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The Business Case for Enterprise-Class Wireless LANs

Book Description

A comprehensive guide to analyzing the business rationale for WLANs

  • Evaluate the business rationale behind the deployment of WLANs, including return on investment (ROI), net present value, payback period, and total cost of ownership

  • Develop a robust execution plan to deploy and operate the WLAN

  • Understand the high-level technical issues of deploying and managing your WLAN from a business decision-maker’s perspective

  • Maximize the positive impact of supplementary and complementary services such as voice, video, and guest WLAN access

  • Identify potential security threats and develop strategies to mitigate attacks

  • Learn methodological and technical best practices from WLAN deployment case studies featuring real-world, enterprise-class businesses and institutions

  • Gather information easily by referring to quick reference sheets and appendixes covering an antenna overview, a high-level sample project plan, checklists, and flowcharts   

  • Businesses today are increasingly adopting wireless LANs (WLANs) as a primary data transport mechanism. To determine when and how to effectively deploy WLANs, business managers, project managers, and IT executives need a clear, holistic evaluation of the business benefits and risks behind this complex technology solution.

    The Business Case for Enterprise-Class Wireless LANs helps you make the right decisions by explaining the business value and cost of investing in a WLAN—from security and architecture to deployment and application. Using a lifecycle perspective, this guide covers the value proposition, cost justification, and alignment of security, design, and operational components within the business.

    Written in an approachable style, The Business Case for Enterprise-Class Wireless LANs provides a baseline analysis of WLAN technologies for a large-scale deployment and includes concise real-world case studies with checklists and flowcharts that you can adapt for your needs. By recognizing the obstacles and advantages of implementing a WLAN from a strategic and justified business perspective, you can apply the economic benefits to your organization and ensure a timely and efficient deployment of your organization’s WLAN.

