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The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development, Third Edition

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Praise for The Center for Creative LeadershipHandbook of Leadership Development

"The most authoritative, comprehensive, and practical source for developing leadership capability in any organization. The handbook integrates the very best of theory and practice, and serves as a valuable road map to creating a foundation of systemic leadership excellence, now and for the future."

—Thomas J. Griffin, vice president, organizational learning and chief teaching officer, U.S. Cellular

"Only from the Center for Creative Leadership could we expect to see such a rich, authoritative, and actionable set of the latest resources for developing leaders. All those who have responsibility for developing leaders (senior executives, leader development professionals, and leaders themselves), as well as those who study leadership, need to read this book."

—Douglas T. "Tim" Hall, founding director, Executive Development Roundtable, Boston University

"The changes in the third edition of The Handbook of Leadership Development make a good book even better. The authors provide a broad perspective on the most relevant topics for academics and practitioners. The emphasis on development of collective leadership capacity as well as development of individual leaders is consistent with the growing recognition that strategic leadership, shared leadership, and flexible change leadership are essential for sustained organizational effectiveness in a dynamic global economy. The book is a valuable source of knowledge and practical advice for anyone who is responsible for providing or managing leadership development."

—Gary Yukl, professor of management, University at Albany-SUNY

"We consider leadership to be the single most important factor influencing the performance of our organization. This book is brilliant in defining what we need to do and what capabilities we need to assist our leaders to grow and develop."

—Morten Raabe, vice president of Organisation Development, WW ASA, Oslo, Norway

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Web Contents
    1. Leader Development Systems
    2. Learning from Experience
    3. Feedback-Intensive Programs
    4. Leadership Coaching
    5. Leader Development and Social Identity
    6. Development Programs for Educational Leaders
    7. Leader Development in Times of Change
    8. Democratizing Leader Development
    9. Evaluating Leader Development
    10. Developing Team Leadership Capability
    11. Developing Strategic Leadership
    12. Developing Globally Responsible Leadership
    13. Developing Intergroup Leadership
    14. Developing Interdependent Leadership
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. ROOTS OF THE BOOK
    2. WHAT'S NEW IN THE THIRD EDITION
    3. WHAT THE HANDBOOK DOES NOT COVER
    4. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    5. A FINAL WORD OR TWO
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. The Authors
  7. Introduction: Our View of Leadership Development
    1. ASSUMPTIONS AND MODEL OF LEADER DEVELOPMENT
      1. Assumptions
      2. A Two-Part Model
        1. Assessment, Challenge, and Support
        2. Leader Development as Process
    2. ELEMENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENTAL EXPERIENCE
      1. Assessment
      2. Challenge
      3. Support
    3. WHAT DEVELOPS IN LEADER DEVELOPMENT
      1. Leading Oneself
        1. Self-Awareness
        2. Ability to Balance Conflicting Demands
        3. Ability to Learn
        4. Leadership Values
      2. Leading Others
        1. Ability to Build and Maintain Relationships
        2. Ability to Build Effective Work Groups
        3. Communication Skills
        4. Ability to Develop Others
      3. Leading the Organization
        1. Management Skills
        2. Ability to Think and Act Strategically
        3. Ability to Think Creatively
