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The Craft of Information Visualization

Book Description

Since the beginning of the computer age, researchers from many disciplines have sought to facilitate people's use of computers and to provide ways for scientists to make sense of the immense quantities of data coming out of them. One gainful result of these efforts has been the field of information visualization, whose technology is increasingly applied in scientific research, digital libraries, data mining, financial data analysis, market studies, manufacturing production control, and data discovery.

This book collects 38 of the key papers on information visualization from a leading and prominent research lab, the University of Maryland’s Human-Computer Interaction Lab (HCIL). Celebrating HCIL’s 20th anniversary, this book presents a coherent body of work from a respected community that has had many success stories with its research and commercial spin-offs.

Each chapter contains an introduction specifically written for this volume by two leading HCI researchers, to describe the connections among those papers and reveal HCIL’s individual approach to developing innovations.

*Presents key ideas, novel interfaces, and major applications of information visualization tools, embedded in inspirational prototypes.

*Techniques can be widely applied in scientific research, digital libraries, data mining, financial data analysis, business market studies, manufacturing production control, drug discovery, and genomic studies.

*Provides an "insider" view to the scientific process and evolution of innovation, as told by the researchers themselves.

*This work comes from the prominent and high profile University of Maryland's Human Computer Interaction Lab

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Interactive Technologies
  5. Copyright
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
    1. THE IMPORTANCE OF FLOW
    2. EVALUATING OUR WORK
    3. WORKING WITHIN A BROADER COMMUNITY OF SCIENTISTS
    4. THE MARYLAND WAY FOR INFORMATION VISUALIZATION
    5. 1 Choose a Good Driving Problem
    6. 2 Become Immersed in Related Work
    7. 3 Clarify Short-Term and Long-Term Goals
    8. 4 Balance Individual and Group Interests
    9. 5 Work Hard
    10. 6 Communicate with Internal and External Stakeholders
    11. 7 Get Past Failures. Celebrate Successes!
    12. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  9. Chapter 1: Database Discovery with Dynamic Queries
    1. Introduction to Database Discovery with Dynamic Queries
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Displays
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY CONCEPTS
      4. FILMFINDER DESIGN
      5. FILMFINDER SCENARIO
      6. FUTURE WORK
    3. DYNAMIC QUERIES FOR VISUAL INFORMATION SEEKING
      1. EXAMPLES
      2. ADVANTAGES
      3. DISADVANTAGES
      4. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    4. Temporal, Geographical and Categorical Aggregations Viewed through Coordinated Displays: A Case Study with Highway Incident Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 SNAP TOGETHER VISUALIZATION
      4. 3 AGGREGATIONS
      5. 4 AGGREGATIONS AND COORDINATED DISPLAYS
      6. 5 EXPLORING INCIDENT DATA
      7. 6 COORDINATION ARCHITECTURE
      8. 6 CONCLUSIONS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
      10. URL
    5. Broadening Access to Large Online Databases by Generalizing Query Previews
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. QUERY PREVIEWS
      5. GENERALIZING QUERY PREVIEWS
      6. CONCLUSIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    6. Dynamic Queries and Brushing on Choropleth Maps
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Related Work
      4. 3 Dynamaps
      5. 4 User Interface
      6. 4.2 Dynamic Queries
      7. 5 Algorithms
      8. 6 Limitations and Future Work
      9. 7 Conclusion
      10. 8 Acknowledgements
  10. Chapter 2: Seeing the World Through Image Libraries
    1. Introduction to Seeing the World Through Image Libraries
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. User Controlled Overviews of an Image Library: A Case Study of the Visible Human
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTERFACE
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      6. SOFTWARE
    3. Direct Annotation: A Drag-and-Drop Strategy for Labeling Photos
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Related Work on Annotation
      4. 3 The PhotoFinder Project
      5. 4 Direct Annotation
      6. 5 Database Design and Implementation
      7. 6 Conclusion
    4. PhotoMesa: A Zoomable Image Browser Using Quantum Treemaps and Bubblemaps
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. PHOTOMESA
      5. USE OF PHOTOMESA
      6. QUANTUM TREEMAPS
      7. BUBBLE MAPS
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    5. A Photo History of SIGCHI: Evolution of Design from Personal to Public
      1. Acknowledgments
