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The Business of Sports, 2nd Edition

Book Description

The Business of Sports, Second Edition is a comprehensive collection of readings that focus on the multibillion-dollar sports industry and the dilemmas faced by today’s sports business leaders. It covers professional, Olympic, and collegiate sports, and highlights the major issues that impact each of these broad areas. The Second Edition provides insight from a variety of stakeholders in the industry and covers the major business disciplines of management, marketing, finance, information technology, accounting, ethics, and law. Each chapter features concise introductions, a broad range of focused readings and targeted discussion questions, and graphs and tables to convey relevant financial data and other statistics. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Reading Credits
  8. Part I: Professional Sports
    1. Chapter 1 Ownership
      1. Personalities and Motivations
        1. Hard Ball: The Abuse of Power in Pro Team Sports
        2. Sport as Business
        3. The Value of Major League Baseball Ownership
      2. Alternative Models
        1. NFL vs. Sherman Act: How the NFL’s Ban on Public Ownership Violates Federal Antitrust Laws
        2. A Piece of the Rock (or the Rockets): The Viability of Widespread Public Offerings of Professional Sports Franchises
      3. Tax Considerations
        1. Tax Revisions of 2004 and Pro Sports Team Ownership
    2. Chapter 2 Leagues: Structure and Background
      1. Positioning of Sports in the U.S. Economy
        1. On the Global Economic Downturn and Sports
      2. Overview of the Professional Model
        1. Home Team
      3. An Alternative Model
        1. The Economics of Promotion and Relegation in Sports Leagues: The Case of English Football
    3. Chapter 3 Global Leagues
      1. Overview
        1. Local Heroes
      2. Cricket
        1. Cricket in India: Moving into a League of Its Own
        2. Twenty20 Cricket: An Examination of the Critical Success Factors in the Development of Competition
      3. Soccer
        1. Arsenal FC Annual Report, 2008
      4. Player Markets
        1. The Impact of the Flat World on Player Transfers in Major League Baseball
    4. Chapter 4 Emerging and Niche Leagues
      1. MLS
        1. Bend It for Beckham: A Look at Major League Soccer and Its Single Entity Defense to Antitrust Liability After the Designated Player Rule
      2. Women’s Soccer
        1. Could the New Women’s Professional Soccer League Survive in America? How Adopting a Traditional Legal Structure May Save More than Just a Game
      3. Women’s Basketball
        1. Analyzing the WNBA’s Mandatory Age/Education Policy from a Legal, Cultural, and Ethical Perspective: Women, Men, and the Professional Sports Landscape
      4. XFL
        1. The Inaugural (and Only) Season of the Xtreme Football League: A Case Study in Sports Entertainment
      5. Minor League Baseball
        1. Called up to the Big Leagues: An Examination of the Factors Affecting the Location of Minor League Baseball Teams
    5. Chapter 5 Revenue Sharing and Competitive Balance
      1. Intradependence: Revenue Sharing Among Clubs
        1. Keeping Score: The Economics of Big-Time Sports
      2. Competitive Balance
        1. Thinking About Competitive Balance
      3. Revenue Sharing in the NFL
        1. Revenue Sharing and the Salary Cap in the NFL: Perfecting the Balance Between NFL Socialism and Unrestrained Free-Trade
      4. Impact of Revenue Sharing on Competitive Balance
        1. Competitive Balance in Team Sports and the Impact of Revenue Sharing
    6. Chapter 6 Teams
      1. Overview
        1. The Coming Revenue Revolution in Sports
      2. Impact of Star Players on Gate Receipts
        1. Stars at the Gate: The Impact of Star Power on NBA Gate Revenues
        2. Vend It Like Beckham: David Beckham’s Effect on MLS Ticket Sales
      3. Ticket Pricing
        1. Ticket Prices, Concessions and Attendance at Professional Sporting Events
        2. Variable Ticket Pricing in Major League Baseball
      4. Microperspectives
        1. Globalisation and Sports Branding: The Case of Manchester United
