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The Design of Sites: Patterns for Creating Winning Web Sites, Second Edition

Book Description

Praise for the second edition of The Design of Sites

"In my worldwide IBM marketing role, I have the benefit of working with some of the finest international interactive agencies and internal Web teams. As I read The Design of Sites, [I see] the insight from years of professional advice has been put to paper. Nowhere have I seen such a practical, effective, and easy-to-use book to solve and avoid Internet design issues. I keep a copy of the book handy to remind me of the things I forgot and to gain fresh perspectives. It never fails to deliver."
-John Cilio, marketing manager, IBM System x & z Storage Synergy


"The Design of Sites artfully brings forward the original intent of Christopher Alexander’s pattern language into the user experience design arena. It is a valuable and comprehensive reference."

-George Hackman, Jr., senior director of User Experience for User Interface Guidelines, Patterns and Standards, Oracle Corporation


"The Design of Sites is one of the best tools I have in my usability toolbox. [These] Web UI design patterns make it easy for me to show my clients how to get the most usability bang for their buck."

-Claudia Alden Case, usability consultant and interaction designer, Alden Case Enterprises, Inc.

"If only biology class had been like this. Lucid text, bulletproof content, and a comprehensive taxonomy that’s just as much a source of inspiration as it is a production tool. This is a really, really good book. If you build Web sites, read it."

-Marc Campbell, author of Web Design Garage


Praise for the first edition of The Design of Sites

"Stop reinventing the wheel every time you design a Web site! The Design of Sites helps you rethink your Web sites in terms of genres and patterns. Once you have identified the patterns and applied the best practices for those patterns as outlined in this book, you will reduce your design effort by 50 percent . . . at least!"

-Pawan R. Vora, vice president, Information Architecture, Seurat Company

"The content [in The Design of Sites] could make a novice into a seasoned professional over a weekend. Many companies pay a fortune for the information contained in the book’s primary chapters."

-John Cilio, marketing manager, IBM System x & z Storage Synergy

"This book has many handy checklists for what you should and should not do in creating a conventional Web site. Just following the authors’ suggestions would put your site in the top few percent for readability and usability."

-Jef Raskin, creator of the Macintosh computer and author of The Humane Interface

"Now that The Design of Sites has made its appearance, we won't have to put up with those poorly designed Web pages. These authors have captured patterns from successful Web designers, including their own experience in consulting and teaching, and have made this information accessible to all of us. The book is readable yet full of worthwhile information--a valuable addition to any Web designer’s bookshelf."

-Linda Rising, independent consultant and author of The Patterns Handbook, The Pattern Almanac 2000, and Design Patterns in Communications Software

"[The Design of Sites] bridges the gap from theory to practice and makes it possible for people in the Web-design space to use user-centered design principles in their work—without having to undertake extensive training."

-Maya Venkatraman, human interface engineer, Sun Microsystems

"The coverage [in The Design of Sites] is excellent--issues go beyond the traditional ‘design the best page’ focus and do a good job of showing the context. I haven’t seen any other book with the kind of breadth this has."

-Terry Winograd, professor of computer science, Stanford University, and editor of Bringing Design to Software

"With this book as a reference, you can benefit from what companies like Yahoo! have learned and apply it to your site, even if you don’t have a design and research team similarly sized and staffed."

From the foreword by Irene Au, director of User Experience, Google; former vice president of User Experience and Design, Yahoo!


The Design of Sites,Second Edition, is the definitive reference for the principles, patterns, methodologies, and best practices underlying exceptional Web design. If you are involved in the creation of dynamic Web sites, this book will give you all the necessary tools and techniques to create effortless end-user Web experiences, improve customer satisfaction, and achieve a balanced approach to Web design.

After a comprehensive tutorial covering the foundations of good Web site design, you will move on to discover the thirteen major Web design pattern groups. These patterns solve recurring design problems and help design teams avoid reinventing the wheel. Patterns range from creating a solid navigation framework and the all-important home page, to instilling trust and building credibility with your customers and improving site performance through better design.

The book features

  • Coverage of AJAX, the Mobile Web, and online communities

  • Seventeen new design patterns to add to the original ninety, including the new blog site type

  • More than twenty significantly updated patterns

  • 450 four-color screen shots and diagrams, including more than 150 new images

  • Key site elements, including site maps, style sheets, dynamic elements, and customer profiles

  • Clear, visual organization with color-coded sections for easy reference

  • A balanced approach to Web design that takes both customer and business needs into account


  • Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Praise for the Second Edition of The Design of Sites
    3. Praise for the First Edition of The Design of Sites
    4. Foreword
    5. Preface
      1. New in the Second Edition
      2. Why Use This Book?
      3. Who Should Read This Book?
        1. Web Design Professionals
        2. Business Managers
        3. Business Clients
      4. Benefits of Using The Design of Sites
        1. Improved Customer Satisfaction
        2. Balanced Approach to Web Design
        3. Incremental Improvement of Design Practices
      5. Conventions Used in This Book
      6. Disclaimer
      7. We Would Like to Hear from You
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. I. Foundations of Web Site Design
      1. 1. Customer-Centered Web Design: More Than a Good Idea
        1. 1.1. The Evolution of Web Design
          1. First Generation
          2. Second Generation
          3. Third Generation
          4. Fourth Generation
        2. 1.2. The Importance of Customer-Centered Design
        3. 1.3. Our First Steps toward Unifying Design, Usability, and Marketing
        4. 1.4. Why We Prefer Customer-Centered Design
          1. User-Centered Design
          2. Company-Centered Design
          3. Technology-Centered Design
          4. Designer-Centered Design
          5. The Advantages of Customer-Centered Design
        5. 1.5. Nine Myths of Customer-Centered Design
          1. Myth 1: Good Design Is Just Common Sense
          2. Myth 2: Only Experts Create Good Designs
          3. Myth 3: Web Interfaces Can Be Redesigned Right before Launch
          4. Myth 4: Good Design Takes Too Long and Costs Too Much
          5. Myth 5: Good Design Is Just Cool Graphics
          6. Myth 6: Web Interface Guidelines Will Guide You to Good Designs
          7. Myth 7: Customers Can Always Rely on Documentation and Help
          8. Myth 8: Market Research Reveals All Customer Needs
          9. Myth 9: Quality Assurance Groups Ensure That Web Sites Work Well
        6. 1.6. Applying Customer-Centered Design
          1. Principles
          2. Processes
          3. Patterns
          4. Using the Principles, Processes, and Patterns
        7. 1.7. Take-away Ideas
      2. 2. Making the Most of Web Design Patterns
        1. 2.1. What Are Patterns?
        2. 2.2. A Sample Pattern
        3. 2.3. How to Read a Pattern
        4. 2.4. How Much Do Patterns Change Over Time?
        5. 2.5. How to Use the Patterns
        6. 2.6. An Example of Using Patterns
        7. 2.7. Take-away Ideas
      3. 3. Knowing Your Customers: Principles and Techniques
        1. Knowing Your Customers Helps You Choose Patterns
        2. To Know Your Customers, You Need Some Special Techniques
        3. Take It a Step at a Time
        4. 3.1. Principles for Knowing Your Customers
          1. You Are Not Your Customers
          2. Understand the Elements, Balance the Forces
          3. Understand Your Customers as People
            1. Your Customers Are Different
            2. Your Customers Are Also the Same
          4. Understand Your Customers’ Tasks
            1. Reducing Work
            2. Task Training
            3. Helping People Become Experts
          5. Understand the Technology
          6. Understand Your Customers’ Social Issues
        5. 3.2. Techniques for Knowing Your Customers
          1. Start a Task Analysis
            1. People
            2. Tasks
            3. Technology
            4. Social Issues
          2. Build Scenarios
          3. Choose Tasks
            1. Choose Detailed Tasks
            2. Choose Representative Tasks
            3. Choose Common or Important Tasks
            4. Choose Complete Tasks
          4. Observe and Interview Customers
            1. Ethnographic Approaches Can Be Used for Observation
            2. Follow Up with Informal Interviews
            3. Organize the Information You Discover
            4. Know the Limits of These Techniques
          5. Survey Your Customers
          6. Run Focus Groups
          7. Analyze Existing Web Sites
        6. 3.3. Take-away Ideas
      4. 4. Involving Customers with Iterative Design
        1. 4.1. The Iterative Design Process
        2. 4.2. Reasons to Use Iterative Design
          1. Fixing Errors While They’re Still Inexpensive and Easy to Fix
          2. Building the Right Site, and Building the Site Right
        3. 4.3. Designing with Goals and Principles in Mind
          1. Setting Measurable Design Goals
          2. Adhering to Design Principles
          3. Information Architecture, Navigation Design, and Graphic Design
        4. 4.4. Rapid Prototyping
          1. Site Maps, Storyboards, and Schematics
          2. Progressive Refinement, from Low Fidelity to High Fidelity
            1. Avoid Computer-Based Tools in the Early Design Stages
            2. When You’re Ready, Switch to Computer-Based Tools
          3. Horizontal and Vertical Prototypes
          4. Limits of Prototyping
        5. 4.5. Evaluating Your Web Site
          1. Expert Reviews
          2. Informal Evaluations
          3. Formal Usability Studies
          4. Choosing an Evaluation Technique
        6. 4.6. Take-away Ideas
      5. 5. Processes for Developing Customer-Centered Sites
        1. 5.1. Development Process Overview
        2. 5.2. The Discovery Phase
          1. The Discovery Process
            1. Step 1: Determine the Overall Goals of the Web Site
            2. Step 2: Decide on the Web Site’s Value Proposition
            3. Be Firm about Not Skipping Discovery
            4. Avoid Gold-Plating the Web Site
            5. Get the Web Site Fundamentals Right First
          2. Discovery Deliverables
            1. Customer Analysis Document
            2. Business Analysis Document
            3. Specification Document
        3. 5.3. The Exploration Phase
          1. The Exploration Process
          2. Exploration Deliverables
            1. Medium-Fidelity Site Maps, Storyboards, and Schematics
        4. 5.4. The Refinement Phase
          1. The Refinement Process
          2. Refinement Deliverables
            1. Medium- to High-Fidelity Site Maps, Storyboards, and Schematics
        5. 5.5. The Production Phase
          1. The Production Process
          2. Production Deliverables
            1. Design Document
            2. Interactive Prototypes
            3. Technical Specifications
            4. Design Guidelines
            5. Web Page Templates
        6. 5.6. The Implementation Phase
          1. The Implementation Process
          2. Implementation Deliverables
            1. Completed Web Site
            2. Maintenance Document
            3. Test Plan Document
            4. Updates
        7. 5.7. The Launch Phase
        8. 5.8. The Maintenance Phase
          1. The Maintenance Process
          2. Maintenance Deliverables
            1. Periodic Web Site Metrics
            2. Bug Reports
            3. Periodic Backups
        9. 5.9. Take-away Ideas
    8. II. Patterns
      1. A. Site Genres
        1. A1. Personal E-Commerce
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Make It Clear Why People Should Purchase from You
            2. Provide Many Ways to Find Products
            3. Keep It Convenient
            4. Consider Including Some Advanced Features
            5. Avoid Surprises
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
            1. All E-Commerce Sites
            2. Advanced E-Commerce Sites
        2. A2. News Mosaics
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Time and Access
            2. Form
            3. Audience
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
            1. Basic News Mosaics
            2. Advanced News Mosaics
            3. News Mosaics Available by Subscription Only
        3. A3. Community Conference
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Community Usage Policies
            2. Synchronous or Asynchronous Communication
            3. Moderation
