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The Art of Game Design, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Good game design happens when you view your game from as many perspectives as possible. Written by one of the world's top game designers, The Art of Game Design presents 100+ sets of questions, or different lenses, for viewing a game’s design, encompassing diverse fields such as psychology, architecture, music, visual design, film, software engineering, theme park design, mathematics, puzzle design, and anthropology. This Second Edition of a Game Developer Front Line Award winner:

  • Describes the deepest and most fundamental principles of game design
  • Demonstrates how tactics used in board, card, and athletic games also work in top-quality video games
  • Contains valuable insight from Jesse Schell, the former chair of the International Game Developers Association and award-winning designer of Disney online games

The Art of Game Design, Second Edition gives readers useful perspectives on how to make better game designs faster. It provides practical instruction on creating world-class games that will be played again and again.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
  2. Dedication
  3. Epigraph
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Hello
    1. What is Game Design?
    2. Waiting for Mendeleev
    3. Focus on Fundamentals
    4. Talk to Strangers
    5. The Map
    6. Learning to Think
    7. Why I Hate Books
  6. Chapter One: In the Beginning, there is the Designer
    1. Magic Words
    2. What Skills Does a Game Designer Need?
    3. The Most Important Skill
    4. The Five Kinds of Listening
    5. The Secret of the Gifted
      1. Figure 1.1
  7. Chapter Two: The Designer Creates an <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Experience</span>
    1. The Game Is Not the Experience
    2. Is This Unique to Games?
    3. Three Practical Approaches to Chasing Rainbows
      1. Psychology
      2. Anthropology
      3. Design
    4. Introspection: Powers, Perils, and Practice
      1. Peril #1: Introspection Can Lead to False Conclusions About Reality
      2. Peril #2: What Is True of My Experiences May Not be True for Others
    5. Dissect Your Feelings
    6. Defeating Heisenberg
      1. Analyze Memories
      2. Two Passes
      3. Sneak Glances
      4. Observe Silently
    7. Essential Experience
    8. All That’s Real Is What You Feel
      1. Figure 2.1
      1. Lens #1: The Lens of Essential Experience
  8. Chapter Three: The Experience Rises Out of a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Game</span>
    1. A Rant About Definitions
    2. So, What Is a Game?
    3. No, Seriously, What Is a Game?
    4. Problem Solving 101
    5. The Fruits of Our Labors
      1. Figure 3.1
      1. Lens #2: The Lens of Surprise
      2. Lens #3: The Lens of Fun
      3. Lens #4: The Lens of Curiosity
      4. Lens #5: The Lens of Endogenous Value
      5. Lens #6: The Lens of Problem Solving
  9. Chapter Four: The Game Consists of <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Elements</span>
    1. What Are Little Games Made Of?
    2. The Four Basic Elements
    3. Skin and Skeleton
      1. Figure 4.1
      2. Figure 4.2
      3. Figure 4.3
      1. Lens #7: The Lens of the Elemental Tetrad
      2. Lens #8: The Lens of Holographic Design
  10. Chapter Five: The Elements Support a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Theme</span>
    1. Mere Games
    2. Unifying Themes