        4. Ability to Initiate and Implement Change
    4. ENHANCING LEADER DEVELOPMENT
      1. Creating Rich Developmental Experiences
      2. Enhancing the Ability to Learn
      3. Aligning Leader Development with the Context
    5. FROM LEADER DEVELOPMENT TO LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
      1. A Broader Definition of Leadership
      2. A Broader Approach to Leadership Development
    6. CONCLUSION
  8. I. Developing Leaders
    1. 1. Leader Development Systems
      1. 1.1. PURPOSES SERVED BY LEADER DEVELOPMENT
        1. 1.1.1. Tools for Assessing the Organization's Need for Effective Leaders
          1. 1.1.1.1. Leader Competency Models
          2. 1.1.1.2. Leadership Metrics
          3. 1.1.1.3. Forums to Review Leader Effectiveness
        2. 1.1.2. Leader Development Strategy
      2. 1.2. LEADER SEGMENTS
        1. 1.2.1. Organizational Levels
        2. 1.2.2. High-Potential Status
        3. 1.2.3. Social Identity Groups
        4. 1.2.4. Functions, Business Units, or Geographies
        5. 1.2.5. Local Leaders
      3. 1.3. METHODS OF DEVELOPMENT
        1. 1.3.1. Developmental Relationships
        2. 1.3.2. Developmental Assignments
        3. 1.3.3. Feedback Processes
        4. 1.3.4. Formal Programs
        5. 1.3.5. Self-Development Activities
      4. 1.4. CLIMATE FOR DEVELOPMENT
        1. 1.4.1. Establishing a Climate for Development
          1. 1.4.1.1. Priorities of Top Management
          2. 1.4.1.2. Recognition and Rewards
          3. 1.4.1.3. Communication
          4. 1.4.1.4. Efforts to Track and Measure
          5. 1.4.1.5. Resources
          6. 1.4.1.6. Skilled Employees
        2. 1.4.2. Assessing the Climate
      5. 1.5. LEADER DEVELOPMENT BEYOND FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
      6. 1.6. CONCLUSION
    2. 2. Learning from Experience
      1. 2.1. LESSONS OF EXPERIENCE RESEARCH
      2. 2.2. WHERE LEADERS LEARN
        1. 2.2.1. Challenging Assignments
        2. 2.2.2. Developmental Relationships
        3. 2.2.3. Adverse Situations
        4. 2.2.4. Course Work and Training
        5. 2.2.5. Personal Experiences
      3. 2.3. RETURN ON EXPERIENCE
        1. 2.3.1. Mastery: The Outcome of Increased Ability
        2. 2.3.2. Versatility: The Outcome of Increased Capacity
        3. 2.3.3. Combining Mastery and Versatility
        4. 2.3.4. Transfer: The Outcome of Increased Impact
      4. 2.4. ENHANCING THE RETURN ON EXPERIENCE
        1. 2.4.1. Sequence Experiences to Enhance Mastery
          1. 2.4.1.1. Sequence Experiences to Meet the Strategic Priorities of the Organization
          2. 2.4.1.2. Sequence Experiences by Levels of Responsibility
        2. 2.4.2. Diversify Experiences to Enhance Versatility
          1. 2.4.2.1. Diversify Experiences Across Organizational Boundaries
          2. 2.4.2.2. Diversify Experience Across Cultural Boundaries
        3. 2.4.3. Integrate Experiences to Enhance Transfer
          1. 2.4.3.1. Integrate Challenging Assignments with Developmental Relationships That Enhance Transfer
          2. 2.4.3.2. Integrate Experience with Learning Systems That Enhance Transfer
      5. 2.5. CONCLUSION
    3. 3. Feedback-Intensive Programs
      1. 3.1. WHAT IS A FEEDBACK-INTENSIVE PROGRAM?
        1. 3.1.1. Defining Features of CCL's FIPs
        2. 3.1.2. Phases of a Feedback-Intensive Program
      2. 3.2. ELEMENTS OF ASSESSMENT
        1. 3.2.1. Sources and Methodologies
          1. 3.2.1.1. Self-Assessment
          2. 3.2.1.2. 360-Degree Assessment
          3. 3.2.1.3. Assessment from Fellow Participants
          4. 3.2.1.4. Other Assessment Methodologies
          5. 3.2.1.5. Integrating the Feedback
        2. 3.2.2. Key Issues in Assessment
      3. 3.3. ELEMENTS OF CHALLENGE
        1. 3.3.1. Structured Experiences
          1. 3.3.1.1. Simulations
          2. 3.3.1.2. Targeted Exercises
          3. 3.3.1.3. Action Learning Projects
        2. 3.3.2. Encountering Different Models and Perspectives
      4. 3.4. ELEMENTS OF SUPPORT