    This volume is in the Network Business Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide IT executives, decision makers, and networking professionals with pertinent information about today’s most important technologies and business strategies.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
    3. About the Technical Reviewers
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. Icons Used in This Book
    6. Command Syntax Conventions
    7. Introduction
      1. Objectives
      2. Audience
      3. Organization and Approach
      4. Companion Website
    8. 1. Introduction to Wireless LAN Technologies
      1. Value of Mobility
      2. OSI Layers and WLANs
        1. Layer 1: Physical Layer
          1. Transport Medium
          2. Topology
          3. Data Encoding
        2. Layer 2: Data Link Layer
        3. Layer 3: Network Layer
        4. Layer 4: Transport Layer
        5. Layer 5: Session Layer
        6. Layer 6: Presentation Layer
        7. Layer 7: Application Layer
      3. A Brief History of WLANs
      4. How Wireless Networks Function
        1. WLAN Modes
          1. Ad-Hoc Mode
          2. Infrastructure Mode
        2. WLAN Technologies
          1. Multiple Access Technology
          2. Multiplex Technology
            1. DSSS
            2. OFDM
          3. Duplex Technology
          4. Access Technology
        3. WLAN Radio Communications
          1. Characteristics That Influence WLAN Bandwidth
            1. Modulation
            2. Path Loss, Power, and Antennas
            3. Attenuation, Distortion, and Interference
            4. Multipath
            5. Combating External Effects
          2. Regulatory Requirements
        4. Different WLAN Standards
          1. 802.11b
          2. 802.11g
          3. 802.11a
          4. Coexistence
          5. Additional 802.11 Standards
      5. Summary
      6. Endnotes
    9. 2. Business Considerations
      1. Aligning Technology Solutions with Business Considerations
      2. Economic Considerations
        1. Step 1: Understand Your Organizational Ecosystem
        2. Step 2: Define the Problem That You Are Trying to Solve
        3. Step 3: Break the Problem Down
        4. Step 4: Define WLAN-Enabled Solution
      3. The Role of Infrastructure
        1. Pros and Cons of the Wired Versus Wireless World
          1. Mobility: Pro
          2. Convenience: Pro
          3. Bandwidth: Con
        2. Effect on Cost and Spending
          1. Wired-Only LAN
          2. Wireless-Only LAN
          3. Hybrid Wired and Wireless LAN
        3. Security
          1. Challenge 1: Network Admission Control
          2. Challenge 2: Authentication
          3. Challenge 3: Encryption
          4. Challenge 4: Hashing
      4. Measuring the Business Value of Deploying Wireless
        1. Total Cost of Ownership
        2. Value of Ownership
          1. Question 1: Where in the Organizational Ecosystem Can WLANs Have a Positive Impact?
            1. Primary Activities
            2. Secondary Activities
          2. Question 2: How Will a WLAN Positively Influence the Identified Areas?
            1. Quantitative Factors
            2. Qualitative Factors
            3. Risks
        3. Cost-Justification Analysis
          1. Return on Investment
          2. Payback Period
          3. Net Present Value
          4. Internal Rate of Return
      5. Summary
    10. 3. Preparation and Planning
      1. Solutions Lifecycle
      2. Preparation
        1. Breadth and Scope of Deployment
          1. Deployment Scope
          2. Infrastructure Readiness
            1. Connectivity
            2. Power
            3. Console Access
          3. Environmental Considerations
          4. Regulatory Restrictions or Requirements
        2. Deployment Funding Strategies
          1. Centrally Funded Deployment
          2. Group-Funded Deployment
          3. Client-Funded Deployment
          4. Subscription-Funded Deployment
      3. Planning
        1. Project Stakeholders
          1. Project Sponsor
          2. Project Board
          3. Program Team
          4. Program Manager
          5. Project Tracks
        2. Users
          1. User Classes
            1. Standard User Class
            2. Mobile User Class
            3. Roaming User Class
            4. Hot-Desk User Class
            5. Guest User Class
          2. Primary Users
          3. Secondary Users
          4. Other Users
        3. Impact on Application Portfolio
          1. The Main Application Base You Want to Use on the WLAN
          2. Application Characteristics
          3. The Portability of the Application Portfolio and Usage Pattern to a WLAN Environment
        4. Scalable Architecture
          1. Architecture’s Ability to Grow Easily to Support Additional Users and Groups
          2. Single Points of Failure
          3. Common Architecture That Replicates Easily Across All Sites
        5. Security Strategy
          1. Treating the Wireless Network as Trusted or Untrusted
          2. Considering Wireless Security Policies
          3. Dealing with Rogue Access Points
        6. Define High-Level Program Plan
          1. Estimate Resource Requirements
          2. Estimate Budgetary Requirements
          3. Produce Project/Program Plans
          4. Follow Your Internal Project Lifecycle
      4. Summary
    11. 4. Supplementary and Complementary Services
      1. Voice
        1. WLAN Voice Devices
        2. WLAN Voice Implementation Challenges
          1. Bandwidth and Latency
          2. Quality of Service
          3. Roaming Clients
          4. Physical Device Attributes
      2. Video
        1. Types of Video Traffic
          1. Distribution Mechanism
          2. Timing of the Distribution
          3. Quality of the Video Stream
        2. WLAN Video Implementation Challenges
          1. Quality of Service