    3. Resonance
    4. Back to Reality
      1. Figure 5.1
      1. Lens #9: The Lens of Unification
      2. Lens #10: The Lens of Resonance
  11. Chapter Six: The Game Begins with an <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Idea</span>
    1. Inspiration
    2. State the Problem
    3. How to Sleep
    4. Your Silent Partner
      1. Subconscious Tip #1: Pay Attention
      2. Subconscious Tip #2: Record Your Ideas
      3. Subconscious Tip #3: Manage Its Appetites (Judiciously)
      4. Subconscious Tip #4: Sleep
      5. Subconscious Tip #5: Don’t Push Too Hard
      6. A Personal Relationship
    5. Fifteen Nitty-Gritty Brainstorming Tips
      1. Brainstorm Tip #1: The Write Answer
      2. Brainstorm Tip #2: Write or Type?
      3. Brainstorm Tip #3: Sketch
      4. Brainstorm Tip #4: Toys
      5. Brainstorm Tip #5: Change Your Perspective
      6. Brainstorm Tip #6: Immerse Yourself
      7. Brainstorm Tip #7: Crack Jokes
      8. Brainstorm Tip #8: Spare No Expense
      9. Brainstorm Tip #9: The Writing on the Wall
      10. Brainstorm Tip #10: The Space Remembers
      11. Brainstorm Tip #11:Write Everything
      12. Brainstorm Tip #12: Number Your Lists
      13. Brainstorm Tip #13: Mix and Match Categories
      14. Brainstorm Tip #14: Talk To Yourself
      15. Brainstorm Tip #15: Find a Partner
    6. Look At All These Ideas! Now What?
      1. Figure 6.1
      2. Figure 6.2
      1. Lens #11: The Lens of Infinite Inspiration
      2. Lens #12: The Lens of the Problem Statement
  12. Chapter Seven: The Game Improves Through <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Iteration</span>
    1. Choosing an Idea
    2. The Eight Filters
    3. The Rule of the Loop
    4. A Short History of Software Engineering
      1. Danger — Waterfall — Keep Back
      2. Barry Boehm Loves You
    5. Risk Assessment and Prototyping
      1. Example: Prisoners of Bubbleville
    6. Eight Tips for Productive Prototyping
      1. Prototyping Tip # 1: Answer a Question
      2. Prototyping Tip # 2: Forget Quality
      3. Prototyping Tip # 3: Don’t Get Attached
      4. Prototyping Tip # 4: Prioritize Your Prototypes
      5. Prototyping Tip # 5: Parallelize Prototypes Productively
      6. Prototyping Tip # 6: It Doesn’t Have to be Digital
        1. Tetris: A Paper Prototype
        2. Doom: A Paper Prototype
      7. Prototyping Tip # 7: Pick a “Fast Loop” Game Engine
      8. Prototyping Tip # 8: Build the Toy First
    7. Closing the Loop
      1. Loop 1: “New Racing Game”
      2. Loop 2:“Racing Subs” Game
      3. Loop 3: “Flying Dinos” Game
    8. How Much is Enough?
      1. Figure 7.1
      2. Figure 7.2
      3. Figure 7.3
      1. Lens # 13: The Lens of the Eight Filters
      2. Lens #14: The Lens of Risk Mitigation
      3. Lens #15: The Lens of the Toy
  13. Chapter Eight: The Game is Made for a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Player</span>
    1. Einstein’s Violin
    2. Project Yourself
    3. Demographics
    4. The Medium is the Misogynist?
      1. Five Things Males Like to See in Games
      2. Five Things Females Like to See in Games
    5. Psychographics
      1. LeBlanc’s Taxonomy of Game Pleasures
      2. Bartle’s Taxonomy of Player Types
      1. Figure 8.1
      2. Figure 8.2
      3. Figure 8.3
      4. Figure 8.4
      1. Lens #16: The Lens of the Player
      2. Lens #17: The Lens of Pleasure
  14. Chapter Nine: The Experience is in the <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Player&#8217;s Mind</span>