            4. Anonymous, Pseudonymous, or Identified by Real Name
            5. Archives
            6. Trust and Sociability
            7. Growth and Sustainability
            8. Additional Information
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
            1. Basic Community Conference
            2. Advanced Community Conference
        4. A4. Self-Service Government
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Red Tape
            2. Faceless Bureaucracy
            3. Universal Access
            4. Privacy and Trust
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. A5. Nonprofits as Networks of Help
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. A True Network of Help
            2. Providing Specific Solutions
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
            1. Basic Nonprofit Networks of Help
            2. Advanced Nonprofit Networks of Help
        6. A6. Grassroots Information Sites
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Why a Grassroots Information Site?
            2. Answering Questions
            3. Credibility and Trust
            4. Writing Style
            5. External Resources
            6. Growing the Site
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. A7. Valuable Company Sites
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Balance Space for Brand against Space for Navigation
            2. Organize for Customers’ Convenience
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. A8. Educational Forums
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Different Visitors Have Different Needs
            2. Raising the Bar
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
            1. Basic Educational Forums
            2. Advanced Educational Forums
        9. A9. Stimulating Arts and Entertainment
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Online Exhibits Come in Many Forms
            2. Set Expectations before Breaking the Rules
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        10. A10. Web Apps that Work
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Customers Want to Try before They Buy
            2. Web Apps Rely on Web Principles
            3. Offer Informative Feedback
            4. Provide Abundant Help
            5. Make Security and Privacy Tight
            6. Support Different Roles
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        11. A11. Enabling Intranets
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Personalized Views
            2. Support Workflows
            3. Be Consistent Throughout
            4. Establish Policies on New Content
            5. Provide Simple Ways to Add New Content
            6. Start Simple but Plan for Growth
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        12. A12. Blogs
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Establish Credibility
            2. Determine Your Blog Genre
            3. Decide How the Blog Will Be Run
            4. Consider Whether to Allow Comments from Readers
            5. Make It Personal
            6. Make It Easy to Find Information on Your Blog
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      2. B. Creating a Navigation Framework
        1. B1. Multiple Ways to Navigate
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Intention and Impulse Drive Customers to Act
            2. Different Motivations Lead to Different Styles of Navigation
            3. Put Tools Where Customers Will Find and Use Them
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. B2. Browsable Content
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use an Organizational Scheme
            2. Structure Content with Customers in Mind
            3. Provide Information Scent
            4. Help Customers Find Their Way Back
            5. When Does Content on a Page Become Too Much?
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. B3. Hierarchical Organization
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Organize Your Hierarchy to Match the Way Customers Think
            2. Use Descriptive and Distinctive Category Names
            3. Provide Examples in Each Category
            4. Use Fewer Than Fifty Subcategories
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. B4. Task-Based Organization
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Study What Your Customers Do
            2. Build Scenarios of Related Tasks
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. B5. Alphabetical Organization
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. When Does an Alphabetical List Work?
            2. Try to Keep the List on One Page
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. B6. Chronological Organization
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Display Chronological Information in Lists or Time Lines
            2. Limit Chronological Lists to Fewer Than Fifty Items
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. B7. Popularity-Based Organization
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. How to Create a List
            2. How to Determine the Time Period for Taking Measurements
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. B8. Category Pages
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use a Consistent Layout
            2. Maintain Consistent Navigation
            3. Provide Strong Feedback That Visitors Have “Arrived”
            4. Provide Cues for Strong Information Scent
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. B9. Site Accessibility
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. People with Physical Difficulties Use the Web
            2. People with Auditory Disabilities Use the Web
            3. People with Visual Disabilities Use the Web
            4. People with Color Deficiencies Use the Web
            5. People with Cognitive Disabilities Use the Web
            6. People May Use the Web with Mobile Internet Devices
            7. Use Style Sheets to Separate Content from Presentation
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      3. C. Creating a Powerful Homepage
        1. C1. Homepage Portal
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Build Site Identity and Brand
            2. Make a Positive First Impression with the Right Look and Feel
            3. Seduce with Content
            4. Personalize Content If Possible
            5. Balance Space for Brand against Space for Navigation
            6. Make Navigation Easy to Use
            7. Provide Strong Information Scent
            8. Provide a Cohesive and Logical Page Layout
            9. Make the Homepage Download Quickly
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. C2. Up-Front Value Proposition
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Requirements
            2. Exercise 1: Articulate the Value
            3. Exercise 2: Select the Strongest Candidates
            4. Research Project 1: Have Customers Nominate the Best
            5. Research Project 2: Have Customers Select the Top Value Proposition
              1. Integrate Your Value Proposition into the Site
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      4. D. Writing and Managing Content
        1. D1. Page Templates
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Build a Page Template by Using Grids
            2. Define Global and Individual Page Templates
            3. Use Other Patterns to Build Templates
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. D2. Content Modules
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Publishing System
            2. Define Where You Want to Position Content on a Page
            3. Create an Administration Page
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. D3. Headlines and Blurbs
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Write a Hook
            2. Put Headlines and Blurbs in the Content Database
            3. Put Headlines and Blurbs into Various Content Modules throughout the Site
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. D4. Personalized Content