        1. 3.4.1. Facilitating Participant Learning
        2. 3.4.2. Teaching to Different Learning Styles
        3. 3.4.3. Integrating Participants' Organizational Contexts
        4. 3.4.4. Encouraging Perspective Sharing
        5. 3.4.5. Encouraging the Practice of New Behaviors
        6. 3.4.6. Providing Ample Time for Consolidation of Feedback
      5. 3.5. SUSTAINING ASSESSMENT, CHALLENGE, AND SUPPORT THROUGH THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
      6. 3.6. OUTCOMES OF A FEEDBACK-INTENSIVE PROGRAM
        1. 3.6.1. Goal Content and Attainment
        2. 3.6.2. Summary of CCL's Evaluation Research
      7. 3.7. USING A FEEDBACK-INTENSIVE PROGRAM GLOBALLY
      8. 3.8. LEVERAGING THE INVESTMENT
      9. 3.9. CONCLUSION
    4. 4. Leadership Coaching
      1. 4.1. A FRAMEWORK FOR COACHING
        1. 4.1.1. Relationship
        2. 4.1.2. Assessment, Challenge, and Support
        3. 4.1.3. Results
      2. 4.2. PRINCIPLES OF COACHING
        1. 4.2.1. Principle 1: Create a Learning Environment
        2. 4.2.2. Principle 2: Ensure the Coachee's Ownership
        3. 4.2.3. Principle 3: Facilitate and Collaborate
        4. 4.2.4. Principle 4: Advocate Self-Awareness
        5. 4.2.5. Principle 5: Promote Sustainable Learning from Experience
        6. 4.2.6. Principle 6: Model What You Coach
      3. 4.3. COACHING IN A GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT
      4. 4.4. USES AND STAGES OF COACHING IN ORGANIZATIONS
        1. 4.4.1. From Ad Hoc to Organized Use of Coaches
          1. 4.4.1.1. Recruitment and Selection Standards
          2. 4.4.1.2. Preparation and Orientation
          3. 4.4.1.3. Confidentiality and Information Sharing
          4. 4.4.1.4. Matching Coaches with Leaders
          5. 4.4.1.5. Evaluation of Results
        2. 4.4.2. From External Coaching to Multiple Coaching Methods
          1. 4.4.2.1. Quality Amid Quantity
          2. 4.4.2.2. Managers as Coaches
        3. 4.4.3. Toward a Coaching Culture
      5. 4.5. CONCLUSION
    5. 5. Leader Development and Social Identity
      1. 5.1. LEADERSHIP AND SOCIAL IDENTITY
      2. 5.2. IDENTITY-RELATED OBSTACLES TO LEADER DEVELOPMENT
        1. 5.2.1. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotyping
        2. 5.2.2. Differential Opportunities
        3. 5.2.3. Organizational Culture
      3. 5.3. ORGANIZATIONAL COSTS OF OVERLOOKING IDENTITY
        1. 5.3.1. Loss of Human Capital
        2. 5.3.2. Loss of Identity Capital
        3. 5.3.3. Loss of Diversity Capital
        4. 5.3.4. Loss of Social Capital
      4. 5.4. INCORPORATING SOCIAL IDENTITY IN LEADER DEVELOPMENT
        1. 5.4.1. Assessment
          1. 5.4.1.1. Content of Assessment
          2. 5.4.1.2. The Assessment Process
        2. 5.4.2. Challenge
          1. 5.4.2.1. Learning from Challenging Social Identity Experiences
          2. 5.4.2.2. The Benefit of Social Identity–Based Challenge
          3. 5.4.2.3. The Distribution of Developmental Experiences
        3. 5.4.3. Support
          1. 5.4.3.1. Practical and Emotional Support
          2. 5.4.3.2. Coaching and Mentoring
          3. 5.4.3.3. Differing Levels of Comfort with Support
          4. 5.4.3.4. Informal Sources of Support
        4. 5.4.4. Feedback-Intensive Leader Development Programs
          1. 5.4.4.1. Addressing Social Identity Through Single-Identity Programs
          2. 5.4.4.2. Addressing Social Identities in Mixed-Identity Programs
          3. 5.4.4.3. Making the Choice
      5. 5.5. IMPLICATIONS FOR LEADER DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN ORGANIZATIONS
        1. 5.5.1. Acknowledging the Importance of Social Identity in Leader Development Curricula
        2. 5.5.2. Reviewing and Restructuring Systemic Influences
        3. 5.5.3. Fostering an Inclusive Organizational Culture
      6. 5.6. CONCLUSION
    6. 6. Development Programs for Educational Leaders
      1. 6.1. BEGINNINGS AS TEACHERS
      2. 6.2. EDUCATIONAL EXPERTISE
      3. 6.3. SOCIOPOLITICAL CONTEXT OF EDUCATION