          2. Broadcast Transmission Medium
          3. Managing User Expectations
      3. Guest Networking
        1. Business Rationale for Enabling Guest Networking
          1. Business Agility
          2. Security
          3. Legal Liability Protection
        2. Components of Guest Networking
        3. Guest Networking Implementation Considerations
          1. Guest Portal
          2. Legal Disclaimers and Acceptable Use Policies
          3. Ease of Use
          4. Support
          5. Logging and Auditing
      4. WLAN Location Services
        1. Business Rationale for WLAN Location Services
          1. Healthcare
          2. Manufacturing
          3. Entertainment and Leisure
          4. Logistics
          5. Transport and Shipping
        2. Components of WLAN Location Services
        3. WLAN Location Services Implementation Considerations
      5. Summary
      6. Additional Resources
    12. 5. Guidelines for A Successful Architecture and Design
      1. Architectural Considerations
        1. WLAN Expectations
        2. Key Components for an Effective WLAN Architecture
          1. Determining the Goal of the WLAN
          2. Defining the Scope of Your WLAN
          3. Developing Your Timeframe to Deploy
          4. Considering IT Security Requirements
          5. Identifying the Types of Users and Devices You Want to Support
          6. Establishing an Operational Support Structure and Process
      2. Design Considerations
        1. Client-to-AP Ratio
        2. Roaming
          1. Authentication
          2. Performance
          3. ESS Boundaries
      3. Environmental Considerations
        1. Physical Attributes of the Surroundings
        2. RF Environment
        3. Local Governmental Regulations
      4. Summary
    13. 6. Wireless LAN Deployment Considerations
      1. In-House Deployment Versus Outsourced Deployment
        1. Internal Staff
        2. Outsourced Resources
      2. Architectural Milestones
        1. Solutions Architecture
        2. Security Posture
      3. Deployment Dependencies
        1. Change Management Process
        2. Put the Supporting Infrastructure in Place
        3. Provision AAA Capabilities
        4. Define Security Standards and Policies
          1. Security Standards
          2. Security Policies
          3. Security Procedures
        5. Put the Support Plan in Place
        6. Put the Communication Plan in Place
        7. Address Regulatory Issues
      4. Management
        1. Managing the Infrastructure
        2. Managing the Clients
      5. Support
      6. Deploying the WLAN
        1. Pre-Deployment Tasks
        2. Managing the Deployment
          1. Site Data Collection and Validation
          2. Local Infrastructure Upgrade or Modification
          3. Firmware and Configuration Updates
          4. Client Distribution
          5. Shipping and Handling
          6. Site Survey
          7. Cabling
          8. Access Point Installation
      7. WLAN Controller Configuration
      8. WLAN Controller Installation
        1. Access Point Configuration
        2. Testing
        3. Client Installation
        4. Production Launch
      9. Deployment Checklist
        1. Architecture
        2. Deployment Methodology and Project Planning
        3. Clients
        4. Infrastructure
        5. Deployment
      10. Summary
    14. 7. Security and Wireless LANs
      1. Wireless Security in Your Enterprise
        1. Thinking Securely
        2. Different Security Models
          1. No Authentication, Encryption, or Hashing
          2. Native Encryption Only
          3. Native Authentication Only
          4. User-Based Authentication
          5. Machine-Based Authentication
          6. Native Encryption and Authentication But No Hashing
          7. Authentication and Encryption Using Overlay Security Solutions
          8. No WLAN
      2. WLAN Security Threats
        1. Interception
        2. Rogue APs
        3. Denial of Service Attack
      3. Wireless Security Mitigation Techniques
        1. Encryption
          1. WEP
          2. Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol (CCMP)
          3. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
        2. Hashing
          1. TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol)
          2. Message Integrity Check
        3. Authentication
          1. 802.1x
          2. Wi-Fi Protected Access
          3. 802.11i
        4. EAP Types
      4. Building a Secure WLAN
        1. Trusted Versus Untrusted Wireless Networks
          1. Trusted WLANs
          2. Untrusted WLANs
        2. Define a Clear Security Posture
          1. Define Your Authentication Mechanism
          2. Select Your Encryption/Data Integrity Type
          3. Establish a Password Policy
        3. Define a Clear WLAN Security Policy
        4. Secure Your APs
          1. SSID
          2. Implement a Secure Management Policy for APs
          3. Prevent Layer 2 MAC Address Spoofing
          4. Reduce Transmit Power to Only That Required for Coverage
          5. Consider Directional Antennas
          6. Physically Secure APs
          7. Use AAA
          8. AAA and EAP
          9. AAA Scalability and Availability
        5. Physically Secure the Office Space
        6. Communicate with Your Users
        7. Secure Wireless at Home
          1. Ban Home Wireless on Corporate Remote-Access Equipment
          2. Provide Corporate Support for Home Access Points
          3. Provide Home Wireless Recommended Practices
        8. Determine How to Support and Secure Mobile Devices
        9. Determine How to Support and Secure Clients
          1. Manage Clients and Client Attributes
          2. Anti-Virus
          3. Soft AP
          4. Disable Ad-Hoc Mode Networking
        10. Detect Rogue APs
          1. Client-Based Reporting
          2. Radio-Based Detection
