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The Camera Assistant's Manual, 4th Edition by SOC David E. Elkins

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Introduction

The process of motion picture photography started when George Eastman introduced the first 35 mm film in 1889, and Thomas Edison, along with his assistant W.K.L. Dickson, designed the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope, also around 1889. The Kinetograph was used to photograph motion pictures and the Kinetoscope was used to view them. These early pieces of equipment were very basic in their design and use. As film cameras became more complex, a need developed for specially trained individuals to work with this new technology and equipment. Two of these individuals became known as the First Assistant Cameraman (1st A.C.) and the Second Assistant Cameraman (2nd A.C.).

One of the most well known of the early cinematographers was Billy Bitzer, ...

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