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The Culture Cycle: How to Shape the Unseen Force that Transforms Performance by James Heskett

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7. The Four R Model: A Field Test

Even the most comprehensive appraisals of the effects of culture on performance have garnered a lot of criticism. Chief among the complaints are that so many things—particularly involving strategy and how it is executed—influence performance that the effects of culture are diluted at best and completely washed out at worst. Another concern is that it is impossible to examine enough organizations to draw valid conclusions regarding hypotheses. Some argue for larger organizational samples. Others argue for a smaller number of in-depth analyses. Still others argue for examinations of a single organization from multiple perspectives.1 These arguments, although useful and often valid, should not be so daunting that ...

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