      2. PhotoFinder (www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photolib)
      3. PhotoFinder Kiosk
      4. PhotoFinder Web
  11. Chapter 3: Preserving Context with Zoomable User Interfaces
    1. Introduction to Preserving Context with Zoomable User Interfaces
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Does Animation Help Users Build Mental Maps of Spatial Information?
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Experiment
      4. 3 Conclusion
      5. 4 Acknowledgements
    3. Jazz: An Extensible Zoomable User Interface Graphics Toolkit in Java
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REQUIREMENTS FOR ZUIS
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. THE JAZZ TOOLKIT
      6. ARCHITECTURE
      7. COMPOSING FUNCTIONALITY USING NODE TYPES
      8. CUSTOM VISUAL COMPONENTS
      9. CREATING APPLICATION SPECIFIC WIDGETS
      10. NODE MANAGEMENT
      11. CURRENT STATUS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    4. Zoomable user interfaces as a medium for slide show presentations
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Previous work
      4. Concrete benefits of ZUI presentations
      5. Cognitive benefits of ZUI presentations
      6. Implementation of CounterPoint
      7. Authoring in CounterPoint
      8. Delivering presentations in CounterPoint
      9. Principles for authoring ZUI presentations
      10. Conclusion
      11. Future work
      12. Acknowledgments
    5. Navigation Patterns and Usability of Zoomable User Interfaces with and without an Overview
      1. 1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 2 RELATED WORK
      3. 3 EXPERIMENT
      4. 4 RESULTS
      5. 5 DISCUSSION
      6. 6 CONCLUSIONS
      7. APPENDIX: TASKS USED IN THE EXPERIMENT
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  12. Chapter 4: The World’s Information in Digital Libraries
    1. Introduction to The World’s Information in Digital Libraries
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Bringing Treasures to the Surface: Iterative Design for the Library of Congress National Digital Library Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ITERATION 1: USERS’ NEEDS DESIGN
      4. ITERATION 2: FOUR SERVICES DESIGN
      5. ITERATION 3: LEFT COLUMN TAB DESIGN
      6. CURRENT DIRECTIONS: MORE BROWSING TOOLS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    3. Building an Electronic Learning Community: From Design to Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN PROCESS
      4. INFORMAL USABILITY TESTING
      5. LESSONS LEARNED
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    4. Visualizing Digital Library Search Results with Categorical and Hierarchical Axes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS RESEARCH
      4. THE BALTIMORE LEARNING COMMUNITY
      5. LEGAL INFORMATION DIGITAL LIBRARY
      6. HIERARCHICAL AXES: HIERAXES
      7. ACM COMPUTING CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
      8. USABILITY TEST
      9. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    5. Designing a Digital Library for Young Children: An Intergenerational Partnership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 THE NEED FOR RESEARCH
      3. 2 THE ROLE OF CHILDREN AND TEACHERS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
      4. 3 THE DESIGN PROCESS
      5. 4 LESSONS LEARNED
      6. 5 FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. 6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    6. The International Children’s Digital Library: Viewing Digital Books Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEED FOR RESEARCH
      4. OUR PREVIOUS WORK
      5. PROJECT GOALS
      6. DESIGN METHODOLOGY
      7. SUMMER SESSION
      8. INFORMAL EVALUATION OF BOOK READERS
      9. FUTURE WORK
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  13. Chapter 5: Making Sense of the World Wide Web
    1. Introduction to Making Sense of the World Wide Web
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Visualizing websites using a hierarchical table of contents browser: WebTOC
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
    3. Elastic Windows: A Hierarchical Multi-Window World-Wide Web Browser
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEM MOTIVATION
      4. LESSONS FROM USER STUDIES
      5. ELASTIC WINDOWS WEB BROWSER
      6. USER STUDIES REVISITED
      7. IMPLEMENTATION
      8. RELATED WORK
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    4. Graphical Multiscale Web Histories: A Study of PadPrints
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A ZOOMING GRAPHICAL HISTORY
      4. USABILITY TESTING
      5. EXPERIMENT 1
      6. EXPERIMENT 2
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  14. Chapter 6: Understanding Hierarchical Data
    1. Introduction to Understanding Hierarchical Data
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Visual decision-making: Using treemaps for the Analytic Hierarchy Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    3. Hierarchical Visualization with Treemaps: Making Sense of Pro Basketball Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GRAPHICAL PROPERTIES AND TASKS