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Site with Intentional Personalization
              1. Require Minimal Personalization Up Front
              2. Invite Visitors to Personalize
              3. Categorize Content
              4. Use People’s Background Information
              5. Map Content to Each Visitor
            2. Create a Site with Automatic Personalization
              1. Create a Scoring System
            3. Use Personalized Content-Matching Schemes
              1. Use Predefined Content Locations
              2. Track Customer Visits and History with Cookies
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. D5. Message Boards
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Decide Whether to Allow Anonymous Posts
            2. Decide Whether to Moderate Your Board
            3. Make It Easy to Find Your Message Boards
            4. Require Newcomers to Sign In after Reading Posts
            5. Present Clear Rules
            6. Make Posting Painless
            7. Help New Community Members Make Good Posts
            8. Create an Administrative Back End
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. D6. Writing for Search Engines
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Remember That Search Engines Crawl and Index Web Sites
            2. Strategies That Work
              1. Write Distinctive Titles for Every Page
              2. Write Keyword-Filled Descriptive Text Near the Top of Each Page
              3. Use <meta> Tags
              4. Make Your Site Accessible to Web Crawlers
              5. Specify in a Robots File the Content That You Don’t Want Crawled
              6. Counterproductive Strategies
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. D7. Inverted-Pyramid Writing Style
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Concise but Descriptive Headline
            2. Continue with the Most Important Points in the Blurb or Lead
            3. Use Less Text
            4. Write Short Sentences and Check Your Work
            5. Avoid Hype
            6. Use Bullets and Numbered Lists
            7. Use Embedded Links
            8. Experiment with Different Writing Styles for Entertainment Purposes
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. D8. Printable Pages
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Remove Extraneous Navigation and Content from the Printable Template
            2. Add Labels to Help People Find the Article Online Again
            3. Take the Main Content Out of Any HTML Tables
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. D9. Distinctive HTML Titles
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. HTML Titles Are Used for Headlines and Blurbs
            2. HTML Titles Are Used by Search Engines
            3. HTML Titles Are Used by Desktop Computers
            4. Vary Titles from Page to Page
            5. Use Titles and Bread Crumbs
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        10. D10. Internationalized and Localized Content
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Store Strings Separately from Code
            2. Do Not Rely Exclusively on Machine Translation
            3. Hire Competent Translators
            4. Choose Centralized or Decentralized Localization Management
            5. Be Aware of Terms and Concepts That May Not Be Widely Known
            6. Recognize Holidays, Customs, and Nonverbal Communication
            7. Transform Your Representation of Dates, Currencies, Weights, and Measures
            8. Prepare for the Varying Devices That People Use to Surf Web Sites
            9. Understand the Local Legal Issues
            10. Provide Tailored Services
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        11. D11. Style Sheets
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Define a Standard Style Sheet as Part of Your Sitewide Page Template
            2. Define a Separate Style Sheet for Printable Pages
            3. Define a Separate Style Sheet for Mobile Content and Mobile Input
            4. Use Style Sheets to Make Your Site More Accessible
            5. Be Aware of Browser Incompatibilities with Style Sheets
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      5. E. Building Trust and Credibility
        1. E1. Site Branding
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Differentiating a Brand
            2. Exercise 1: Write a Narrative Distinguishing Your Site
            3. Exercise 2: Use Descriptive Terms to Create an Identity
            4. Exercise 3: Write Customer Scenarios
            5. Exercise 4: Write Brief Purpose Statements
            6. Exercise 5: Test Logo and Color Use
              1. Establishing Brand Identity
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. E2. E-Mail Subscriptions
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Make It Easy to Sign Up for an E-Mail Subscription
            2. Write Newsletters, Advertisements, and Reminders in Inverted-Pyramid Style
            3. Use Text E-Mail Messages
            4. Indicate How to Subscribe and Unsubscribe in Each E-Mail
            5. Use Your Customers’ E-Mail Addresses Only for What You Say You Will
            6. Write Your E-mails to Help Prevent Phishing Scams
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. E3. Fair Information Practices
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. E4. Privacy Policy
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Make the Privacy Policy Available on Each Web Page
            2. Address Fair Information Practices in the Privacy Policy
            3. Consider Having a Multilayered Privacy Policy
            4. Be Aware of Special Privacy Policies for Children
            5. Keep in Mind the Privacy Policy Requirements of U.S. Government Web Sites
            6. Consider Special Exceptions for Valid Legal Procedures
            7. Offer Tangible Value for Providing Personal Information
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. E5. About Us
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. 1. Organizational Profile
            2. 2. Contact Information
            3. 3. Disclaimers and Legal Information
            4. 4. Customers and Partners
            5. 5. Employment Opportunities
            6. 6. Public Relations
            7. 7. Investor Relations
            8. 8. Community Relations
            9. 9. Site Credits
            10. 10. Frequently Asked Questions
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. E6. Secure Connections
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. E7. E-Mail Notifications
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use a Simple, Clear Sender Name
            2. Use a Simple Subject Line That Specifies a Past Action or Request
            3. Make the Purpose of the E-Mail Clear in the Body of the Message
            4. Tell Customers How to Follow Up with Questions
            5. Declare Your E-Mail Privacy Policies
            6. Let People Opt Out of Less Important Notifications
            7. Structure Your Notifications to Help Prevent Phishing Scams
            8. Add Images as Attachments Rather Than Using Links to Your Web Site
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. E8. Privacy Preferences
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Many People Like to Keep Contact Information Private
            2. People Want to Be Able to Project a Particular Persona on Community-Based Web Sites
            3. Provide a Privacy Mirror to Let Customers See How Others Will See Them
            4. Privacy Preferences Can Also Be Specified at the End of a Transaction or through Explicit Sharing
            5. Let People See and Modify Their Privacy Preferences through Account Management
            6. Consider Using a Secure Connection for Highly Personal Content
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. E9. Preventing Phishing Scams
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Explain What to Expect from Your Web Site