      4. 6.4. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL LEADERS
        1. 6.4.1. Linking Leader Development and Student Outcomes
        2. 6.4.2. Facilitators Who Are Education Practitioners
        3. 6.4.3. Designing for Impact
        4. 6.4.4. Capabilities Critical for Leading Effectively
          1. 6.4.4.1. Self-Awareness
          2. 6.4.4.2. Leading Change
          3. 6.4.4.3. Managing Conflict
          4. 6.4.4.4. Power, Politics, and Influence
          5. 6.4.4.5. Using Teams
        5. 6.4.5. Building Capacity in Others
      5. 6.5. EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL LEADERS
        1. 6.5.1. School Leadership Executive Institute
        2. 6.5.2. Bryan Leadership Development Initiative
        3. 6.5.3. Common Features of Programs
      6. 6.6. CONCLUSION
    7. 7. Leader Development in Times of Change
      1. 7.1. THE CONTEXT: CHALLENGES OF LEADING DURING TRANSITION
        1. 7.1.1. The Challenge of Understanding the Emotional Shape of Transition
        2. 7.1.2. The Challenge of Fear
        3. 7.1.3. The Challenge to Learn
      2. 7.2. WHAT IT TAKES TO LEAD EFFECTIVELY DURING A TRANSITION
        1. 7.2.1. The Pivotal Role of Trust
        2. 7.2.2. Understanding the Emotional Side
        3. 7.2.3. Meeting People Where They Are
        4. 7.2.4. The Paradoxical Power of Vulnerability
      3. 7.3. DEVELOPING AUTHENTIC CHANGE LEADERSHIP
        1. 7.3.1. The Wheel
          1. 7.3.1.1. Origins of the Wheel
          2. 7.3.1.2. Value and Use of the Wheel
          3. 7.3.1.3. Maintaining the Wheel
          4. 7.3.1.4. The Wheel at Another Level
        2. 7.3.2. A Program for Practical Experience
        3. 7.3.3. Other Options for Leader Development
      4. 7.4. CONCLUSION
    8. 8. Democratizing Leader Development
      1. 8.1. DEFINING DEMOCRATIZATION
      2. 8.2. BARRIERS TO DEMOCRATIZATION
        1. 8.2.1. Traditional Mental Models of Leadership
        2. 8.2.2. Leadership Development Business Models
        3. 8.2.3. Scaling as a Means of Change
      3. 8.3. THREE INFLUENTIAL FRAMEWORKS
        1. 8.3.1. Assessment, Challenge, and Support
        2. 8.3.2. Direction, Alignment, and Commitment
        3. 8.3.3. Alternative Business Models for the Poor
      4. 8.4. A STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
        1. 8.4.1. Lessons from Market Immersions
          1. 8.4.1.1. The Important Subtlety of Language
          2. 8.4.1.2. The Value of Storytelling
          3. 8.4.1.3. Extraordinary Challenges Facing NGOs
          4. 8.4.1.4. The Need to Reach Young People
        2. 8.4.2. Rapid Prototyping
          1. 8.4.2.1. Simplifying for Scalability and the Leadership Essentials Design
          2. 8.4.2.2. Taking Leadership Essentials Beyond CCL
          3. 8.4.2.3. Building Trainer Capacity
          4. 8.4.2.4. Moving Beyond the Classroom
          5. 8.4.2.5. Leveraging Technology
      5. 8.5. CONCLUSION
    9. 9. Evaluating Leader Development
      1. 9.1. INCORPORATING EVALUATIVE THINKING INTO DESIGN
      2. 9.2. DISCOVERY IN EVALUATION AND INTERVENTION DESIGN
        1. 9.2.1. Stakeholder Identification
        2. 9.2.2. Essential Elements for Evaluation
          1. 9.2.2.1. Understand the Context of the Organization or Community
          2. 9.2.2.2. Identify Desired Results or Outcomes
          3. 9.2.2.3. Determine the Leader Competencies and Capabilities Needed
          4. 9.2.2.4. Generate Possible Solutions
      3. 9.3. DESIGNING THE EVALUATION
        1. 9.3.1. Identify the Purpose of the Evaluation
        2. 9.3.2. Identify Specific Evaluation Questions
        3. 9.3.3. Choose Specific Evaluation Methods
          1. 9.3.3.1. Methods to Measure Individual Outcomes
          2. 9.3.3.2. Methods to Measure Group and Team Outcomes
          3. 9.3.3.3. Methods to Measure Organizational Outcomes
          4. 9.3.3.4. Challenges in Measuring Organization-Level Outcomes
          5. 9.3.3.5. Measuring Outcomes at Multiple Levels
          6. 9.3.3.6. Special Methods to Consider
