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The Concise Encyclopedia of Communication

Book Description

This concise volume presents key concepts and entries from the twelve-volume ICA International Encyclopedia of Communication (2008), condensing leading scholarship into a practical and valuable single volume.

  • Based on the definitive twelve-volume IEC, this new concise edition presents key concepts and the most relevant headwords of communication science in an A-Z format in an up-to-date manner

  • Jointly published with the International Communication Association (ICA), the leading academic association of the discipline in the world

  • Represents the best and most up-to-date international research in this dynamic and interdisciplinary field

  • Contributions come from hundreds of authors who represent excellence in their respective fields

  • An affordable volume available in print or online

  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Series page
    3. Title page
    4. Copyright page
    5. Contributors
    6. Introduction
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Lexicon
    9. A
      1. Accountability of the Media
      2. Accounting Research
      3. Acculturation Processes and Communication
      4. Action Assembly Theory
      5. Advertisement Campaign Management
      6. Advertising
      7. Advertising, Cross-Cultural
      8. Advertising, Economics of
      9. Advertising Effectiveness
      10. Advertising Effectiveness, Measurement of
      11. Advertising: Global Industry
      12. Advertising, History of
      13. Advertising Law and Regulations
      14. Advertising as Persuasion
      15. Advertising: Responses across the Life-Span
      16. Advertising Strategies
      17. Advocacy Journalism
      18. Affective Disposition Theories
      19. Affects and Media Exposure
      20. Africa: Media Systems
      21. Age Identity and Communication
      22. Agenda Building
      23. Agenda-Setting Effects
      24. Aging and Message Production and Processing
      25. Alternative Journalism
      26. Anime
      27. Applied Communication Research
      28. Appraisal Theory
      29. Arab Satellite TV News
      30. Archiving of Internet Content
      31. Art as Communication
      32. Asia: Media Systems
      33. Attending to the Mass Media
      34. Attitude–Behavior Consistency
      35. Attitudes
      36. Audience Research
      37. Audience Segmentation
      38. Audiences, Female
      39. Australia: Media System
    10. B
      1. Bad News in Medicine, Communicating
      2. BBC
      3. BBC World Service
      4. Behavioral Norms: Perception through the Media
      5. Bi- and Multilingualism
      6. Bias in the News
      7. Bollywood
      8. Book
      9. Branding
      10. Brands
      11. Broadcast Journalism
      12. Broadcast Talk
    11. C
      1. Cable Television
      2. Canada: Media System
      3. Caricature
      4. Censorship
      5. Censorship, History of
      6. Change Management and Communication
      7. China Central Television, Foreign Language Program of
      8. China: Media System
      9. Cinema
      10. Cinematography
      11. Citizen Journalism
      12. Classroom Student–Teacher Interaction
      13. Climate of Opinion
      14. CNN
      15. Code
      16. Code as Law
      17. Cognitive Dissonance Theory
      18. Cognitive Science
      19. Commercialization: Impact on Media Content
      20. Commodification of the Media
      21. Communication Accommodation Theory
      22. Communication Apprehension
      23. Communication Apprehension: Intervention Techniques
      24. Communication Apprehension and Social Anxiety
      25. Communication: Definitions and Concepts
      26. Communication as a Field and Discipline
      27. Communication: History of the Idea
      28. Communication Inequalities
      29. Communication and Law
      30. Communication Law and Policy: Africa
      31. Communication Law and Policy: Asia
      32. Communication Law and Policy: Europe
      33. Communication Law and Policy: Middle East
      34. Communication Law and Policy: North America
      35. Communication Law and Policy: South America
      36. Communication Management
      37. Communication and Media Studies, History of
      38. Communication Networks
      39. Communication Skill Acquisition