            2. Don’t Outsource E-Mail Subscriptions and Notifications
            3. In Designing Your Site, Assume That Some Customers Will Be Phished
            4. Limit Exposure
            5. Require Multiple Forms of Identification
            6. Consider Setting Up an Explicit Personal Message Area for Each Customer
            7. Actively Search for Web Sites That Are Illicitly Using Your Brand Name
            8. Consider Technical Solutions
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      6. F. Basic E-Commerce
        1. F1. Quick-Flow Checkout
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Eliminate Distractions
            2. Address Potential Deal Breakers
            3. Build Trust throughout the Process
            4. Recap the Order
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. F2. Clean Product Details
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Clean, Standard Template
            2. Keep Key Elements above the Fold
            3. Put Less Important Information below the Fold
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. F3. Shopping Cart
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Easy Access to the Shopping Cart
            2. Let Customers Continue to Shop
            3. Help Customers Check Out
            4. Give Details in the Cart
            5. Set Expectations about Availability
            6. Store Carts for Later
            7. Cross-Sell and Up-Sell
            8. Show Cart Contents on Every Page
            9. Observe Local Customs
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. F4. Quick Address Selection
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Store Addresses
            2. Create Clear Forms for New Addresses
            3. Validate Fields
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. F5. Quick Shipping Method Selection
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Show Delivery Options
            2. Explain Shipping Times
            3. Indicate Costs
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. F6. Payment Method
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Dispel Concerns about Security
            2. Provide Easy Payment Choices
            3. Provide an Uncomplicated Form for Billing Information
            4. Store Credit Card Information
            5. Redeem Gift Certificates
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. F7. Order Summary
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Confirm That the Order Is Ready to Complete
            2. Show Key Elements
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. F8. Order Confirmation and Thank-You
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Thank Your Customers
            2. Highlight the Order Number and Date
            3. Show All Key Elements
            4. Send an E-Mail Confirmation
            5. Make the Page Printable
            6. Encourage Customers to Continue Shopping
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. F9. Easy Returns
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Place Return Policy Links Prominently on All Product and Checkout Pages
            2. Provide a Return Process Funnel
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      7. G. Advanced E-Commerce
        1. G1. Featured Products
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Editorialize in Your Product Recommendations
            2. Provide Different Kinds of Recommendations
            3. Provide Opportunities to Explore
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. G2. Cross-Selling and Up-Selling
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Cross-Sell and Up-Sell Related Products
            2. Separate and Minimize the Screen Real Estate Devoted to Related Products
            3. Editorialize about Related Products
            4. Allow Quick Purchase of Related Products
            5. Sell Related Products during Checkout
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. G3. Personalized Recommendations
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Avoid Using Purely Inferred Data
            2. Make It Easy for Customers to Choose Preferred Products
            3. Invite Customers to State Their Needs
            4. Provide Different Levels of Recommendations
            5. Provide Feedback about Why a Recommendation Was Made
            6. Provide Multiple and Repeated Recommendations
            7. Address Privacy Concerns
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. G4. Recommendation Community
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Help Community Members Write Good Reviews
            2. Provide Use Policies
            3. Equip Your Site with Meta-ratings
            4. Prime the Pump
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. G5. Multiple Destinations
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Let Customers Choose Multiple Destinations
            2. Let Customers Choose Addresses from Their Existing Address Book
            3. Confirm the Order
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. G6. Gift Giving
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. State That the Packing Slip Will Not List Prices or Items
            2. Provide the Ability to Select and Edit Gift Recipients and Notes
            3. Summarize and Confirm the Order
            4. Provide Other Gift-Giving Features
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. G7. Order Tracking and History
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Access to Orders
            2. For Pending Orders, Indicate Product Availability
            3. Allow Order Modification, If Possible
            4. Allow Order Tracking
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      8. H. Helping Customers Complete Tasks
        1. H1. Process Funnel
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Minimize the Number of Steps Required to Complete a Task
            2. Provide a Progress Bar to Let Customers Know Where They Are in the Process Funnel
            3. Remove Unnecessary Links and Content While Reinforcing the Brand
            4. Use Floating Windows to Provide Extra Information, without Leading Visitors Out of the Process Funnel
            5. Make Sure the Back Button Always Works
            6. Always Make It Clear How to Proceed to the Next Step
            7. Allow Customers to Skip Unnecessary Steps
            8. Prevent Errors and Provide Error Messages Whenever Errors Do Occur
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. H2. Sign-In/New Account
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Collect the Minimum Amount of Information for Creating New Accounts
            2. Make Clear Which Fields Are Required and Which Are Optional
            3. Prevent Errors
            4. Provide Your Web Site’s Privacy Information
            5. Clearly Specify the Kinds of Information You Will and Will Not Ask For after Creating an Account
            6. Avoid Providing Direct Links to Your Sign-in Pages in E-Mail Messages
            7. Have a Process for Handling Forgotten Passwords
            8. Don’t Force First-Time Customers to Sign In Too Early
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. H3. Guest Account
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. H4. Account Management
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide a Single Page to Hold All Account Information in One Place
            2. Provide a Task-Based Organization Scheme to Let Customers Modify Their Information
            3. Make the Account Management Page Easy to Access
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. H5. Persistent Customer Sessions
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Temporary Customer Sessions
            2. Persistent Customer Sessions
            3. Differences between Temporary and Persistent Customer Sessions
            4. Choosing between Temporary and Persistent Customer Sessions
            5. Two Warnings about Customer Sessions
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. H6. Floating Windows