      4. 9.4. IMPLEMENTING THE EVALUATION PLAN
      5. 9.5. USING EVALUATION RESULTS
      6. 9.6. REALITY CHECK: CHALLENGES IN EVALUATING LEADER AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
        1. 9.6.1. Stakeholder Influence and Expectations
        2. 9.6.2. Understanding the Role of Context
        3. 9.6.3. Measurement Challenges
        4. 9.6.4. Program Evaluation Standards
      7. 9.7. EVALUATION AS A WAY TO LEARN ABOUT THE PRACTICE OF LEADER AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
      8. 9.8. LINKING EVALUATION TO DIRECTION, ALIGNMENT, AND COMMITMENT
      9. 9.9. CONCLUSION
  9. II. Developing leadership for organizational challenges
    1. 10. Developing Team Leadership Capability
      1. 10.1. THE NATURE OF TEAMS AND TEAM LEADERSHIP
      2. 10.2. TEAM LEADERSHIP MODEL
      3. 10.3. TEAM CHALLENGES
        1. 10.3.1. Challenges of Team Context
        2. 10.3.2. Challenges of the Organizational Context
        3. 10.3.3. Challenges of the Environmental Context
      4. 10.4. A FRAMEWORK OF TEAM NEEDS
        1. 10.4.1. Planning Phase Needs
        2. 10.4.2. Developing Team Leadership Capability: Planning Phase Needs
        3. 10.4.3. Action Phase Needs
        4. 10.4.4. Developing Team Leadership Capability: Action Phase Needs
        5. 10.4.5. Interpersonal Needs
        6. 10.4.6. Developing Team Leadership Capability: Interpersonal Needs
      5. 10.5. BUILDING TEAM LEADERSHIP CAPABILITY
        1. 10.5.1. Team Training
        2. 10.5.2. Team Coaching
          1. 10.5.2.1. Assessment
          2. 10.5.2.2. Challenge
          3. 10.5.2.3. Support
        3. 10.5.3. Team Benchmarking
      6. 10.6. A CASE STUDY OF DEVELOPING TEAM LEADERSHIP CAPABILITY
      7. 10.7. CONCLUSION
    2. 11. Developing Strategic Leadership
      1. 11.1. HOW STRATEGIC THINKING AND CHOICES CAN PROMOTE DIRECTION, ALIGNMENT, AND COMMITMENT
        1. 11.1.1. Setting Direction
        2. 11.1.2. Creating Alignment
        3. 11.1.3. Gaining Commitment
      2. 11.2. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
        1. 11.2.1. Strategy as a Learning Process
          1. 11.2.1.1. Assessing Where We Are
          2. 11.2.1.2. Understanding Who We Are and Where We Want to Go
          3. 11.2.1.3. Learning How to Get There
          4. 11.2.1.4. Making the Journey
          5. 11.2.1.5. Checking Our Progress
          6. 11.2.1.6. Summary of SLP
        2. 11.2.2. Enhancing Skills and Perspectives of Strategic Leaders: Thinking, Acting, and Influencing
          1. 11.2.2.1. Strategic Thinking
          2. 11.2.2.2. Strategic Acting
          3. 11.2.2.3. Strategic Influence
      3. 11.3. DEVELOPING STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP
        1. 11.3.1. Developing Thinking, Acting, and Influencing Skills in Leaders
        2. 11.3.2. Developing Strategic Leadership in the Collective
          1. 11.3.2.1. Having a Cognitive Model or Framework
          2. 11.3.2.2. Assessing the Organization's Current State
          3. 11.3.2.3. Providing Guided Practice Through an Intensive Business Simulation
          4. 11.3.2.4. Action Learning
          5. 11.3.2.5. Taking It to Others
        3. 11.3.3. An Example of a Development Process for the Collective
      4. 11.4. CONCLUSION
    3. 12. Developing Globally Responsible Leadership
      1. 12.1. FURTHER DEFINING GLOBALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP
      2. 12.2. THE CHALLENGES OF DEVELOPING GLOBALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP
        1. 12.2.1. Building and Maintaining Commitment to GRL
        2. 12.2.2. Embedding Global Responsibility into Business Operations
        3. 12.2.3. Developing an Organizational Culture
      3. 12.3. GLOBALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP BELIEFS
        1. 12.3.1. An Ethic of "Perform, Don't Advertise"
        2. 12.3.2. Globally Responsible Leadership as a Powerful Idea and an Opportunity
        3. 12.3.3. Responsibility Is an Ongoing Process Requiring a Long-Term Perspective
