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The Art of Photography

Book Description

This is an updated and newly revised edition of the classic book The Art of Photography (originally published in 1994), which has often been described as the most readable, understandable, and complete textbook on photography. With well over 100 beautiful photographic illustrations in both black-and-white and color, as well as numerous charts, graphs, and tables, this book presents the world of photography to beginner, intermediate, and advanced photographers seeking to make a personal statement through the medium of photography. Without talking down to anyone, or talking over anyone's head, Barnbaum presents "how to" techniques for both traditional and digital approaches. Yet he goes well beyond the technical, as he delves deeply into the philosophical, expressive, and creative aspects of photography so often avoided in other books.

Bruce Barnbaum is recognized as one of the world's finest landscape and architectural photographers, and for decades has been considered one of the best instructors in the field of photography. This latest incarnation of his textbook, which has evolved, grown, and been refined over the past 35 years, will prove to be an ongoing, invaluable photographic reference for years to come. It is truly the resource of choice for the thinking photographer.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. CHAPTER 1 Communication Through Photography
    1. Enthusiasm
    2. Judging Your Own Personal Response
  8. CHAPTER 2 What is Composition?
    1. How the Human Eye Sees
    2. Unified Thought
    3. Simplicity
    4. Expressing Your Own Point of View
    5. Simplicity vs. Complexity
  9. CHAPTER 3 Elements of Composition
    1. Contrast and Tone
    2. Line
    3. Form
    4. Line, Form, Contrast, and Emotion
    5. Pattern
    6. Balance
    7. Movement
    8. Positive/Negative Space
    9. Texture
    10. Camera Position
    11. Focal Length of Lens and Cropping
    12. Depth of Field
    13. Shutter Speed
    14. Relationships
    15. Involvement with the Scene
    16. Rules, Formulas, and Other Problems and Pitfalls
  10. CHAPTER 4 Visualization
    1. Step 1: Photographic Looking and Seeing
    2. Step 2: Composing an Image
    3. Step 3: Envisioning the Final Print
    4. Step 4: Planning a Strategy for a Final Print
    5. How Your Eye Differs from Your Camera
    6. Alternative Approaches
  11. CHAPTER 5 Light
    1. Looking at Light
    2. Exercises in Learning to See Light More Accurately
    3. Light Determines Form
    4. Types of Lighting/Quality of Light
    5. Light as Seen by the Eye and by Film or Sensors, and the Inverse Square Law
  12. CHAPTER 6 Color
    1. The Color Wheel and Color Sphere
    2. Color Composition
    3. Color and Emotion
    4. Color Contrast and Tone
    5. Choosing A Color Film
    6. Color Digital Methods
    7. Light and Color Control
    8. Subjectivity and Mood of Color
    9. In Summary
  13. CHAPTER 7 Filters
    1. Black-and-White Filters
    2. Examples with a Hypothetical Landscape
    3. Contrast Control with Filters
    4. Digital Filtration for Black-and-White
    5. Infrared Film and Filters
    6. Filters for Color Images
    7. Neutral Density and Polarizing Filters
    8. Problems Associated with Polarizers
  14. CHAPTER 8 The Zone System of Exposure for Film
    1. A Brief Overview
    2. Film’s Response to Light: Building the Zone System
    3. Translating Negative Densities to Print Tonalities
    4. The Light Meter—How it Works
    5. Review of Negative Exposure Procedure
    6. Using the Zone System to Depart from Reality
    7. The Zone System for Color
    8. The Zone System and the Inverse Square Law
    9. In Summary
  15. CHAPTER 9 The Black-and-White Negative and Contrast Control—The Extended Zone System
    1. Chapter 9 Overview
    2. The Negative During Development
    3. The Bellows Analogy
    4. Putting Higher Zones to Work
    5. Reciprocity Failure
    6. Examples of Decreasing and Increasing Contrast
    7. The Exposure/Density Curve and Zone 4 Shadow Placement
    8. Differences Between Photography and Sensitometry: Texture vs. Tone and Zone 4 Shadow Placement
    9. Pre-Exposure—What It Is, Where It Works, Where It Fails
    10. Developing the Exposed Negative
      1. Some Additional Comments on Diagrams 9.6 and 9.7
    11. Explanation of Compensating Development
    12. Two-Solution Compensating Development for Negatives
    13. Development Procedures for Sheet Film and Roll Film
      1. Hanger Development
      2. Tray Development
      3. Mechanical Drum Development
      4. Completing Development with a Stop Bath and Fixer
    14. The Zone System and Roll Film
    15. Negative Materials and Developers
  16. CHAPTER 10 The Print
    1. Black-and-White Enlarging Papers
    2. Variable Contrast vs. Graded Papers
    3. Fiber Base Papers vs. Resin Coated (RC) Papers
    4. Black-and-White Paper Developers
    5. Making Contact Proof Prints
    6. Preliminary Work Toward a Final Print
    7. Make Test Prints, Not Test Strips