        2. Consolidated Balance Sheets at June 30, 2009 and 2008, and Consolidated Statements of Operations, Consolidated Statements of Members’ Equity (Deficit), and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Fiscal Years Ended June 30, 2009, 2008 and 2007, Including the Notes Thereto
        3. Nets Sports and Entertainment, LLC and Subsidiaries
    7. Chapter 7 Stadiums and Arenas
      1. Financing and Economic Background
        1. The Stadium Game
        2. Sports and the City: How to Curb Professional Sports Teams’ Demands for Free Public Stadiums
        3. The Name Is the Game in Facility Naming Rights
        4. Testimony of Brad R. Humphreys, Associate Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, On Public Financing for Construction and Operation of Sports Stadiums and Economic Revitalization and Development in Urban America Before the One Hundred Tenth Congress of the United States House of Representatives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy, Thursday, March 29, 2007
        5. Testimony of Neil Demause, Subcommittee on Domestic Policy, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, March 29, 2007
    8. Chapter 8 Media
      1. Overview
        1. Panel I: The Future of Sports Television
      2. League Perspectives
        1. The NFL Programming Schedule: A Study of Agenda-Setting
        2. Forecasting the Importance of Media Technology in Sport: The Case of the Televised Ice Hockey Product in Canada
      3. Regional Sports Networks
        1. Regional Sports Networks, Competition, and the Consumer
      4. The Future
        1. The Future of Sports Media
    9. Chapter 9 Labor Matters: Unions
      1. Microperspective: The Baseball Story
        1. The Trend Toward Principled Negotiation in Major League Baseball Collective Bargaining
        2. Labor Relations in Major League Baseball
      2. Macroperspective
        1. Beyond the Box Score: A Look at Collective Bargaining Agreements in Professional Sports and Their Effect on Competition
      3. Microperspective: The Hockey Story
        1. The Hockey Lockout of 2004–05
    10. Chapter 10 Labor Matters: Athlete Compensation
      1. Framework
        1. Pay Dirt: The Business of Professional Team Sports
        2. The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory
      2. Sports Analytics
        1. Does One Simply Need to Score to Score?
        2. An Economic Evaluation of the Moneyball Hypothesis
        3. Is the Moneyball Approach Transferable to Complex Invasion Team Sports?
      3. Inflationary Salary Mechanisms
        1. Do Firms Have Short Memories?: Evidence from Major League Baseball
        2. The National Hockey League and Salary Arbitration: Time for a Line Change
      4. Deflationary Salary Mechanisms
        1. The NBA Luxury Tax Model: A Misguided Regulatory Regime
      5. Global Framework
        1. Football May Be Ill, But Don’t Blame Bosman
    11. Chapter 11 Sports Franchise Valuation
      1. Overview
        1. The Financial Valuation of Sports Franchises
      2. Credit Ratings
        1. Fitch Ratings—Criteria Report Global Sports Rating Guidelines, May 9, 2007
      3. Determinants of Franchise Values
        1. Determinants of Franchise Values in North American Professional Sports Leagues: Evidence from a Hedonic Price Model
        2. The Economic Determinants of Professional Sports Franchise Values
      4. The Future
        1. Professional Sports: The Next Evolution in Value Creation
  9. Part II: Olympic Sports
    1. Chapter 12 Olympics
      1. Organizing Committee Management
        1. Management of the Olympic Games: The Lessons of Sydney
      2. Organizing Committee Revenue Sources
        1. The Financing and Economic Impact of the Olympic Games
        2. Evolution of Olympic Sponsorship and Its Impact on the Olympic Movement
  10. Part III: College Sports
    1. Chapter 13 History and Structure
      1. History
        1. A Brief History of the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s Role in Regulating Intercollegiate Athletics
      2. Structure
        1. Principles and Practice of Sport Management
        2. Sports Law: Cases and Materials
    2. Chapter 14 The NCAA and Conference Affiliation