    1. Modeling
    2. Focus
    3. Empathy
    4. Imagination
    5. Motivation
    6. Judgment
      1. Figure 9.1
      2. Figure 9.2
      3. Figure 9.3
      4. Figure 9.4
      5. Figure 9.5
      6. Figure 9.6
      7. Figure 9.7
      8. Figure 9.8
      9. Figure 9.9
      10. Figure 9.10
      1. Lens #18: The Lens of Flow
      2. Lens #19: The Lens of Needs
      3. Lens #20: The Lens of Judgment
  15. Chapter Ten: Some Elements are Game <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Mechanics</span>
    1. Mechanic 1: Space
      1. Nested Spaces
      2. Zero Dimensions
    2. Mechanic 2: Objects, Attributes, and States
      1. Secrets
    3. Mechanic 3: Actions
    4. Mechanic 4: Rules
      1. Parlett’s Rule Analysis
      2. Modes
      3. The Enforcer
      4. The Most Important Rule
      5. Wrapping Up Rules
    5. Mechanic 5: Skill
      1. Real vs. Virtual Skills
      2. Enumerating Skills
    6. Mechanic 6: Chance
      1. The Invention of Probability
      2. Ten Rules of Probability Every Game Designer Should Know
        1. Rule #1: Fractions are Decimals are Percents
        2. Rule #2: Zero to One — and That’s It!
        3. Rule #3: “Looked For” Divided By “Possible Outcomes” Equals Probability
        4. Rule #4: Enumerate!
        5. Rule #5: In Certain Cases, OR Means Add
        6. Rule #6: In Certain Cases, AND Means Multiply
        7. Rule #7: One Minus “Does” = “Doesn’t”
        8. Rule #8: The Sum of Multiple Linear Random Selections is NOT a Linear Random Selection!
        9. Rule #9: Roll the Dice
        10. Rule #10: Geeks Love Showing Off (Gombauld’s Law)
      3. Expected Value
      4. Consider Values Carefully
      5. The Human Element
      6. Skill and Chance Get Tangled
      1. Figure 10.1
      2. Figure 10.2
      3. Figure 10.3
      4. Figure 10.4
      5. Figure 10.5
      6. Figure 10.6
      7. Figure 10.7
      8. Figure 10.8
      9. Figure 10.9
      10. Figure 10.10
      11. Figure 10.11
      12. Figure 10.12
      13. Figure 10.13
      14. Figure 10.14
      15. Figure 10.15
      1. Lens #21: The Lens of Functional Space
      2. Lens #22: The Lens of Dynamic State
      3. Lens #23: The Lens of Emergence
      4. Lens #24: The Lens of Action
      5. Lens #25: The Lens of Goals
      6. Lens #26: The Lens of Rules
      7. Lens #27: The Lens of Skill
      8. Lens #28: The Lens of Expected Value
      9. Lens #29: The Lens of Chance
  16. Chapter Eleven: Game Mechanics Must be in <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Balance</span>
    1. The Twelve Most Common Types of Game Balance
      1. Balance Type #1: Fairness
        1. Symmetrical Games
        2. Asymmetrical Games
          1. Biplane Battle
        3. Rock, Paper, Scissors
      2. Balance Type #2: Challenge vs. Success
      3. Balance Type #3: Meaningful Choices
        1. Triangularity
      4. Balancing Type #4: Skill vs. Chance
      5. Balancing Type #5: Head vs. Hands
      6. Balance Type #6: Competition vs. Cooperation
      7. Balance Type #7: Short vs. Long
      8. Balance Type #8: Rewards
      9. Balance Type #9: Punishment
      10. Balance Type #10: Freedom vs. Controlled Experience
      11. Balance Type #11: Simple vs. Complex
        1. Natural vs. Artificial Balancing
        2. Elegance
        3. Character
      12. Balance Type #12: Detail vs. Imagination
    2. Game Balancing Methodologies
    3. Balancing Game Economies
    4. Dynamic Game Balancing
    5. The Big Picture
      1. Figure 11.1
      2. Figure 11.2
      3. Figure 11.3
      1. Lens #30: The Lens of Fairness
      2. Lens #31: The Lens of Challenge