      4. AREA DISTORTION
    4. Visual Information Management for Network Configuration
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Background
      4. 3 Design Methodology
      5. 4 A visual information management interface for network configuration
      6. 5 Current directions
      7. 6 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgments:
    5. Ordered and Quantum Treemaps: Making Effective Use of 2D Space to Display Hierarchies
      1. 1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 2 ORDERED TREEMAP ALGORITHMS
      3. 3 QUANTUM TREEMAP ALGORITHMS
      4. 4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    6. Interactive Information Visualization of a Million Items
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Previous Work
      4. 3 Technical Constraints
      5. 4 Reaching One Million Items
      6. 5 Performance
      7. 6 Conclusion and Future Work
      8. 7 Acknowledgments
    7. SpaceTree: Supporting Exploration in Large Node Link Tree, Design Evolution and Empirical Evaluation
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Related work
      4. 3 Description of the interface
      5. 4 Review of the early versions and emerging design guidelines
      6. 4 Controlled experiment
      7. 5 Results
      8. 6 Conclusions
      9. 7 Acknowledgements
  15. Chapter 7: Innovating the Interaction
    1. Introduction to Innovating the Interaction
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Fisheye Menus
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FISHEYE MENU DESIGN ISSUES
      4. IMPLEMENTATION
      5. EVALUATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    3. LifeLines: Using Visualization to Enhance Navigation and Analysis of Patient Records
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. RELATED WORK
      3. EXPLORING LIFELINES
      4. DATA ARCHITECTURE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. Acknowledgements
      7. Contact information
    4. Interactive Exploration of Time Series Data
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Related Work
      4. 3 Timeboxes: Interactive Temporal Queries
      5. 4 TimeSearcher
      6. 5 Software
      7. 6 Discussion and Future Work
      8. 7 Conclusions
      9. Acknowledgments
    5. Excentric Labeling: Dynamic Neighborhood Labeling for Data Visualization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAXONOMY OF LABELING TECHNIQUES
      4. EXCENTRIC LABELING
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. OTHER OPTIONS TO CONSIDER
      7. USE WITHIN EXISTING VISUALIZATION APPLICATIONS
      8. EVALUATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
      11. DEMONSTRATION
    6. A Fisheye Calendar Interface for PDAs: Providing Overviews for Small Displays
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FISHCAL
      4. BENCHMARK STUDY
      5. MONDRIAN BACKGROUNDS
      6. FUTURE WORK
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    7. Interactively Exploring Hierarchical Clustering Results
      1. HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING EXPLORER
      2. OVERVIEW IN A LIMITED SCREEN SPACE
      3. DYNAMIC QUERY CONTROLS
      4. COORDINATED DISPLAYS
      5. CLUSTER COMPARISONS
      6. Acknowledgments
    8. Snap-Together Visualization: A User Interface for Coordinating Visualizations via Relational Schemata
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 SNAP TOGETHER VISUALIZATION
      4. 3 EMPIRICAL EVALUATION
      5. 4 CONCLUSIONS and FUTURE WORK
      6. 5 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  16. Chapter 8: Theories for Understanding Information Visualization
    1. Introduction to Theories for Understanding Information Visualization
      1. FAVORITE PAPERS FROM OUR COLLEAGUES
    2. Image-Browser Taxonomy and Guidelines for Designers
      1. BROWSER SPECIFICATION
      2. MULTITUDE OF BROWSERS
      3. TASK TAXONOMY
      4. BROWSER TAXONOMY
    3. The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations
      1. Abstract
      2. 1 Introduction
      3. 2 Visual Information Seeking Mantra
      4. 3 Task by Data Type Taxonomy
      5. 4 Advanced Filtering
      6. 5 Summary
    4. Supporting Creativity with Advanced Information-Abundant User Interfaces
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
    5. Inventing discovery tools: combining information visualization with data mining
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Statistical algorithms vs visual data presentation
      4. Hypothesis testing vs exploratory data analysis
      5. The new paradigms
      6. A spectrum of discovery tools
      7. Case studies of combining visualization with data mining
      8. Acknowledgments
  17. Appendix A: Videos
  18. Appendix B: Project Pages
  19. Appendix C: Software
  20. Appendix D: HCIL Technical Report Listing (1993–2002)
  21. Author Index
  22. Key Terms Index