You are previewing The Business of iPhone and iPad App Development: Making and Marketing Apps that Succeed, Second Edition.
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The Business of iPhone and iPad App Development: Making and Marketing Apps that Succeed, Second Edition

Book Description

The phenomenal success of the iPhone, iPad and the iPod touch has ushered in a "gold rush" for developers, but with well over 300,000 apps in the highly competitive App Store, it has become increasingly difficult for new apps to stand out in the crowd. Achieving consumer awareness and sales longevity for your iOS app requires a lot of organization and some strategic planning. Updated and expanded for iOS 4, this bestselling book will show you how to incorporate marketing and business savvy into every aspect of the design and development process, giving your app the best possible chance of succeeding in the App Store.

The Business of iPhone and iPad App Development was written by experienced developers with business backgrounds, taking you step-by-step through cost effective marketing techniques that have proven successful for professional iOS app creators—perfect for independent developers on shoestring budgets. No prior business knowledge is required. This is the book you wish you had read before you launched your first app!

What you'll learn

  • Analyze your ideas and competition, and identify your audience to evaluate sales potential.

  • Protect your business and intellectual property and avoid potential legal hassles.

  • Transform your iOS app into a powerful marketing tool.

  • Build synergy with in-app cross-promotion and social media, and Apple's Game Center.

  • Utilize revenue-generating business models such as in-app advertising and In-App Purchase. Includes extensive coverage of the iAd framework and the Store Kit API.

  • Improve usability and implement effective testing.

  • Create a pre-release buzz online with Twitter, Facebook, blogs, and a dedicated web site.

  • Successfully navigate the App Store submission process.

  • Execute a post-release marketing strategy with press releases, app reviews, promotional sales and giveaways.

Who this book is for

This book is for any developer looking to build a successful business selling iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad apps in Apple's iTunes App Store. All the code examples included in this book can be downloaded from http://iphonebusinessbook.com/