      3. Lens #32: The Lens of Meaningful Choices
      4. Lens #33: The Lens of Triangularity
      5. Lens #34: The Lens of Skill vs. Chance
      6. Lens #35: The Lens of Head and Hands
      7. Lens #36: The Lens of Competition
      8. Lens #37: The Lens of Cooperation
      9. Lens #38: The Lens of Competition vs. Cooperation
      10. Lens #39: The Lens of Time
      11. Lens #40: The Lens of Reward
      12. Lens #41: The Lens of Punishment
      13. Lens #42: The Lens of Simplicity/Complexity
      14. Lens #43: The Lens of Elegance
      15. Lens #44: The Lens of Character
      16. Lens #45: The Lens of Imagination
      17. Lens #46: The Lens of Economy
      18. Lens #47: The Lens of Balance
  17. Chapter Twelve: Game Mechanics Support <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Puzzles</span>
    1. The Puzzle of Puzzles
    2. Aren’t Puzzles Dead?
    3. Good Puzzles
      1. Puzzle Principle #1: Make the Goal Easily Understood
      2. Puzzle Principle #2: Make It Easy to Get Started
      3. Puzzle Principle #3: Give a Sense of Progress
      4. Puzzle Principle #4: Give a Sense of Solvability
      5. Puzzle Principle #5: Increase Difficulty Gradually
      6. Puzzle Principle #6: Parallelism Lets the Player Rest
      7. Puzzle Principle #7: Pyramid Structure Extends Interest
      8. Puzzle Principle #8: Hints Extend Interest
      9. Puzzle Principle #9: Give the Answer!
      10. Puzzle Principle #10: Perceptual Shifts are a Double-Edged Sword
    4. A Final Piece
      1. Figure 12.1
      2. Figure 12.2
      3. Figure 12.3
      4. Figure 12.4
      5. Figure 12.5
      6. Figure 12.6
      7. Figure 12.7
      1. Lens #48: The Lens of Accessibility
      2. Lens #49: The Lens of Visible Progress
      3. Lens #50: The Lens of Parallelism
      4. Lens #51: The Lens of the Pyramid
      5. Lens #52: The Lens of the Puzzle
  18. Chapter Thirteen: Players Play Games Through an <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Interface</span>
    1. Between Yin and Yang
    2. Breaking it Down
    3. The Loop of Interaction
    4. Channels of Information
      1. Step 1: List and Prioritize Information
      2. Step 2: List Channels
      3. Step 3: Map Information to Channels
      4. Step 4: Review Use of Dimensions
      5. Modes
        1. Mode Tip #1: Use as Few Modes as Possible
        2. Mode Tip #2: Avoid Overlapping Modes
        3. Mode Tip #3: Make Different Modes Look as Different as Possible
    5. Other Interface Tips
      1. Interface Tip #1: Steal
      2. Inter face Tip #2: Customize
      3. Inter face Tip #3: Theme Your Interface
      4. Interface Tip #4: Sound Maps to Touch
      5. Interface Tip #5: Balance Options and Simplicity with Layers
      6. Interface Tip #6: Use Metaphors
      7. Interface Tip #7:Test, Test, Test!
      8. Interface Tip #8: Break the Rules to Help Your Player
      1. Figure 13.1
      2. Figure 13.2
      3. Figure 13.3
      4. Figure 13.4
      5. Figure 13.5
      6. Figure 13.6
      7. Figure 13.7
      8. Figure 13.8
      9. Figure 13.9
      10. Figure 13.10
      11. Figure 13.11
      12. Figure 13.12
      1. Lens #53: The Lens of Control
      2. Lens #54: The Lens of Physical Interface
      3. Lens #55: The Lens of Virtual Interface
      4. Lens #56: The Lens of Transparency
      5. Lens #57: The Lens of Feedback
      6. Lens #58: The Lens of Juiciness
      7. Lens #59: The Lens of Channels and Dimensions
      8. Lens #60: The Lens of Modes
  19. Chapter Fourteen: Experiences Can be Judged by Their <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Interest Curves</span>
