Intelligence is not only knowledge, but also the ability to apply that knowledge into practice.
Until the latter part of the 20th century the concept of intelligence was closely linked to the amount of knowledge a person had acquired. This meant that the focus was mainly on the quantitative dimension: intelligence was seen as a quantity of knowledge. Therefore, pupils who obtained the best marks in exams and academic tests in schools, colleges and universities were considered to be more intelligent.
In this context, the concept of intelligence is highly conditioned by the ability to memorize information. Those pupils with good memories were more likely to be considered intelligent. ...