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use Link-Based Floating Windows to Show Related Information While Maintaining Context
            2. Use Floating Windows to Provide Additional Information Instantly
            3. Use Automatic Floating Windows to Show Unrelated Information upon Page Entry
            4. Use Concurrent Floating Windows Sparingly
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. H7. Frequently Asked Questions
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. First Identify Some Frequently Asked Questions
            2. Examine Your Competitors’ FAQ Pages
            3. Supplement Your Questions with Those Collected from People in Close Contact with Customers
            4. Group Related Questions Together
            5. If There Are Many Questions, Add a Search Feature
            6. Use Redundant Navigation to Make It Easy to Find the FAQ Page
            7. Use the FAQ Page Only as a Temporary Fix for Usability Problems
            8. Encourage Your Community Site to Create a FAQ Page
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. H8. Context-Sensitive Help
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Place Context-Sensitive Help Near Where It’s Needed
            2. Consider Using Pop-up Windows to Let Customers Maintain Context
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. H9. Direct Manipulation
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Certain Web Tasks Are Best Suited to Direct Manipulation
            2. Moving Objects around the Screen Requires Something to Grab
            3. Create Visual Clues on Movable Objects
            4. Change the Look of the Object When Rolled Over
            5. Provide Feedback
            6. Provide Instructions Where Necessary
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        10. H10. Clear Forms
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide a Payoff for the Form
            2. Select Appropriate Field Labels
            3. Select Appropriate Label Locations
            4. Use Automatic Input Formatting
            5. Keep Forms Short
            6. Make Forms Appear Shorter
            7. Split Long Forms into Multiple Pages
            8. Put Form Elements in a Box
            9. Prefill Fields That Require a Special Format
            10. Reduce the Amount of Typing Required
            11. Use Intelligent Error Handling
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        11. H11. Predictive Input
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Typing within a Pick List Can Provide Basic Predictive Input
            2. Use Predictive Text Input to Help Speed Entry
            3. Load Predictive Text Input with the Page
            4. Build a List of Viable Text Strings
            5. Create a Visible List of Appropriate Size
            6. Provide Multiple Selection Methods
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        12. H12. Drill-down Options
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use Hierarchical Pick Lists for Specifying Interdependent Options
            2. Deactivate the Secondary Pick List Until a Primary Selection Is Made
            3. Create Pick Lists Containing Generic Options That Appear by Default
            4. Create Hierarchical Menus
            5. Fine-Tune the Hierarchical Menu Performance
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        13. H13. Progress Bar
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Process Feedback
            2. Outline the Major Steps
            3. Visually Indicate Where the Customer Is in the Process
            4. Design the Progress Bar to Communicate Information Clearly
            5. Provide Direct Step Navigation
            6. Include Edit Buttons
            7. Indicate What’s Next
            8. Skip Unnecessary Steps
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      9. I. Designing Effective Page Layouts
        1. I1. Grid Layout
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Identify the Elements That Are Common throughout Your Web Site
            2. Sketch Out Grid Layouts That Incorporate the Common Elements
            3. Create Sample Web Pages and Get Feedback
            4. Study How Other Web Pages Implement Their Grids
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. I2. Above the Fold
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Choose a Minimum Screen Resolution to Support
            2. Determine the Elements That Must Be above the Fold
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. I3. Clear First Reads
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Determine the Most Important Element on Each Page
            2. Use Multiple Features to Differentiate the First Read
            3. Design for Lower-Resolution Displays
            4. Test Your First Reads
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. I4. Expanding Screen Width
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use Relative Table Widths to Create Expanding-Width Web Pages
            2. Mix Absolute and Relative Widths to Fix the Width of Some Parts of a Web Page
            3. Design Web Pages with a Minimum Width in Mind
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. I5. Fixed Screen Width
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. I6. Consistent Sidebars Of Related Content
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Make the Location of Sidebars Consistent
            2. Determine a Maximum Length for Sidebars
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      10. J. Making Site Search Fast and Relevant
        1. J1. Search Action Module
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Simple Search Tool
            2. Put the Search Tool in a Consistent Place
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. J2. Straightforward Search Forms
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Boolean Expressions Are Hard to Understand
            2. Exact Matches Mean No Matches
            3. Provide Defaults for Category Searches
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. J3. Organized Search Results
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Relevant Summaries with the Search Results
            2. Clearly Organize the Search Results
            3. Provide Good Hyperlinked Titles for Each Hit
            4. Use Log Files to Tailor Results for the Most Common Search Terms
            5. Compensate for Common Misspellings
            6. Provide Support for Common Search Tasks
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      11. K. Making Navigation Easy
        1. K1. Unified Browsing Hierarchy
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Why Always Force Visitors to Go Home?
            2. Create Links for Easier Navigation
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. K2. Navigation Bar
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. K3. Tab Rows
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Clearly Identify the Active Tab
            2. Create an Indicator Line
            3. Tab Rows Have Limitations
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. K4. Action Buttons
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Graphical Action Buttons
            2. HTML Action Buttons
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. K5. High-Visibility Action Buttons
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Mind the Fold
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. K6. Location Bread Crumbs
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Bread Crumbs for Visitors to Backtrack
            2. Use Separators to Show Relationships among Categories
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        7. K7. Embedded Links
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Use Helpful Link Names
            2. How Many Links Are Too Many?
            3. Consider Having Some Embedded Links Open Floating Windows
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        8. K8. External Links