        4. 12.3.4. It Is Counterproductive and Risky to Wait
        5. 12.3.5. Everyone Has a Role to Play on the Responsibility Journey
        6. 12.3.6. Responsibility Doesn't End When You Leave Work for the Day
        7. 12.3.7. Organizations Should Use Their Power and Influence to Improve the World
        8. 12.3.8. If You Are Standing for What Is Right and True, It Will Sell Itself
      4. 12.4. GLOBALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
        1. 12.4.1. Top Management Support
        2. 12.4.2. Creating and Aligning Vision, Strategies, and Policies
        3. 12.4.3. Operationalizing CSR
        4. 12.4.4. Accountability for Performance
        5. 12.4.5. Communicating CSR
        6. 12.4.6. Developing and Empowering Employees
        7. 12.4.7. Engaging Across Boundaries
        8. 12.4.8. Acting Ethically
      5. 12.5. TOOLS, TECHNIQUES, AND METHODOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING GLOBALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP
        1. 12.5.1. Assessing Organizations for GRL
        2. 12.5.2. Challenging the Organization to Develop Globally Responsible Leadership
        3. 12.5.3. Supporting the Journey to Globally Responsible Leadership
      6. 12.6. NEXT STEPS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE
      7. 12.7. CONCLUSION
    4. 13. Developing Intergroup Leadership
      1. 13.1. THE SHIFTING LEADERSHIP LANDSCAPE
        1. 13.1.1. Accelerating Globalization
        2. 13.1.2. Advancing Technology
        3. 13.1.3. Changing Global Demographics
        4. 13.1.4. Shifting Societal Structures
        5. 13.1.5. Transforming Organizational Structures
      2. 13.2. FAULT LINES: THE CRUX OF THE LEADERSHIP CHALLENGE
        1. 13.2.1. Differential Treatment
        2. 13.2.2. Expectation of Assimilation
        3. 13.2.3. Insults or Humiliating Acts
        4. 13.2.4. Different Values
        5. 13.2.5. Simple Contact
      3. 13.3. INTERGROUP LEADERSHIP CULTURES, BELIEFS, AND PRACTICES
        1. 13.3.1. The Hands-Off Leadership Culture
        2. 13.3.2. The Direct-and-Control Leadership Culture
        3. 13.3.3. The Cultivate-and-Encourage Leadership Culture
          1. 13.3.3.1. Boundary Suspending
          2. 13.3.3.2. Boundary Reframing
          3. 13.3.3.3. Boundary Nesting
          4. 13.3.3.4. Boundary Weaving
      4. 13.4. INTERGROUP LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
        1. 13.4.1. Intergroup Awareness Methods
          1. 13.4.1.1. Mapping Tools
          2. 13.4.1.2. Case Methodologies
        2. 13.4.2. Intergroup Experiential Learning
          1. 13.4.2.1. Intergroup Simulation Activities
          2. 13.4.2.2. Action Learning
          3. 13.4.2.3. Boundary-Crossing Experiences
        3. 13.4.3. Intergroup Culture Development
      5. 13.5. CONCLUSION
    5. 14. Developing Interdependent Leadership
      1. 14.1. DEPENDENT, INDEPENDENT, AND INTERDEPENDENT LEADERSHIP CULTURES
        1. 14.1.1. Dependent Leadership Culture
        2. 14.1.2. Independent Leadership Culture
        3. 14.1.3. Interdependent Leadership Culture
      2. 14.2. PUTTING THE THREE LEADERSHIP CULTURES BACK TOGETHER
      3. 14.3. CASE STUDIES OF INTERDEPENDENT LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
        1. 14.3.1. "Putting It in the Middle" at Lenoir Memorial Hospital
        2. 14.3.2. The Process-Centered Organization at Abrasive Technologies
        3. 14.3.3. Centralization and Decentralization at Resources for Human Development
      4. 14.4. DEVELOPING AN INTERDEPENDENT LEADERSHIP CULTURE
        1. 14.4.1. Developing an Independent Leadership Culture
        2. 14.4.2. Developing an Interdependent Leadership Culture
      5. 14.5. CONCLUSION
    6. Afterword
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ABOUT THE CENTER FOR CREATIVE LEADERSHIP
      1. Capabilities
      2. Open-Enrollment Programs
      3. Customized Programs
      4. Coaching
      5. Assessment and Development Resources
      6. Publications
      7. Leadership Community
      8. Research