      40. Communication Skills across the Life-Span
      41. Communication and Social Change: Research Methods
      42. Communication Technology and Democracy
      43. Communication Technology and Development
      44. Communication Technology Standards
      45. Communicology
      46. Community Media
      47. Compliance Gaining
      48. Computer Games and Child Development
      49. Computer–User Interaction
      50. Concentration in Media Systems
      51. Consensus-Oriented Public Relations
      52. Construction of Reality through the News
      53. Consumer Culture
      54. Consumers in Media Markets
      55. Content Analysis, Qualitative
      56. Content Analysis, Quantitative
      57. Conversation Analysis
      58. Co-Orientation Model of Public Relations
      59. Copyright
      60. Corporate Communication
      61. Corporate and Organizational Identity
      62. Corporate Reputation
      63. Correlation Analysis
      64. Crime and Communication Technology
      65. Crisis Communication
      66. Critical Theory
      67. Cross-Media Marketing
      68. Cross-Media Production
      69. Cultivation Effects
      70. Cultural Imperialism Theories
      71. Cultural Patterns and Communication
      72. Cultural Products as Tradable Services
      73. Cultural Studies
      74. Culture and Communication, Ethnographic Perspectives on
      75. Culture: Definitions and Concepts
      76. Culture Industries
      77. Cyberfeminism
      78. Cybernetics
    12. D
      1. Deception Detection Accuracy
      2. Decision-Making Processes in Organizations
      3. Deliberativeness in Political Communication
      4. Delphi Studies
      5. Design
      6. Determination Theory in Public Relations
      7. Development Communication
      8. Development Communication Campaigns
      9. Development Discourse
      10. Development Institutions
      11. Development Journalism
      12. Developmental Communication
      13. Diffusion of information and innovation
      14. Digital Divide
      15. Digital Imagery
      16. Digital Media, History of
      17. Discourse
      18. Discourse Analysis
      19. Discourse Comprehension
      20. Discursive Psychology
      21. Disney
      22. Diversification of Media Markets
      23. Domestication of Technology
    13. E
      1. E-Democracy
      2. Educational Communication
      3. Historical Development
      4. Current Research Interests
      5. Future Research
      6. Educational Media
      7. Educational Media Content
      8. Educational Television, Children’s Responses to
      9. E-Government
      10. Elaboration Likelihood Model
      11. Election Campaign Communication
      12. Election Surveys
      13. Electronic Mail
      14. Emotion and Communication in Organizations
      15. Emotional Arousal Theory
      16. Encoding-Decoding
      17. Entertainment Content and Reality Perception
      18. Environment and Social Interaction
      19. Environmental Communication
      20. Escapism
      21. Ethics in Journalism
      22. Ethnic Journalism
      23. Ethnic Media and their Influence
      24. Ethnicity and Exposure to Communication
      25. Ethnography of Communication
      26. European Union: Communication Law
      27. Excitation and Arousal
      28. Exemplification and Exemplars, Effects of
      29. Expectancy Violation
      30. Experiment, Field
      31. Experiment, Laboratory
      32. Exposure to Communication Content
      33. Development and Mapping of the Research Field
      34. Outlook
      35. Exposure to Print Media
      36. Exposure to Radio
      37. Exposure to Television
      38. Exposure to the Internet
      39. Extended Parallel Process Model
      40. Extra-Media Data
    14. F
      1. Facebook
      2. Fear Induction through Media Content
      3. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
      4. Feminist and Gender Studies
      5. Feminist Media
      6. Feminist Media Studies, Transnational
      7. Feminization of Media Content
      8. Fiction
      9. Field Research
      10. Film Genres
      11. Film Production
      12. Film Theory
      13. Financial Communication
      14. Flow Theory
      15. Framing Effects
      16. Framing of the News
      17. France: Media System
      18. Freedom of Communication
      19. Freedom of Information