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Authors
  3. About the Technical Reviewer
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Preface
  6. 1. Seeing the Big Picture in a Crowded App Store Marketplace
    1. 1.1. Why a Business Book for iOS Developers?
      1. 1.1.1. Tackling the New World of Mobile Marketing
      2. 1.1.2. Rest Easy—This Is Not Your Typical Business Book
    2. 1.2. Planning Your Own Success Story
    3. 1.3. How to Use This Book
    4. 1.4. Getting Started with Your First iOS App
    5. 1.5. Already in the App Store? It's Never Too Late to Boost Sales
    6. 1.6. Developing iOS Apps for Clients
    7. 1.7. Ready to Dive In?
  7. 2. Doing Your Homework: Analyzing iOS App Ideas and Performing Competitive Research
    1. 2.1. Fulfilling a Need
      1. 2.1.1. Discovering Untapped Markets
      2. 2.1.2. Enhancing the Mobile Experience
      3. 2.1.3. Competing with Similar Apps
    2. 2.2. When to Avoid Oversaturated Categories
    3. 2.3. Assessing the Competition
      1. 2.3.1. Using Alternative App Directories for Competitive Research
      2. 2.3.2. Analyzing App Ranking Statistics
      3. 2.3.3. Finding Inspiration in Your Competitors' Customer Reviews
        1. 2.3.3.1. Learning from the Mistakes of Others
        2. 2.3.3.2. Going Beyond the App Store's Customer Reviews
      4. 2.3.4. Taking Your Competition for a Test-Drive
    4. 2.4. Defining Your Differentiator
    5. 2.5. Targeting Multiple iOS Devices
    6. 2.6. Universal Applications from a Business Perspective
    7. 2.7. What's in an App Name?
    8. 2.8. Registering Web Site Domain Names
    9. 2.9. Building a Unique Identity for Your iOS App
    10. 2.10. Making Progress
  8. 3. Protecting Your Intellectual Property
    1. 3.1. What Is Intellectual Property?
    2. 3.2. Determining Your Intellectual Property Strategy
      1. 3.2.1. iOS Apps Are Different
      2. 3.2.2. Developing an iOS App-Specific Game Plan
      3. 3.2.3. Copyrighting Your App
        1. 3.2.3.1. How to Obtain a Copyright
        2. 3.2.3.2. Limitations of Copyright Protection
      4. 3.2.4. Filing Trademarks for App Icons and Logos
        1. 3.2.4.1. How to Get a Trademark
        2. 3.2.4.2. Picking a Protectable Trademark
      5. 3.2.5. Trade Secrets
        1. 3.2.5.1. How Do You Establish a Trade Secret?
        2. 3.2.5.2. Nondisclosure Agreements
        3. 3.2.5.3. Limitations of Trade Secret Protection
      6. 3.2.6. Patents
        1. 3.2.6.1. Is Your Invention Patentable?
        2. 3.2.6.2. Avoiding the On Sale Bar
        3. 3.2.6.3. How to File for a Patent
        4. 3.2.6.4. Filing a Provisional Patent Application Yourself
    3. 3.3. Addressing Intellectual Property in Contractor and Employee Agreements
      1. 3.3.1. Hiring Contractors
      2. 3.3.2. Hiring Employees
    4. 3.4. Inbound Licensing of Intellectual Property
      1. 3.4.1. Document Your Inbound Licenses
      2. 3.4.2. Know What You Are Getting
      3. 3.4.3. Avoid Viral Licenses
      4. 3.4.4. Don't Use Apple's Trademarks
    5. 3.5. Creating a Custom End User License Agreement
      1. 3.5.1. The Purpose of a EULA
        1. 3.5.1.1. Warranty Disclaimers
        2. 3.5.1.2. Limitations of Liability
      2. 3.5.2. Apple's EULA
      3. 3.5.3. Reasons to Use Your Own EULA
    6. 3.6. How and When to Pursue Legal Action
      1. 3.6.1. First Steps Toward Dispute Resolution
      2. 3.6.2. Prelitigation
      3. 3.6.3. Litigation
    7. 3.7. Summary
  9. 4. Your iOS App Is Your Most Powerful Marketing Tool
    1. 4.1. Getting Your Foot in the Door: First Impressions Are Everything
