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The Complete Idiot's Guide to Statistics, 2nd Edition by Robert Donnelly

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Hypothesis Testing—the Basics

In the statistical world, a hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter. Examples of hypotheses (that’s plural for hypothesis) include the following:
◆ The average adult drinks 1.7 cups of coffee per day.
◆ Twelve percent of undergraduate students will go directly to graduate school after graduation.
◆ No more than 2 percent of our products sold to customers are defective.
def•i•ni•tion
A hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter.
In each case, we have made a statement about the population that may or may not be true. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to make a statistical conclusion about accepting or not accepting such statements. To further explain this concept, ...

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