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Consider Including Links That Lead to External Web Sites
            2. Minimize Link Rot
            3. Set Expectations, Mark External References
            4. Consider Combining Embedded Links with External Links
            5. Open New Windows for External Links
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        9. K9. Descriptive, Longer Link Names
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Generic Terms Make Poor Link Names
            2. Longer Link Names Improve Site Accessibility
            3. Longer Link Names Make a Page Easier to Skim
            4. Summarize the Linked Page with a Few Choice Words
            5. Use Familiar Language
            6. Differentiate or Eliminate Links That Have Similar Names
            7. Separate Links That Word-Wrap
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        10. K10. Obvious Links
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Avoid Using Blue Text for Anything Other than Web Links
            2. Avoid Underlining Anything Other than Web Links
            3. Make Links More Attractive by Using Different Font Sizes and Styles
            4. Use the <title> Attribute with Text Links
            5. Avoid Using Colors Associated with Color Deficiency
            6. Use Different Link Colors for Artistic, Entertainment, or Experimental Purposes
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        11. K11. Familiar Language
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Observe and Interview Your Customers
            2. Use Card Sorting to Help Structure the Information on Your Web Site
            3. Test Link Names through Category Identification and Description
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        12. K12. Preventing Errors
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Hints about the Expected Format
            2. Make Sure the Software Accepts Multiple Formats
            3. Make Clear Which Fields Are Required and Which Are Optional
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        13. K13. Meaningful Error Messages
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Provide Clear Error Messages without Assigning Blame
            2. Avoid Humor in Error Messages
            3. Explain How to Recover from the Error
            4. Place the Error Message Near the Problem It Identifies
            5. Keep Previously Entered Text Intact
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        14. K14. Page Not Found
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        15. K15. Permalinks
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Reserve Generic Permalinks for Category Pages
            2. Temporary URLs Are Important for Certain Types of Web Sites
            3. Use Permalinks to Establish Positive Connections with Customers
            4. Identify the Immutable Aspects of the Page
            5. Include Text Suggesting the Content of the Page
            6. Create a Naming Convention for Your URLs and Stick to It
            7. Create Short URLs That Are Practical and Readable
            8. Implement a Storage Solution So That Your Pages Can Persist Forever
            9. Design Dynamic Elements into Static Pages
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        16. K16. Jump Menus
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Create a Jump Menu to Retain Full Navigation While Preserving Screen Space
            2. Make the Function of a Jump Menu Immediately Obvious
            3. Create a Pick List Using Standard Organizational Options
            4. A Simple Form-Based Pick List Requires a Button
            5. Use JavaScript to Submit the Form Automatically
            6. Use DHTML to Build More Complex Jump Menus
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        17. K17. Site Map
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Design Site Maps as a Backup to Other Site Navigation
            2. Don’t Let Site Maps Substitute for Well-Designed Navigation
            3. A Well-Organized Site Map Can Provide a Highly Detailed Site Overview
            4. A Site Map Needs to Serve Everyone
            5. Don’t Let Your Site Map Directly Reflect Your Web Directory Structure
            6. Link Categories to Category Pages Where Possible
            7. Use a Grid to Compress Information As Much As Possible
            8. Make the Site Map Available from Every Page
            9. Consider Making Portions of Your Site Map Part of a Page Not Found Error Page
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      12. L. Speeding Up Your Site
        1. L1. Low Number of Files
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Remove Unnecessary Image, Audio/Video, Applet, and Plug-in Files
            2. Use HTML Features Instead of Images, Where It Makes Sense
            3. Reuse Images
            4. Remove Slow, Large Files from Pages That Need to Be Fast
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. L2. Fast-Loading Images
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Understand the Strengths and Weaknesses of Different Image File Formats
              1. Reduce the Number of Colors
              2. Crop and Shrink Images
              3. Use Higher Compression Ratios on Images
              4. Use Progressive-Scan and Interlaced Images
              5. Use the <height> and <width> Attributes for Images
              6. Use the <alt> Attribute with All Images
              7. Consider Combining Small Images That Are Close Together
              8. Focus on the Main Web Pages First
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. L3. Separate Tables
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        4. L4. HTML Power
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        5. L5. Reusable Images
          1. Background
          2. Problem
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        6. L6. Fast-Loading Content
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Is Anything Happening?
              1. Locate the Bottlenecks Affecting Site Performance
              2. Optimize Server Functions to Load Pages Faster
              3. Use Design Strategies to Load Pages Faster
              4. Show Progress
              5. Use Static Progress Indicators
              6. Use Animation to Demonstrate Progress
              7. Use a Thermometer for Accurate Progress Reporting
              8. Display Items As They’re Loading
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
      13. M. The Mobile Web
        1. M1. Mobile Screen Sizing
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. How Small Is Small?
            2. How Do Browsers Render Web Sites on Handheld Devices?
            3. Do Web Sites Need to Be Completely Redesigned for the Small Screen?
            4. Site Designers Have Multiple Options
            5. The Advantages of Being Mobile Enabled Often Outweigh the Costs
            6. Lay Out Content and Navigation to Minimize Scrolling
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        2. M2. Mobile Input Controls
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Controlling the Cursor
            2. Minimize the Number of Links and Buttons on Web Pages for Mobile Devices
            3. Make the Positions of Links and Buttons Convenient
            4. Minimize Text Entry
            5. Avoid Pick Lists and Image Maps
            6. Minimize the Use of AJAX Technologies
            7. Use Style Sheets
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
        3. M3. Location-Based Services
          1. Background
          2. Problem
            1. Guides for Exploration and Navigation Are the Most Popular Location-Based Service
            2. Tagging Content Automatically by Location Can Make It Easier to Find Later
            3. Location-Based Services Can Enhance Social Coordination and Communication
            4. Games That Fuse the Virtual and Physical Worlds Often Require Location