      1. 4.1.1. The First Visual Cue
      2. 4.1.2. The Second Visual Cue
      3. 4.1.3. More Incentive for a Good First Impression
    2. 4.2. Playing by the Rules in Apple's Sandbox
    3. 4.3. Designing for Multiple iOS Devices
      1. 4.3.1. Preparing UI Art Assets
      2. 4.3.2. Orientation Considerations on the iPad
      3. 4.3.3. Double the Fun with Retina Display Screens
    4. 4.4. Creating an Effective App Icon and Logo
      1. 4.4.1. App Icon Rules and Tools
      2. 4.4.2. Designing a Custom App Icon
      3. 4.4.3. Don't Forget About a Logo
      4. 4.4.4. Maintaining a Consistent Brand Identity
    5. 4.5. Interface Design: Think Like a User, Not a Developer
      1. 4.5.1. The Immense Value of Prototyping
        1. 4.5.1.1. Drawing Your Ideas on Paper
        2. 4.5.1.2. Beautiful Mock-Ups in Illustrator and Photoshop
        3. 4.5.1.3. Other Software Tools for Designing Mock-Ups
        4. 4.5.1.4. Designing Apps with Mobile Apps
        5. 4.5.1.5. Paper Prototyping
        6. 4.5.1.6. Testing User Interactions to Your Prototype
      2. 4.5.2. Pushing the Envelope with a Custom Interface
      3. 4.5.3. The Comfortable Familiarity of UIKit
        1. 4.5.3.1. Icons and Images
        2. 4.5.3.2. Toolbar Colors
        3. 4.5.3.3. Background Colors and Images
      4. 4.5.4. Designing for Accessibility
    6. 4.6. Tips for the Artistically Challenged
      1. 4.6.1. Finding Graphics and Icons
      2. 4.6.2. Choosing Fonts
      3. 4.6.3. Adding Audio and Music
      4. 4.6.4. Using Professional Design Services
    7. 4.7. Creative Boost
  10. 5. Social Inception: Promoting Your Apps Within Apps
    1. 5.1. Encouraging User Reviews Within Your App
      1. 5.1.1. Seeking Feedback at Runtime
      2. 5.1.2. When to Ask for Ratings
    2. 5.2. Tell a Friend with In-App Email and Social Networking
      1. 5.2.1. Using Third-Party Web Services
      2. 5.2.2. Connecting Users with In-App Sharing
      3. 5.2.3. Adding E-mail Support
      4. 5.2.4. Integrating Twitter and Facebook
        1. 5.2.4.1. Accessing Twitter's API
        2. 5.2.4.2. Using the Facebook SDK for iOS
        3. 5.2.4.3. Using ShareKit
    3. 5.3. Strength in Numbers: Building Synergy with In-App Cross-Promotion
      1. 5.3.1. Setting Up Shop
      2. 5.3.2. United We Prosper
    4. 5.4. Get Your Users Talking with Third-Party Social Gaming Platforms
      1. 5.4.1. Enthusiasm Is Contagious
      2. 5.4.2. Choosing a Social Gaming Platform
    5. 5.5. Earning Your Stripes
  11. 6. Money for Nothing: When It Pays to Be Free
    1. 6.1. Generating Revenue from Free Apps
      1. 6.1.1. Free Strategies
      2. 6.1.2. Try Before You Buy
    2. 6.2. Choosing a Path: Lite vs. In-App Purchase
    3. 6.3. The Lite Approach: Tastes Great, Less Filling
      1. 6.3.1. Playing It Safe: Lite Version Restrictions
      2. 6.3.2. Can a Free Lite Version Really Boost Paid App Sales?
      3. 6.3.3. They Won't Buy the Cow If the Milk Is Free
        1. 6.3.3.1. Lite Versions of Productivity and Utility Apps
        2. 6.3.3.2. Lite Versions of Games
      4. 6.3.4. When to Release the Lite Version
      5. 6.3.5. Perfecting Your In-App Sales Pitch
        1. 6.3.5.1. Placing the Buy Button
        2. 6.3.5.2. Adding Upgrade Info to the Lite Version
        3. 6.3.5.3. Including Analytics
      6. 6.3.6. Bulletproofing Your Lite Version
      7. 6.3.7. Migrating Data from the Lite Version to the Paid Version
        1. 6.3.7.1. Syncing with the Cloud
        2. 6.3.7.2. Transferring Data via URL