    1. My First Lens
    2. Interest Curves
    3. Patterns Inside Patterns
    4. What Comprises Interest?
      1. Factor 1: Inherent Interest
      2. Factor 2: Poetry of Presentation
      3. Factor 3: Projection
    5. Interest Factor Examples
    6. Putting It All Together
      1. Figure 14.1
      2. Figure 14.2a
      3. Figure 14.2b
      4. Figure 14.3
      5. Figure 14.4
      6. Figure 14.5
      7. Figure 14.6
      8. Figure 14.7
      9. Figure 14.8
      10. Figure 14.9
      11. Figure 14.10
      12. Figure 14.11
      13. Figure 14.12
      1. Lens #61: The Lens of the Interest Curve
      2. Lens #62: The Lens of Inherent Interest
      3. Lens #63: The Lens of Beauty
      4. Lens #64: The Lens of Projection
  20. Chapter Fifteen: One Kind of Experience is the <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Story</span>
    1. Story/Game Duality
    2. The Myth of Passive Entertainment
    3. The Dream
    4. The Reality
      1. Real World Method 1: The String of Pearls
      2. Real World Method 2: The Story Machine
    5. The Problems
      1. Problem #1: Good Stories Have Unity
      2. Problem #2: The Combinatorial Explosion
      3. Problem #3: Multiple Endings Disappoint
      4. Problem #4: Not Enough Verbs
      5. Problem #5: Time Travel Makes Tragedy Obsolete
    6. The Dream Reborn
    7. Story Tips for Game Designers
      1. Story Tip #1: Goals, Obstacles, and Conflicts
      2. Story Tip #2: Provide Simplicity and Transcendence
      3. Story Tip #3: Consider the Hero’s Journey
        1. Vogler’s Synopsis of the Hero’s Journey
      4. Story Tip #4: Put Your Story to Work!
      5. Tip #5: Keep Your Story World Consistent
      6. Story Tip #6: Make your Story World Accessible
      7. Story Tip #7: Use Clichés Judiciously
      8. Story Tip #8: Sometimes a Map Brings a Story to Life
      1. Figure 15.1
      2. Figure 15.2
      3. Figure 15.3
      4. Figure 15.4
      1. Lens #65: The Lens of the Story Machine
      2. Lens #66: The Lens of the Obstacle
      3. Lens #67: The Lens of Simplicity and Transcendence
      4. Lens #68: The Lens of the Hero’s Journey
      5. Lens #69: The Lens of the Weirdest Thing
      6. Lens #70: The Lens of Story
  21. Chapter Sixteen: Story and Game Structures can be Artfully Merged with <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Indirect Control</span>
    1. The Feeling of Freedom
    2. Indirect Control Method #1: Constraints
    3. Indirect Control Method #2: Goals
    4. Indirect Control Method #3: Interface
    5. Indirect Control Method #4: Visual Design
    6. Indirect Control Method #5: Characters
    7. Indirect Control Method #6: Music
    8. Collusion
      1. Figure 16.1
      2. Figure 16.2
      3. Figure 16.3
      4. Figure 16.4
      5. Figure 16.5
      6. Figure 16.6
      7. Figure 16.7
      8. Figure 16.8
      9. Figure 16.9
      10. Figure 16.10
      11. Figure 16.11
      1. Lens #71: The Lens of Freedom
      2. Lens #72: The Lens of Indirect Control
      3. Lens #73: The Lens of Collusion
  22. Chapter Seventeen: Stories and Games Take Place in <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Worlds</span>
    1. Transmedia Worlds
    2. The Power of Pokemon
    3. Properties of Transmedia Worlds
      1. Transmedia Worlds are Powerful
      2. Transmedia Worlds are Long Lived
      3. Transmedia Worlds Evolve Over Time
    4. What Successful Transmedia Worlds Have in Common
      1. Figure 17.1
      2. Figure 17.2
      1. Lens #74: The Lens of the World
  23. Chapter Eighteen: Worlds Contain <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Characters</span>
    1. The Nature of Game Characters
      1. Novel Characters
      2. Movie Characters
      3. Game Characters
    2. Avatars
      1. The Ideal Form
      2. The Blank Slate
    3. Creating Compelling Game Characters
      1. Character Tip #1: List Character Functions
        1. Character Functions:
      2. Character Tip #2: Define and Use Character Traits
      3. Character Tip #3: Use the Interpersonal Circumplex
      4. Character Tip #4: Make a Character Web
        1. Archie
        2. Veronica
