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The Art of Action: Leadership that Closes the Gaps between Plans, Actions and Results by Stephen Bungay

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THE THREE LEVELS

Business has inherited from the military the distinction between strategy and tactics. Strategy was the art of the general and tactics the craft of the soldier. For centuries, tactics were based on routines that were turned into drills and practiced on the parade ground to make sure that soldiers could and would carry them out in the heat of battle. Generals were the planners and soldiers were the implementers. The main role of regimental officers, the middle managers of their day, was to control the implementers to see that they did what they were told, and to lead them into battle – the act of execution in every sense.

By the time of Napoleon and Clausewitz, this two-tier distinction had become problematic. In the course of ...

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