. 5. Subsampling Mixers
    6. 6. Appendix: Diode-Ring Mixers
    7. Problem Set
  21. 14 - Feedback Systems
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. A Brief History of Modern Feedback
    3. 3. A Puzzle
    4. 4. Desensitivity of Negative Feedback Systems
    5. 5. Stability of Feedback Systems
    6. 6. Gain and Phase Margin as Stability Measures
    7. 7. Root-Locus Techniques
    8. 8. Summary of Stability Criteria
    9. 9. Modeling Feedback Systems
    10. 10. Errors in Feedback Systems
    11. 11. Frequency- and Time-Domain Characteristics of First- and Second-Order Systems
    12. 12. Useful Rules of Thumb
    13. 13. Root-Locus Examples and Compensation
    14. 14. Summary of Root-Locus Techniques
    15. 15. Compensation
    16. 16. Compensation Through Gain Reduction
    17. 17. Lag Compensation
    18. 18. Lead Compensation
    19. 19. Slow Rolloff Compensation
    20. 20. Summary of Compensation
    21. Problem Set
  22. 15 - RF Power Amplifiers
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. General Considerations
    3. 3. Class A, AB, B, and C Power Amplifiers
    4. 4. Class D Amplifiers
    5. 5. Class E Amplifiers
    6. 6. Class F Amplifiers
    7. 7. Modulation of Power Amplifiers
    8. 8. Summary of PA Characteristics
    9. 9. RF PA Design Examples
    10. 10. Additional Design Considerations
    11. 11. Design Summary
    12. Problem Set
  23. 16 - Phase-Locked Loops
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. A Short History of PLLs
    3. 3. Linearized PLL Models
    4. 4. Some Noise Properties of PLLs
    5. 5. Phase Detectors
    6. 6. Sequential Phase Detectors
    7. 7. Loop Filters and Charge Pumps
    8. 8. PLL Design Examples
    9. 9. Summary
    10. Problem Set
  24. 17 - Oscillators and Synthesizers
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. The Problem with Purely Linear Oscillators
    3. 3. Describing Functions
    4. 4. Resonators
    5. 5. A Catalog of Tuned Oscillators
    6. 6. Negative Resistance Oscillators
    7. 7. Frequency Synthesis
    8. 8. Summary
    9. Problem Set
  25. 18 - Phase Noise
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. General Considerations
    3. 3. Detailed Considerations: Phase Noise
    4. 4. The Roles of Linearity and Time Variation in Phase Noise
    5. 5. Circuit Examples
    6. 6. Amplitude Response
    7. 7. Summary
    8. 8. Appendix: Notes on Simulation
    9. Problem Set
  26. 19 - Architectures
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Dynamic Range
    3. 3. Subsampling
    4. 4. Transmitter Architectures
    5. 5. Oscillator Stability
    6. 6. Chip Design Examples
    7. 7. Summary
    8. Problem Set
  27. 20 - RF Circuits Through the Ages
    1. 1. Introduction
    2. 2. Armstrong
    3. 3. The “All-American” 5-Tube Superhet
    4. 4. The Regency TR-1 Transistor Radio
    5. 5. Three-Transistor Toy CB Walkie-Talkie
  28. Index