          3. Network-Based Detection
        11. Respond to Detected Rogue APs
          1. Remove
          2. Reclassify
          3. Remediate
        12. Consider Using Intrusion Detection Systems
      5. Summary
    15. 8. Management Strategies for Wireless LANs
      1. Solutions Lifecycle
      2. Management Strategies
        1. In-House WLAN Management
        2. Outsource WLAN Management
      3. FCAPS
        1. Fault Management
        2. Configuration Management
        3. Accounting Management
        4. Performance Management
        5. Security Management
        6. Where FCAPS Fails
      4. Comparing Centralized and Distributed Management
      5. WLAN Management
        1. RF Management
        2. Host Management
        3. Client Management
      6. Challenges Unique to WLAN Management
        1. Dynamic Nature of the Transport Medium
        2. Mobility of Endpoints
        3. Intermittent Connectivity of Mobile Endpoints
        4. Diverse Nature of Wireless Endpoints
      7. Security Settings Management
        1. Third-Party Wireless Software
        2. Centralized Self-Service Model
        3. Standardization
        4. Manual Process
      8. WLAN Reporting and Alerting
        1. Standard/Systematic Reports
        2. Trending
        3. Alerts
      9. Management Tools
        1. Vendor-Specific WLAN Management Tools
        2. Third-Party WLAN Management Tools
        3. Common Network Management Platforms
        4. Common Network Management Protocols
          1. SNMP
          2. Syslog
          3. NetFlow
          4. RADIUS Accounting
          5. IP Traffic and Analysis Features in Network Equipment
        5. Internally Developed Tools
      10. Summary
    16. 9. Enterprise Case Study
      1. Business Model
        1. Defining the Business Case
        2. The Strategic Value
      2. Technology Considerations
        1. Architecture Principles
          1. Topology
          2. 802.11 Wireless Networking Standards
          3. Client-to-AP Ratio
          4. Signal Strength
          5. Roaming
          6. Radio Cell Architecture
          7. Global Naming Standards
          8. Cisco Aironet Access Points
          9. Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS)
        2. Network Management
        3. Client Management
        4. Service and Support
          1. Cisco Support Team
          2. Cost of Support
      3. Enhanced Services
        1. Wireless Voice Services
        2. Wireless Guest Networking
      4. Security
      5. Deployment and Implementation
        1. Site Survey
        2. Cabling
        3. Access Point Configuration
        4. Testing
        5. Distribution of Wireless Network Cards and Instructions
      6. Ongoing Project Management and Process
      7. Business Benefits of the Solution
      8. What the Future Holds
        1. Modular Architecture: Centralized and Autonomous APs
        2. Enhanced Security
        3. Location-Based Services
        4. Outdoor Wireless
      9. Summary
      10. Endnotes
    17. 10. Healthcare Case Study
      1. Business Model
        1. Defining the Business Case
        2. The Strategic Value
      2. Technology Considerations
        1. Architectural Principles
        2. WLAN Design
          1. Guest Networking
          2. RF and Interference
          3. Disaster Recovery
        3. Network Management
        4. Security
      3. Project Management and Process
        1. Deployment and Implementation
        2. Site Survey
      4. What the Future Holds
        1. Tracking and Telemetry
        2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
      5. Summary
    18. 11. Manufacturing Case Study
      1. Business Model
      2. Technology Considerations
        1. Security
        2. Coverage
        3. Throughput
      3. Deployment
      4. What the Future Holds
        1. Guest Access
        2. Voice over IP
        3. Rogue Access Point Detection
      5. Summary
    19. 12. Education Case Study
      1. Business Model
      2. Architectural Principles
        1. Topology
        2. 802.11 Wireless Networking Standards
        3. Access Point Settings
        4. Signal Strength, Antennas, and Outdoor Coverage
        5. Radio Cell Architecture
        6. Global Naming Standards
        7. Wireless Equipment
      3. Network Management
      4. Service and Support
        1. Tier 1: Information Services
        2. Tier 2: Element IT and Learning and Environment Department
        3. Tier 3: Network and Communication Services
      5. Client Management
      6. Security and Rogue AP Detection
      7. Deployment and Implementation
        1. Deployment Phases
        2. Site Survey
        3. Cabling
        4. Access Point Configuration
        5. Testing
      8. Ongoing Project Management and Process
      9. Challenges
      10. Lessons Learned and Recommendations
        1. Sort Out Support Up Front
        2. Build a Solid and Well-Tested Architecture
        3. Understand Your Users
        4. Establish a Web Portal
        5. Integrate the Solution into Existing Business Processes
      11. Measuring the Benefits
      12. What the Future Holds
      13. Summary
    20. A. Wireless LAN Standards Reference
    21. B. Wireless LAN Security References
      1. Cisco Resources
        1. Cisco SAFE
        2. General Wireless Security Information
        3. Cisco-Specific EAP Protocols
      2. WEP
      3. WPA
      4. WPA2
      5. 802.1x
      6. EAP Types
      7. Vulnerabilities
    22. C. Example Project Plan for an Enterprise-Class WLAN Deployment
      1. Company Background
      2. The Project Plan
        1. Business Issues
        2. Discovery
        3. Architecture
        4. Design
        5. Testing
        6. Logistics
        7. Pilot
        8. Communications
        9. Support
        10. Deployment
        11. Post Project Activities
      3. Summary
    23. Glossary