      1. Financial Overview
        1. The Business of College Sports and the High Cost of Winning
        2. Unbound: How a Supreme Court Decision Tore Apart Football Television and Rippled Through 25 Years of College Sports
        3. The 2009 NCAA State of the Association Speech, as Delivered by Wallace I. Renfro, NCAA Vice President and Senior Advisor to President Myles Brand, January 15, 2009
        4. NCAA 2008–2009 Revenue Distribution Plan
        5. National Collegiate Athletic Association and Subsidiaries
    3. Chapter 15 Member Institutions
      1. Overview of Institutional Impact
        1. Intercollegiate Athletics and the American University: A University President’s Perspective
        2. University of Michigan Department of Athletics Operating Budgets, 2009–2010
        3. Faculty Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics Survey, Executive Summary, Prepared for the Knight Commission’s Faculty Summit on Intercollegiate Athletics, Oct. 15, 2007
      2. Direct Impacts Of Intercollegiate Athletics
        1. The Physical Capital Stock Used in Collegiate Athletics
        2. The Empirical Effects of Collegiate Athletics: An Update to the Interim Report
      3. Indirect Impacts of Intercollegiate Athletics
        1. Challenging the Myth: A Review of the Links Among College Athletic Success, Student Quality, and Donations
        2. The Impact of College Sports Success on the Quantity and Quality of Student Applications
      4. Fundraising
        1. Scoreboards vs. Mortarboards: Major Donor Behavior and Intercollegiate Athletics
      5. Emphasis on Intercollegiate Athletics
        1. The Impact of Reclassification from Division II to I-AA and from Division I-AA to I-A on NCAA Member Institutions from 1993 to 2003
      6. Operational Issues
        1. Circumstantial Factors and Institutions’ Outsourcing Decisions on Marketing Operations
      7. Tax Issues
        1. Tax Preferences for Collegiate Sports, May 2009
        2. Sources of Revenue of Athletic Departments
    4. Chapter 16 Gender Equity
      1. Operational Issues
        1. The Growth of NCAA Women’s Rowing: A Financial, Ethical, and Legal Analysis
      2. Legal Framework
        1. Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test (January 16, 1996)
        2. Letter Clarifying Apportionment of Financial Aid in Intercollegiate Athletics Programs (July 23, 1998)
        3. Further Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance Regarding Title IX Compliance
      3. Impact on Coaches
        1. Gender Equity in College Athletics: Women Coaches as a Case Study
    5. Chapter 17 Amateurism and Reform
      1. The Ideal
        1. Legislation for the Glory of Sport: Amateurism and Compensation
      2. Reform
        1. Symposium: Sports Law as a Reflection of Society’s Laws and Values: Pay for Play for College Athletes: Now, More Than Ever
        2. Advice for the Next Jeremy Bloom: An Elite Athlete’s Guide to NCAA Amateurism Regulations
        3. The Game of Life
        4. A Call to Action: Reconnecting College Sports and Higher Education
        5. Quantitative and Qualitative Research with Football Bowl Subdivision University Presidents on the Costs and Financing of Intercollegiate Athletics: Report of Findings and Implications, October 2009
  11. Part IV: Sociological Considerations
    1. Chapter 18 Race
      1. Managers and Coaches
        1. Discrimination in Major League Baseball: Hiring Standards for Major League Managers, 1975–1994
        2. The Fritz Pollard Alliance, the Rooney Rule, and the Quest to “Level the Playing Field” in the National Football League
      2. Owners
        1. Diversity, Racism, and Professional Sports Franchise Ownership: Change Must Come from Within
      3. Salaries
        1. The Sports Business as a Labor Market Laboratory
      4. European Football
        1. The European Union and Fan Racism in European Soccer Stadiums: The Time Has Come for Action
    2. Chapter 19 Ethics
      1. The Ethical Issues Confronting Managers in the Sport Industry
      2. The Olympics and the Search for Global Values
      3. Doping in Sports: Legal and Ethical Issues: Corruption: Its Impact on Fair Play
  12. Index