    4. 6.4. Securing Market Share: Give It Away Now and Up-Sell Later
    5. 6.5. Mining Additional Revenue with Affiliate Programs
      1. 6.5.1. How Affiliate Programs Work
      2. 6.5.2. Joining the iTunes Affiliate Program
    6. 6.6. Shifting Gears
  12. 7. Monetizing Free Apps with iAd and Other In-App Advertising Opportunities
    1. 7.1. When to Use In-App Advertising
      1. 7.1.1. Knowing Your Audience
      2. 7.1.2. In-App Advertising As a Sales Tool
    2. 7.2. Selecting a Mobile Ad Network
      1. 7.2.1. Investigating the Choices
      2. 7.2.2. Which Ad Network Is Right for You?
        1. 7.2.2.1. Supported Ad Sizes and Formats
        2. 7.2.2.2. Reporting and Analytics
        3. 7.2.2.3. Global Availability and Targeting
        4. 7.2.2.4. Earnings and Fill Rates
    3. 7.3. Building a Business with Ad-Supported Apps
      1. 7.3.1. Balancing UI Design Aesthetics with Ads
        1. 7.3.1.1. Designing Free Apps with Removable Ads
        2. 7.3.1.2. Designing Two Versions: With and Without Ads
      2. 7.3.2. Finding the Best Mix of Ad Networks
      3. 7.3.3. Harnessing the Power of House Ads
    4. 7.4. Implementing Apple's iAd in Your iOS Apps
      1. 7.4.1. Joining the iAd Network
      2. 7.4.2. Designing Your App for Displaying iAd Banners
      3. 7.4.3. Programming Your App to Support Ads
        1. 7.4.3.1. Creating a New Xcode Project
        2. 7.4.3.2. Adding the iAd Framework to the Project
        3. 7.4.3.3. Adding Apple's Reachability Class to the Project
        4. 7.4.3.4. Building the App's Foundation
        5. 7.4.3.5. Checking the iOS Device's Network Connection
        6. 7.4.3.6. Building the App's Interface and UIView Hierarchy
        7. 7.4.3.7. Copying Your House Ad Image Files to the Project
        8. 7.4.3.8. Crafting the In-App Advertising Code
      4. 7.4.4. Enabling Live Ads in Your App
    5. 7.5. Knowledge Is Power: Tracking App Usage Through Analytics
    6. 7.6. Contemplating Sponsorships and Product Placement Deals
    7. 7.7. The Tipping Point
  13. 8. Exploring the Freemium Model with In-App Purchase
    1. 8.1. Loyalty Pays: Existing Users Make the Best Customers
      1. 8.1.1. Supporting the Long Tail: Monetizing Continued Development
      2. 8.1.2. The Challenge of Changing User Perception
    2. 8.2. When and How to Use In-App Purchase
      1. 8.2.1. Understanding the Fundamentals
        1. 8.2.1.1. In-App Purchase Types
        2. 8.2.1.2. In-App Purchase Guidelines
      2. 8.2.2. The Power of Simplicity
        1. 8.2.2.1. Selling More Content
        2. 8.2.2.2. Offering Services and Subscriptions
      3. 8.2.3. Presentation Is the Key to Success
      4. 8.2.4. Finding the Sweet Spot
        1. 8.2.4.1. Including the Right Mix of Ingredients
        2. 8.2.4.2. Allowing Users to Spend As Much Money As They Want
    3. 8.3. Delivering and Managing In-App Purchases
      1. 8.3.1. Unlocking Built-in Content
      2. 8.3.2. Downloading Content from Your Server
      3. 8.3.3. Finding Help in the Cloud
    4. 8.4. Configuring In-App Purchase in iTunes Connect
      1. 8.4.1. Setting Up an iTunes Test User Account
      2. 8.4.2. Creating In-App Purchase Items
      3. 8.4.3. Managing Your In-App Purchase Items
    5. 8.5. Preparing Your Test Device
    6. 8.6. Tapping into the Store Kit Framework
      1. 8.6.1. Configuring the Project for In-App Purchase
      2. 8.6.2. Setting Up the Basics
    7. 8.7. Getting In-App Purchase Up and Running
      1. 8.7.1. Step 1: Does the Consumer Allow In-App Purchase?
      2. 8.7.2. Step 2: Fetch Available In-App Purchase Items