        3. Betty
        4. Reggie
        5. Jughead
      5. Character Tip #5: Use Status
      6. Character Tip #6: Use the Power of the Voice
      7. Character Tip #7: Use the Power of the Face
      8. Character Tip #8: Powerful Stories Transform Characters
      9. Character Tip #9: Avoid the Uncanny Valley
      1. Figure 18.1
      2. Figure 18.2
      3. Figure 18.3
      4. Figure 18.4
      5. Figure 18.5
      6. Figure 18.6
      7. Figure 18.7
      8. Figure 18.8
      1. Lens #75: The Lens of the Avatar
      2. Lens #76: The Lens of Character Function
      3. Lens #77: The Lens of Character Traits
      4. Lens #78: The Lens of the Interpersonal Circumplex
      5. Lens #79: The Lens of the Character Web
      6. Lens #80: The Lens of Status
      7. Lens #81: The Lens of Character Transformation
  24. Chapter Nineteen: Worlds Contain <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Spaces</span>
    1. The Purpose of Architecture
    2. Organizing your Game Space
      1. A Word About Landmarks
    3. Christopher Alexander is a Genius
      1. Alexander’s Fifteen Properties of Living Structures
    4. Real vs. Virtual Architecture
      1. Know How Big
      2. Third-Person Distortion
    5. Level Design
      1. Figure 19.1
      2. Figure 19.2
      3. Figure 19.3
      4. Figure 19.4
      5. Figure 19.5
      6. Figure 19.6
      7. Figure 19.7
      1. Lens #82: The Lens of Inner Contradiction
      2. Lens #83: The Lens of The Nameless Quality
  25. Chapter Twenty: The Look and Feel of a World is defined by its <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Aesthetics</span>
    1. Monet Refuses the Operation
    2. The Value of Aesthetics
    3. Learning to See
    4. How to Let Aesthetics Guide your Design
    5. How Much Is Enough?
    6. Use Audio
    7. Balancing Art and Technology
      1. Figure 20.1
      2. Figure 20.2
  26. Chapter Twenty-One: Some Games are Played with <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Other Players</span>
    1. We Are Not Alone
    2. Why We Play With Others
      1. Figure 21.1
  27. Chapter Twenty-Two: Other Players Sometimes Form <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Communities</span>
    1. More than just Other Players
    2. Ten Tips for Strong Communities
      1. Community Tip #1: Foster Friendships
      2. Community Tip #2: Put Conflict at the Heart
      3. Community Tip #3: Use Architecture to Shape your Community
      4. Community Tip #4: Create Community Property
      5. Community Tip #5: Let Players Express Themselves
      6. Community Tip #6: Support Three Levels
      7. Community Tip #7: Force Players to Depend on Each Other
      8. Community Tip #8: Manage Your Community
      9. Community Tip #9: Obligation to Others is Powerful
      10. Community Tip #10: Create Community Events
    3. The Challenge of Griefing
    4. The Future of Game Communities
      1. Figure 22.1
      1. Lens #84: The Lens of Friendship
      2. Lens #85: The Lens of Expression
      3. Lens #86: The Lens of Community
      4. Lens #87: The Lens of Griefing
  28. Chapter Twenty-Three: The Designer Usually Works with a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Team</span>
    1. The Secret of Successful Teamwork
      1. If You Can’t Love the Game, Love the Audience
    2. Designing Together
    3. Team Communication
      1. Figure 23.1
      1. Lens #88: The Lens of Love
      2. Lens #89: The Lens of the Team
  29. Chapter Twenty-Four: The Team Sometimes Communicates Through <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Documents</span>
    1. The Myth of the Game Design Document
      1. The magic template does not exist!
    2. The Purpose of Documents
      1. Memory
      2. Communication
    3. Types of Game Documents
      1. Design
      2. Engineering
      3. Management
      4. Writing
      5. Players
    4. So, Where Do I Start?
      1. Figure 24.1
      2. Figure 24.2
      1. Lens #90: The Lens of Documentation
  30. Chapter Twenty-Five: Good Games are Created through <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Playtesting</span>
