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The C++ Standard Library: A Tutorial and Reference, Second Edition by Nicolai M. Josuttis

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Chapter 15. Input/Output Using Stream Classes

The classes for I/O form an important part of the C++ standard library; a program without I/O is not of much use. The I/O classes from the C++ standard library are not restricted to files or to screen and keyboard but instead form an extensible framework for the formatting of arbitrary data and access to arbitrary “external representations.”

The IOStream library, as the classes for I/O are called, is the only part of the C++ standard library that was widely used prior to the standardization of C++98. Early distributions of C++ systems came with a set of classes, developed at AT&T, that established a de facto standard for doing I/O. Although these classes have undergone several changes to fit consistently ...

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