      3. 8.7.3. Step 3: Request a Purchase
      4. 8.7.4. Step 4: Receive Payment Status
      5. 8.7.5. Step 5: Provide Access to the Purchased Content
    8. 8.8. Restoring Paid Content
    9. 8.9. Digging for Gold
  14. 9. Testing and Usability: Putting Your Best Foot Forward
    1. 9.1. Preventing the Majority of One-Star Reviews
      1. 9.1.1. Avoiding Common Pitfalls
      2. 9.1.2. Soliciting Direct Feedback
    2. 9.2. Preventing User Frustration with In-App Help
      1. 9.2.1. Planting Knowledge Seeds with On-Screen Tips
      2. 9.2.2. Instructional Videos: The Double-Edged Sword
      3. 9.2.3. Show, Don't Tell, with Visual Demos
      4. 9.2.4. Providing Mobile Manuals with Text-based Help
        1. 9.2.4.1. A Little HTML Goes a Long Way
        2. 9.2.4.2. Building In-App Help with Mobile Web Frameworks
    3. 9.3. Provisioning: Setting Up a Development Device
      1. 9.3.1. Step 1: Establish Your Test Device in Xcode Organizer
      2. 9.3.2. Step 2: Acquire Your Development Certificate
      3. 9.3.3. Step 3: Register Your Device ID
      4. 9.3.4. Step 4: Create an App ID
      5. 9.3.5. Step 5: Generate and Install Your Provisioning Profile
      6. 9.3.6. Step 6: Run Your Xcode Project on Your Test Device
    4. 9.4. Beta Testing: Navigating the Complexities of Ad Hoc Distribution
      1. 9.4.1. Step 1: Acquire Your Distribution Certificate
      2. 9.4.2. Step 2: Register the Device IDs of Your Beta Testers
        1. 9.4.2.1. Rallying the Troops
        2. 9.4.2.2. Collecting a UDID from Every Beta Tester
      3. 9.4.3. Step 3: Generate and Install an Ad Hoc Distribution Provisioning Profile
      4. 9.4.4. Step 4: Configure Your App for Ad Hoc Distribution
      5. 9.4.5. Step 5: Create the Entitlements File
      6. 9.4.6. Step 6: Compile Your iOS App
      7. 9.4.7. Step 7: Distribute Your App to the Beta Testers
    5. 9.5. Wireless Distribution to Beta Testers
    6. 9.6. Sitting Pretty
  15. 10. Get the Party Started! Creating a Prerelease Buzz
    1. 10.1. The Final Countdown: Preparing for Liftoff
      1. 10.1.1. Invest the Time to Find Your Audience
      2. 10.1.2. Craft Your Elevator Pitch
      3. 10.1.3. Gather Additional Prerelease Marketing Materials
        1. 10.1.3.1. Company Logo
        2. 10.1.3.2. App Icon and Logo
        3. 10.1.3.3. Screenshots
        4. 10.1.3.4. Video Trailer
        5. 10.1.3.5. Dedicated Web Presence
    2. 10.2. Your iOS App Deserves a Well-Designed Web Site
      1. 10.2.1. Web Hosting
      2. 10.2.2. Format Wars: Blogs vs. Custom Sites
      3. 10.2.3. Domain Name Benefits
      4. 10.2.4. SEO Tactics
        1. 10.2.4.1. <title> Tag
        2. 10.2.4.2. description and keywords Meta Tags
        3. 10.2.4.3. Keyword-Rich Text
        4. 10.2.4.4. Keyword-Friendly URLs
        5. 10.2.4.5. Maintaining Valid Links
        6. 10.2.4.6. XML Sitemap
      5. 10.2.5. Tracking Web Site Traffic
      6. 10.2.6. Anatomy of an iOS App Web Site
        1. 10.2.6.1. App Brand Identity
        2. 10.2.6.2. The Quick Pitch: What Is It and Why Should I Care?
        3. 10.2.6.3. App Store Identity Badge
        4. 10.2.6.4. Buy Button
        5. 10.2.6.5. Pricing
        6. 10.2.6.6. Screenshots and Video
        7. 10.2.6.7. Additional Details
        8. 10.2.6.8. Social Media
        9. 10.2.6.9. Your Blog and RSS Feed
        10. 10.2.6.10. E-mail News Mailing List
        11. 10.2.6.11. Customer Support and Contact Information
        12. 10.2.6.12. Company Identity
        13. 10.2.6.13. Cross-Promotion of Your Other Products