      20. Freedom of the Press, Concept of
    15. G
      1. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Media Studies
      2. Gender and Discourse
      3. Gender and Journalism
      4. Gender: Representation in the Media
      5. Genre
      6. Germany: Media System
      7. Girl Culture
      8. Globalization of the Media
      9. Globalization of Organizations
      10. Globalization Theories
      11. Goals, Cognitive Aspects of
      12. Goals, Social Aspects of
      13. Graphic Design
      14. Grounded Theory
      15. Group Communication
      16. Group Decision-Making, Functional Theory of
    16. H
      1. Health Campaigns, Communication in
      2. Health Communication
      3. Health Communication and the Internet
      4. Health Literacy
      5. Hermeneutics
      6. Historic Key Events and the Media
      7. Hollywood
    17. I
      1. Iconography
      2. Identities and Discourse
      3. Image Restoration Theory
      4. Imagined Interactions
      5. India: Media System
      6. Information
      7. Information and Communication Technology, Economics of
      8. Information Literacy
      9. Information Processing
      10. Information Processing: Self-Concept
      11. Information Seeking
      12. Information Society
      13. Informational Utility
      14. Infotainment
      15. Ingratiation and Affinity Seeking
      16. Institutional Theory
      17. Instructional Television
      18. Integrated Marketing Communications
      19. Intellectual Property Law
      20. Interaction
      21. Interactivity, Concept of
      22. Intercultural Conflict Styles and Facework
      23. Intercultural and Intergroup Communication
      24. Intergenerational Communication
      25. Intergroup Accommodative Processes
      26. Intergroup Communication and Discursive Psychology
      27. Intergroup Contact and Communication
      28. Intergroup Reconciliation, Processes of
      29. Intermediality
      30. International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR)
      31. International Communication
      32. International Communication Agencies
      33. International Communication Association (ICA)
      34. International News Reporting
      35. International Radio
      36. International Television
      37. Internet: International Regulation
      38. Internet Law and Regulation
      39. Internet News
      40. Internet and Popular Culture
      41. Interorganizational Communication
      42. Interpersonal Attraction
      43. Interpersonal Communication
      44. Interpersonal Communication Competence and Social Skills
      45. Interpersonal Communication, Sex and Gender Differences in
      46. Interpersonal Conflict
      47. Interpretive Journalism
      48. Interview, Qualitative
      49. Interview, Standardized
      50. Involvement with Media Content
      51. Issue Management
      52. Issue Management in Politics
    18. J
      1. Japan: Media System
      2. Journalism
      3. Journalism Education
      4. Journalism, History of
      5. Journalism: Legal Situation
      6. Journalists, Credibility of
      7. Journalists’ Role Perception
    19. K
      1. Knowledge Gap Effects
      2. Knowledge Management
    20. L
      1. Language and the Internet
      2. Language and Social Interaction
      3. Latin America: Media Systems
      4. Latitude of Acceptance
      5. Leadership in Organizations
      6. Learning and Communication
      7. Linguistic Pragmatics
      8. Linguistics
      9. Listening
      10. Longitudinal Analysis
    21. M
      1. Marital Communication
      2. Marketing
      3. Marketing: Communication Tools
      4. Markets of the Media
      5. Masculinity and the Media
      6. Meaning
      7. Measurement Theory
      8. Media
      9. Media Conglomerates
      10. Media Content and Social Networks
      11. Media Diplomacy
      12. Media Ecology
      13. Media Economics
      14. Media Effects
      15. Media Effects: Direct and Indirect Effects
      16. Media Effects, History of
      17. Media Effects, Strength of
      18. Media Equation Theory
      19. Media Events and Pseudo-Events
      20. Media and Group Representations
      21. Media History
      22. Media Literacy
      23. Media Messages and Family Communication
      24. Media and Perceptions of Reality