            5. Location-Based Services Can Enhance Vehicle Security, Fleet Management, and Transit Services
            6. Location-Enhanced Applications Must Be Designed for Privacy from the Start
          3. Solution
          4. Other Patterns to Consider
    9. III. Appendixes
      1. A. Running Usability Evaluations
        1. A.1. Setting Target Goals
          1. Identifying What You Want to Learn
          2. Getting the Information You Want
          3. Process Data versus Bottom-Line Data
        2. A.2. Setting Up the Tasks
          1. Levels of Tasks
            1. Simple Tasks Are Short and Performed Often
            2. Tasks of Medium Difficulty Are a Little Longer and Harder than Simple Tasks
            3. Hard Tasks Span Many Web Pages and Are Fairly Involved
          2. Designing Effective Tasks
            1. Tasks Should Be about What People Want to Do
            2. Tasks Should Be Realistic
            3. Tasks Should Form a Complete Story
        3. A.3. Recruiting Participants
          1. Avoid Friends and Family As Participants
          2. Compensate Participants with Gifts and Prizes
          3. Get the Right Number of Participants
          4. Select an Appropriate Experimental Design
        4. A.4. Running the Test
          1. Setting Up the Test Location
          2. Ethical Considerations
          3. Test Roles
          4. Running a Pilot Test
          5. Testing Paper Prototypes
          6. Testing Online Prototypes
          7. Starting and Carrying Out the Test
            1. Greet Participants
            2. Have Participants Fill Out Paperwork
            3. Ask Participants to Think Aloud
            4. Instruct Participants on How to Start
            5. Take Good Notes during Each Task
            6. Watch Closely
            7. Follow Up with a Quick Survey
            8. Debrief Participants after the Test
        5. A.5. Analyzing the Data
          1. Analyzing Process Data
          2. Analyzing Bottom-Line Data
        6. A.6. Presenting the Results
      2. B. Sample Web Site Evaluation Plan
        1. Roles
        2. Introduction
        3. Tasks
        4. Debriefing
      3. C. Sample Consent Form
      4. D. Sample Observer Form
      5. E. Online Research
        1. E.1. Getting Started: Define Your Research Goals Up Front
          1. Understand Customer Retention
          2. Learn Why Customers Abandon Sites
          3. Find Out Whether Customers Can Complete Tasks
        2. E.2. Research by Design Phase
          1. The Discovery and Exploration Phases
          2. The Refinement, Production, and Implementation Phases
          3. The Launch and Maintenance Phases
          4. Site Redesign
        3. E.3. Types of Research
          1. Market Research
          2. Usability Research
        4. E.4. Running the Test
          1. The Participants’ View
          2. Setting Up Your Research
          3. Recruiting the Right Participants
        5. E.5. Analyzing the Data
        6. E.6. Comparison of Research Methods
        7. E.7. Take-away Ideas
    10. Glossary
      1. A
      2. B
      3. C
      4. D
      5. E
      6. F
      7. G
      8. H
      9. I
      10. J
      11. K
      12. L
      13. M
      14. N
      15. O
      16. P
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
      20. T
      21. U
      22. V
      23. W
      24. X
    11. Resources
      1. Part I: Foundations of Web Site Design
        1. Chapter 1: Customer-Centered Web Design: More Than a Good Idea
          1. Books, Research Papers, and News Articles
          2. Web Sites
        2. Chapter 2: Making the Most of Web Design Patterns
          1. Books, Research Papers, and News Articles
          2. Web Sites
        3. Chapter 3: Knowing Your Customers: Principles and Techniques
          1. Books, Research Papers, and News Articles
          2. Software
        4. Chapter 4: Involving Customers with Iterative Design
          1. Books, Research Papers, and News Articles
          2. Software
        5. Chapter 5: Processes for Developing Customer-Centered Sites
          1. Books, Research Papers, and News Articles
      2. Part II: Patterns
        1. Pattern Group A: Site Genres
          1. A1 personal e-commerce
          2. A2 News Mosaics
          3. A3 Community Conference
          4. A4 Self-Service Government
          5. A5 Nonprofits As Networks of Help
          6. A7 Valuable Company Sites
          7. A8 Educational Forums
          8. A9 Stimulating Arts and Entertainment
          9. A10 Web Apps that Work
          10. A11 Enabling Intranets
          11. A12 Blogs
        2. Pattern Group B: Creating a Navigation Framework
          1. B1 Multiple Ways to Navigate
          2. B2 Browsable Content
          3. B3 Hierarchical Organization
          4. B4 Task-Based Organization
          5. B5 Alphabetical Organization
          6. B6 Chronological Organization
          7. B7 Popularity-Based Organization
          8. B8 Category Pages
          9. B9 Site Accessibility
        3. Pattern Group C: Creating a Powerful Homepage
          1. C1 Homepage Portal
          2. C2 Up-Front Value Proposition
        4. Pattern Group D: Writing and Managing Content
          1. D1 Page Templates
          2. D2 Content Modules
          3. D3 Headlines and Blurbs
          4. D4 Personalized Content
          5. D5 Message Boards
          6. D6 Writing For Search Engines
          7. D7 Inverted-Pyramid Writing Style
          8. D9 Distinctive Html Titles
          9. D10 Internationalized and Localized Content
          10. D11 Style Sheets
        5. Pattern Group E: Building Trust and Credibility
          1. E1 Site Branding
          2. E2 E-Mail subscriptions
          3. E3 Fair Information Practices
          4. E4 Privacy Policy
          5. E5 About Us
          6. E6 Secure Connections
          7. E7 E-Mail Notifications
          8. E8 Privacy Preferences
          9. E9 Preventing Phishing Scams
        6. Pattern Group F: Basic E-Commerce
          1. F1 Quick-Flow Checkout
          2. F2 Clean Product Details
          3. F3 Shopping Cart
          4. F9 Easy Returns
        7. Pattern Group G: Advanced E-Commerce
          1. G1 Featured Products
          2. G2 Cross-Selling and Up-Selling
          3. G3 Personalized Recommendations
          4. G4 Recommendation Community
        8. Pattern Group H: Helping Customers Complete Tasks
          1. H1 Process Funnel
          2. H2 Sign-In/New Account
          3. H4 Account Management
          4. H5 Persistent Customer Sessions
          5. H7 Frequently Asked Questions
          6. H8 Context-Sensitive Help
          7. H10 Clear Forms
        9. Pattern Group I: Designing Effective Page Layouts
          1. I1 Grid Layout
          2. I2 Above the Fold
          3. I3 Clear First Reads
          4. I4 Expanding Screen Width
          5. I5 Fixed Screen Width
          6. I6 Consistent Sidebars of Related Content
        10. Pattern Group J: Making Site Search Fast and Relevant
          1. J1 Search Action Module
          2. J2 Straightforward Search Forms
          3. J3 Organized Search Results
        11. Pattern Group K: Making Navigation Easy
          1. K2 Navigation Bar
          2. K3 Tab Rows
          3. K4 Action Buttons
          4. K5 High-Visibility Action Buttons
          5. K7 Embedded Links
          6. K8 External Links
          7. K9 Descriptive, Longer Link Names
          8. K10 Obvious Links
          9. K11 Familiar Language
          10. K12 Preventing Errors
          11. K13 Meaningful Error Messages
          12. K14 Page Not Found
        12. Pattern Group L: Speeding Up Your Site
          1. L1 Low Number of Files
          2. L2 Fast-Loading Images
          3. L3 Separate Tables
          4. L4 Html Power
          5. L5 Reusable Images
        13. Pattern Group M: The Mobile Web
          1. M1 Mobile Screen Sizing
          2. M2 Mobile Input Controls
          3. M3 Location-Based Services
      3. Part III: Appendixes
      4. Further Reading
      5. Professional Groups
    12. 7. About the authors