        14. 10.2.6.14. Downloadable Extras
      7. 10.2.7. Before Selling, Start Collecting
    3. 10.3. Why Site Compatibility with Mobile Safari Is So Important
      1. 10.3.1. "I'm Ready for My Close-up, Mr. Viewport"
      2. 10.3.2. Using Browser Detection to Deliver Targeted Content
        1. 10.3.2.1. JavaScript for Browser Detection
        2. 10.3.2.2. PHP for Browser Detection
      3. 10.3.3. Dynamically Replacing Flash with iOS-Compatible Content
        1. 10.3.3.1. JavaScript for Flash Replacement
        2. 10.3.3.2. PHP for Flash Replacement
      4. 10.3.4. Home Screen Bookmarking Made Beautiful
    4. 10.4. Let's Make Some Noise: The Power of Blogs, Twitter, and Social Networks
      1. 10.4.1. Cultivating an Online Community
      2. 10.4.2. Blogging
        1. 10.4.2.1. Syndicating Your Blog Content
        2. 10.4.2.2. Inviting Comments
        3. 10.4.2.3. Host Your Own Blog or Use a Third-Party Blog Service?
      3. 10.4.3. Twitter
        1. 10.4.3.1. Managing Twitter Accounts
        2. 10.4.3.2. Gaining Followers
        3. 10.4.3.3. Customizing Your Profile
        4. 10.4.3.4. Keywords and Hashtags
        5. 10.4.3.5. Twitter Lists
        6. 10.4.3.6. Managing the Pipeline
      4. 10.4.4. Facebook
        1. 10.4.4.1. Creating a Facebook Page
        2. 10.4.4.2. Connecting with Fans
        3. 10.4.4.3. Importing Your Blog, Outputting to Twitter
      5. 10.4.5. Other Social Networks and Bookmarking Sites
      6. 10.4.6. Commenting on Forums, Groups, and Blogs
    5. 10.5. But Not Too Much Noise: Maintaining a Professional Reputation
    6. 10.6. Everyone Loves a Winner: Collecting Prerelease Press and Testimonials
      1. 10.6.1. Preparing a Hit List
      2. 10.6.2. Establishing Relationships
      3. 10.6.3. Offering Exclusives and Advance Ad Hoc Builds to Secure Coverage
    7. 10.7. Passing the Baton
  16. 11. Keys to the Kingdom: The App Store Submission Process
    1. 11.1. The Politics of Pricing
      1. 11.1.1. Analyzing Similar Apps
      2. 11.1.2. Room to Maneuver
      3. 11.1.3. Sustaining a Long-Term Business
      4. 11.1.4. Perceived Value and Consumer Resistance
    2. 11.2. Improving App Discovery: The Art of Keywords and Names
      1. 11.2.1. Assigning Keywords
      2. 11.2.2. The Name Game
    3. 11.3. Perfecting the Sales Pitch of Your App Description
      1. 11.3.1. What Is It?
      2. 11.3.2. Awards and Testimonials
      3. 11.3.3. App Features and Benefits
      4. 11.3.4. Putting It All Together
    4. 11.4. A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words: The Importance of Screenshots
      1. 11.4.1. Choosing the Primary Screenshot
      2. 11.4.2. When a Screenshot Is More Than a Screenshot
    5. 11.5. Preparing Your Application Binary for the App Store
      1. 11.5.1. Step 1: Verify Your Distribution Certificate Is Still Installed
      2. 11.5.2. Step 2: Generate and Install an App Store Distribution Provisioning Profile
      3. 11.5.3. Step 3: Configure Your Xcode Project for App Store Distribution
      4. 11.5.4. Step 4: Compile Your iOS App
    6. 11.6. Ensuring Apple Has Processed Your Contracts and Payment Settings
    7. 11.7. Are We There Yet? Submitting Your App in iTunes Connect
      1. 11.7.1. Step 1: Create a New App Entry
        1. 11.7.1.1. Company Name and Primary Language
        2. 11.7.1.2. App Information
      2. 11.7.2. Step 2: Set the Availability Date and Pricing
        1. 11.7.2.1. Availability Date
        2. 11.7.2.2. Price Tier
        3. 11.7.2.3. Educational Discounts and Regional Availability