      25. Media Performance
      26. Media Planning
      27. Media Production and Content
      28. Media System Dependency Theory
      29. Media Use and Child Development
      30. Media Use, International Comparison of
      31. Media Use across the Life-Span
      32. Media Use by Social Variable
      33. Mediated Populism
      34. Mediated Social Interaction
      35. Mediated Terrorism
      36. Mediatization of Politics
      37. Medium Theory
      38. Memory
      39. Message Discrimination
      40. Message Production
      41. Meta-Analysis
      42. Metadiscourse
      43. Metaphor
      44. Mexico: Media System
      45. Minority Journalism
      46. Mobility, Technology for
      47. Models of Communication
      48. Modernity
      49. Mood Management
      50. Music Industry
    22. N
      1. Negotiation and Bargaining
      2. Network Organizations through Communication Technology
      3. Neutrality
      4. New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO)
      5. News
      6. News Agencies, History of
      7. News Corporation
      8. News Cycles
      9. News Factors
      10. News Ideologies
      11. News Processing across the Life-Span
      12. News Routines
      13. News Sources
      14. News Story
      15. News Values
      16. Newspaper, History of
      17. Early Periodical Publications
      18. The Formation of a Public Sphere
      19. The Defeat of a Radical Press in England
      20. Newspapers and Markets
      21. The Intensification of Press Competition
      22. Newspaper, Visual Design of
      23. Nonverbal Communication and Culture
    23. O
      1. Objectivity in Reporting
      2. Observation
      3. Online Journalism
      4. Online Media
      5. Basic Aspects of Communication Structure
      6. Online Research
      7. Open Source
      8. Operationalization
      9. Opinion Leader
      10. Organization–Public Relationships
      11. Organizational Change Processes
      12. Organizational Communication
      13. Organizational Communication: Critical Approaches
      14. Organizational Communication, Postmodern Approaches
      15. Organizational Conflict
      16. Organizational Culture
      17. Organizational Image
      18. Organizations, Cultural Diversity in
    24. P
      1. Parasocial Interactions and Relationships
      2. Parental Mediation Strategies
      3. Participatory Action Research
      4. Participatory Communication
      5. Pedagogy, Communication in
      6. Perceived Reality as a Social Process
      7. Perception
      8. Personal Communication by CMC
      9. Personality and Exposure to Communication
      10. Persuasion
      11. Phenomenology
      12. Photography
      13. Photojournalism
      14. Physiological Measurement
      15. Planned Behavior, Theory of
      16. Planned Social Change through Communication
      17. Pluralistic Ignorance
      18. Pluralistic Ignorance and Ideological Biases
      19. Politainment
      20. Politeness Theory
      21. Political Advertising
      22. Political Cognitions
      23. Political Communication
      24. Political Communication Systems
      25. Political Economy of the Media
      26. Political Efficacy
      27. Political Journalists
      28. Political Knowledge
      29. Political Language
      30. Political Marketing
      31. Political Media Use
      32. Political Persuasion
      33. Political Socialization through the Media
      34. Popular Communication
      35. Popular Communication and Social Class
      36. Popular Music
      37. Pornography, Feminist Debates on
      38. Pornography Use across the Life-Span
      39. Postfeminism
      40. Postmodernism and Communication
      41. Power in Intergroup Settings
      42. Prejudiced and Discriminatory Communication
      43. Presence
      44. Prevention and Communication
      45. Priming Theory
      46. Printing, History of
      47. Privacy
      48. Privatization of the Media
      49. Professionalization of Journalism
      50. Propaganda
      51. Propaganda, Visual Communication of
      52. Propaganda in World War II
      53. Public Affairs
      54. Public Broadcasting, History of
      55. Public Broadcasting Systems
      56. Public Opinion
      57. Public Opinion Polling
      58. Public Relations
      59. Public Relations Evaluation
      60. Public Relations: Media Influence