    8. Two-Solution Development for Graded and Variable Contrast Papers
    9. Dodging and Burning
    10. Integrating the Entire Process: Visualization, Exposure, Development, and Printing
    11. Burning with Variable Contrast Papers
    12. Advanced Darkroom Techniques
      1. Flashing
      2. Flashing with Variable Contrast Papers
      3. Masking
      4. #1 – Contrast Reduction Masking (Unsharp Masking)
      5. #2 – Highlight Masking
    13. Inspection, Evaluation, and the Myth of “Dry-Down”
    14. Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing (Bleaching)
    15. Final Fixing of the Image
    16. Local vs. Overall Contrast Control
    17. Scale
    18. Selenium Toning Prints
    19. Other Toners
    20. Chemical Coloration
    21. Full Archival Processing of Prints
    22. Toning, Intensifying, and Reducing Negatives
    23. Cold, Neutral, and Warm Tone Papers
    24. Review of Contrast Controls
      1. How to Increase Contrast
      2. How to Decrease Contrast
      3. Infinite Contrast Control after Negative Development
    25. Color Printing
    26. Option 1: Printing Traditionally from an Internegative
    27. Option 2: Printing Digitally from a Scan
    28. Selecting the Paper
    29. The Final Product is what Matters
    30. Scanning from Film
      1. Recommended Scanning Curves for Transparencies
    31. Altering Curves for Off-Balance Color Transparencies
    32. Learning to Use Scanning Curves
  17. CHAPTER 11 The Digital Zone System
    1. Basics of Digital Capture
    2. The Sensor’s Useful Brightness Range
    3. The Histogram—The Heart of the Digital Zone System
    4. The RAW Converter—Processing the RAW Capture
      1. Demosaicing
      2. White Balance and Camera Profiles
      3. Adjusting the Black Point, White Point, and Contrast
      4. Correcting Aberrations
      5. Sharpening the Capture
      6. Converting the Image to Black-and-White
      7. Output Formats and Bit Depth
      8. Batch Processing
    5. High Dynamic Range Images—The Extended Zone System for Digital Photography
      1. 1. Using the Merge to High Dynamic Range Function In Photoshop
      2. 2. Using Two Captures and a Luminosity Selection In Photoshop
      3. 3. Using Layers In Photoshop
      4. 4. Third Party Software
    6. Practical Considerations, Cautions, and Recommendations
  18. CHAPTER 12 Presentation
    1. Dry Mounting Prints
    2. Making Positioning Guides for Print Placement
    3. Spotting, Etching, and Correction of Defects
    4. Print Finishing
  19. CHAPTER 13 Exploding Photographic Myths
    1. Myth #1: The zone system gives you a negative that yields a straight print of exactly what you saw in the field, with no burning or dodging required.
    2. Myth #2: There are 10 zones in the zone system.
    3. Myth #3: Shadows should be placed at Zone 3 in the zone system.
    4. Myth #4: Negative densities should be within a fixed density range, and negatives that don’t fit into that range are useless.
      1. Examples #1 and #2
      2. Example #3
      3. Example #4
    5. Myth #5: All contact proof prints of negatives should be made at the same exposure.
      1. My method of making contact proofs
    6. Myth #6: The best landscape photographs are made within an hour and a half of sunrise or sunset.
    7. Myth #7: All black-and-white photographs need a good black, a good white, and tones in between.
    8. Myth #8: Two More Persistent Myths.
      1. #8-A: The center of interest should be one-third of the way up and one-third of the way into the photograph.
      2. #8-B: The horizon line should never divide a photograph in half.
  20. CHAPTER 14 Photographic Techniques and Artistic Integrity
    1. Art, Communication, and Personal Integrity
  21. CHAPTER 15 Photographic Realism, Abstraction, and Art
    1. Photography as Fine Art
    2. Photography and Painting—Their Mutual Influence
    3. The Strength of Abstraction
    4. Inwardly and Outwardly Directed Questions
    5. The Power of Photography
  22. CHAPTER 16 Thoughts on Creativity
    1. Obstacles to Creativity
    2. Prerequisites for Creativity
    3. Producing Something New—Its Real Importance
    4. Be Prepared for Imagination, Innovation, and Creativity
  23. CHAPTER 17 Approaching Creativity Intuitively
    1. Intuition in Science
    2. Avoiding Intuition
    3. Understanding and Misunderstanding Intuition
    4. Examples of the Intuitive Approach
    5. Applying Intuition to Your Photography
    6. Conclusion
  24. CHAPTER 18 Toward A Personal Philosophy
    1. Flexibility
    2. Visual Arts
    3. Nonvisual Arts
    4. Expanding and Defining Your Interests
    5. Limitations of Photography
    6. Developing a Personal Style
    7. Self-Critique, Interaction, and Study
  25. APPENDIX 1 Testing Materials and Equipment for Traditional Photography
    1. ASA (ISO) Test
    2. Contrast Development Test
    3. Lens Sharpness and Coverage Test
    4. Bellows Test
    5. Safelight Test
    6. Enlarger Light Uniformity Test
    7. Enlarger Lens Sharpness Test
  26. APPENDIX 2 Enlarger Light Sources
  27. Index