      3. 11.7.3. Step 3: Submit Your App's Metadata
        1. 11.7.3.1. Version Number
        2. 11.7.3.2. Description
        3. 11.7.3.3. Primary Category and Secondary Category
        4. 11.7.3.4. Keywords
        5. 11.7.3.5. Copyright
        6. 11.7.3.6. Contact Email Address
        7. 11.7.3.7. Support URL
        8. 11.7.3.8. App URL
        9. 11.7.3.9. Review Notes
      4. 11.7.4. Step 4: Assign a Rating to Your App
      5. 11.7.5. Step 5: Upload Your App Icon and Screenshots
        1. 11.7.5.1. App Store Icon
        2. 11.7.5.2. App Screenshots
        3. 11.7.5.3. Your New App Listing in iTunes Connect
      6. 11.7.6. Step 6: Support Multiple Languages
      7. 11.7.7. Step 7: Upload Your App Binary for App Store Review
        1. 11.7.7.1. Export Compliance
        2. 11.7.7.2. Waiting for Upload App Status
        3. 11.7.7.3. Submitting Your App Binary in Xcode Organizer
        4. 11.7.7.4. Developer Rejected Status
        5. 11.7.7.5. In Review Status
        6. 11.7.7.6. Ready for Sale Status
        7. 11.7.7.7. Getting App Status Notifications
    8. 11.8. Try, Try Again: Dealing with App Store Rejections
    9. 11.9. Approved! Making It to the Promised Land
    10. 11.10. Analyzing Your App Store Sales Statistics
    11. 11.11. Rev Your Engines
  17. 12. Increasing Awareness for Your iOS App
    1. 12.1. Dedicating As Much Effort to Marketing Your App As You Put into Developing It
      1. 12.1.1. Launching with a Supernova of Publicity
      2. 12.1.2. Enlisting Help from the Pros
    2. 12.2. The Art of Crafting Effective Press Releases
      1. 12.2.1. The Essential Ingredients of a Press Release
        1. 12.2.1.1. Release Instructions (A)
        2. 12.2.1.2. Subject Line (B)
        3. 12.2.1.3. Summary Line (C)
        4. 12.2.1.4. Introduction (D)
        5. 12.2.1.5. Description (E)
        6. 12.2.1.6. Pricing and Availability (F)
        7. 12.2.1.7. Web Site URL and Additional Information (G)
        8. 12.2.1.8. About Your Company (H)
        9. 12.2.1.9. End of the Press Release (I)
        10. 12.2.1.10. Media Contact Information (J)
      2. 12.2.2. Translating Your Press Release
      3. 12.2.3. The Virtual 24/7 Press Room
      4. 12.2.4. Connecting with the Press
        1. 12.2.4.1. Formatting Your E-mail Announcement
        2. 12.2.4.2. Who to Notify?
        3. 12.2.4.3. Reaching the Masses
        4. 12.2.4.4. Reinforcing Relationships with a Thank-You
    3. 12.3. Issuing Promo Codes: Soliciting App Reviews on Influential Blogs and Review Sites
      1. 12.3.1. Providing Review Materials
      2. 12.3.2. Obtaining Promo Codes
      3. 12.3.3. Publicity Requires Planning and Patience
    4. 12.4. Using Promotions and Giveaways to Improve App Discovery
    5. 12.5. Timing a Good Sale to Rejuvenate App Downloads
    6. 12.6. Can Advertising Sell Apps?
      1. 12.6.1. Advertising to a Mobile Audience
      2. 12.6.2. Taking Advantage of iAd for Developers
      3. 12.6.3. Pay-Per-Install Incentives to Cross-Sell Apps
    7. 12.7. Staying Connected with Customers
      1. 12.7.1. Delivering Frequent App Updates
      2. 12.7.2. Providing High-Quality Support
    8. 12.8. Additional Tips for Sustaining Momentum in the App Store
      1. 12.8.1. Banking on the Prestige of Awards and Endorsements
      2. 12.8.2. Share Your Knowledge
      3. 12.8.3. Participating in Interviews and Podcasts
    9. 12.9. Looking Toward the Horizon
  18. A. Online Resources for App Research and Marketing
    1. A.1. iOS App Directories, News, and Review Sites
    2. A.2. Additional App Marketing Resources