      61. Public Relations Planning
      62. Public Sphere
    25. Q
      1. Qualitative Methodology
      2. Quality of the News
      3. Quantitative Methodology
      4. Questions and Questioning
    26. R
      1. Radio: Social History
      2. Rapport
      3. Realism in Film and Photography
      4. Reality and Media Reality
      5. Reality TV
      6. Reasoned Action, Theory of
      7. Reciprocal Effects
      8. Regression Analysis
      9. Relational Control
      10. Relational Dialectics
      11. Relational Uncertainty
      12. Reliability
      13. Remediation
      14. Response Rates
      15. Rhetoric, Argument, and Persuasion
      16. Rhetoric and Dialectic
      17. Rhetoric and Ethics
      18. Rhetoric and Gender
      19. Rhetoric, Greek
      20. Rhetoric and History
      21. Rhetoric and Language
      22. Rhetoric and Logic
      23. Rhetoric and Media Studies
      24. Rhetoric and Politics
      25. Rhetoric, Pre-Socratic
      26. Rhetoric and Race
      27. Rhetoric, Roman
      28. Rhetoric and Social Protest
      29. Rhetorical Criticism
      30. Rhetorical Studies
      31. Rhetorics: New Rhetorics
      32. Risk Communication
      33. Risk Perceptions
      34. Russia: Media System
    27. S
      1. Sampling, Random
      2. Satellite Communication, Global
      3. Satellite Communication, Regulation of
      4. Satellite Television
      5. Schemas
      6. Science Journalism
      7. Scripts
      8. Search Engines
      9. Segmentation of the Advertising Audience
      10. Selective Exposure
      11. Selective Perception and Selective Retention
      12. Self-Presentation
      13. Self-Regulation of the Media
      14. Semiotics
      15. Sensation Seeking
      16. Sensationalism
      17. Sex Role Stereotypes in the Media
      18. Sexism in the Media
      19. Sexual Violence in the Media
      20. Sign
      21. Situation Comedies
      22. Social Cognitive Theory
      23. Social Comparison Theory
      24. Social Conflict and Communication
      25. Social Exchange
      26. Social Marketing
      27. Social Media
      28. Social Perception
      29. Social Stereotyping and Communication
      30. Social Support in Interpersonal Communication
      31. Sony Corporation
      32. Source Protection
      33. Special Effects
      34. Speech Anxiety
      35. Speech Communication, History of
      36. Speech Fluency and Speech Errors
      37. Spiral of Silence
      38. Sports and the Media, History of
      39. Standards of News
      40. Stimulus–Response Model
      41. Storytelling and Narration
      42. Strategic Communication
      43. Strategic Framing
      44. Structuralism
      45. Student Communication Competence
      46. Survey
    28. T
      1. Tabloidization
      2. Taste Culture
      3. Teacher Communication Style
      4. Teacher Influence and Persuasion
      5. Technology and Communication
      6. Televised Debates
      7. Television Broadcasting, Regulation of
      8. Television for Development
      9. Television as Popular Culture
      10. Television, Social History of
      11. Television, Visual Characteristics of
      12. Terrorism and Communication Technologies
      13. Text and Intertextuality
      14. Third-Person Effects
      15. Time Warner Inc.
      16. Transnational Civil Society
      17. Trust of Publics
      18. Truth and Media Content
      19. Twitter
      20. Two-Step Flow of Communication
    29. U
      1. Uncertainty and Communication
      2. Uncertainty Management
      3. Uncertainty Reduction Theory
      4. UNESCO
      5. United Kingdom: Media System
      6. United Nations, Communication Policies of
      7. United States of America: Media System
      8. Uses and Gratifications
    30. V
      1. Validity
      2. Video Games
      3. Violence against Journalists
      4. Violence as Media Content
      5. Violence as Media Content, Effects of
      6. Violence as Media Content, Effects on Children of
      7. Visual Communication
      8. Visual Culture
      9. Visual Representation
    31. W
      1. War Propaganda
      2. Watergate Scandal
      3. Web 2.0 and the News
      4. Women in the Media, Images of
      5. Women’s Communication and Language
    32. Y
      1. Youth Culture
    33. Index
    34. End User License Agreement