    1. Playtesting
    2. My Terrible Secret
    3. Playtest Question the First: Why?
    4. Playtest Question the Second: Who?
    5. Playtest Question the Third: Where?
    6. Playtest Question the Fourth: What?
      1. The First What: Things You Know You Are Looking For
      2. The Second What: Things You Don’t Know You Are Looking For
    7. Playtest Question the Fifth: How?
      1. Should You Even Be There?
      2. What Do You Tell Them Up Front?
      3. Where Do You Look?
      4. What Other Data Should You Collect During Play?
      5. Will I Disturb the Players Mid-Game?
      6. What Data Will I Collect After the Play Session?
        1. Surveys
        2. Interviews
      1. Figure 25.1
      2. Figure 25.2
      1. Lens #91: The Lens of Playtesting
  31. Chapter Twenty-Six: The Team Builds a Game with <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Technology</span>
    1. Technology, At Last
    2. Foundational vs. Decorational
      1. Mickey’s First Cartoon
      2. Abalone
      3. Sonic the Hedgehog
      4. Myst
      5. Journey
      6. Ragdoll Physics
    3. The Hype Cycle
    4. The Innovator’s Dilemma
    5. The Singularity
    6. Look Into Your Crystal Ball
      1. Figure 26.1
      2. Figure 26.2
      3. Figure 26.3
      4. Figure 26.4
      5. Figure 26.5
      1. Lens #92: The Lens of Technology
      2. Lens #93: The Lens of the Crystal Ball
  32. Chapter Twenty-Seven: Your Game Will Probably Have a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Client</span>
    1. Who Cares What the Client Thinks?
    2. Coping with Bad Suggestions
    3. Not That Rock
    4. The Three Layers of Desire
    5. Firenze, 1498
      1. Figure 27.1
      1. Lens #94: The Lens of the Client
  33. Chapter Twenty-Eight: The Designer Gives the Client a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Pitch</span>
    1. Why Me?
    2. A Negotiation of Power
    3. The Hierarchy of Ideas
    4. Twelve Tips for a Successful Pitch
      1. Pitch Tip #1: Get in the Door
      2. Pitch Tip #2: Show You Are Serious
      3. Pitch Tip #3: Be Organized
      4. Pitch Tip #4: Be Passionate!!!!!
      5. Pitch Tip #5: Assume Their Point of View
      6. Pitch Tip #6: Design the Pitch
      7. Pitch Tip #7: Know All the Details
      8. Pitch Tip #8: Exude Confidence
      9. Pitch Tip #9: Be Flexible
      10. Pitch Tip #10: Rehearse
      11. Pitch Tip #11: Get Them to Own It
      12. Pitch Tip #12: Follow Up
      1. Figure 28.1
      1. Lens #95: The Lens of the Pitch
  34. Chapter Twenty-Nine: The Designer and Client Want the Game to Make a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Profit</span>
    1. Love and Money
    2. Know Your Business Model
    3. Units Sold
    4. Breakeven
    5. Know the Top Sellers
    6. Learn the Language
      1. Figure 29.1
      2. Figure 29.2
      1. Lens #96: The Lens of Profit
  35. Chapter Thirty: Games <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Transform</span> Their Players Their Players
    1. How Do Games Change Us?
    2. Can Games Be Good For You?
      1. Emotional Maintenance
      2. Connecting
      3. Exercise
      4. Education
        1. Facts
        2. Problem Solving
        3. Systems of Relationships
        4. New Insights
        5. Curiosity
    3. Can Games Be Bad For You?
      1. Violence
      2. Addiction
    4. Experiences
      1. Figure 30.1
      2. Figure 30.2
      1. Lens #97: The Lens of Transformation
  36. Chapter Thirty-One: Designers Have Certain <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Responsibilities</span>
    1. The Danger of Obscurity
    2. Being Accountable
    3. Your Hidden Agenda
    4. The Secret Hidden in Plain Sight
    5. The Ring
      1. Figure 31.1
      1. Lens #98: The Lens of Responsibility
  37. Chapter Thirty-Two: Each Designer has a <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="cItalic">Motivation</span>
    1. The Deepest Theming
      1. Figure 32.1
      1. Lens #99: The Lens of the Raven
      2. Lens #100: The Lens of Your Secret Purpose
  38. Goodbye
    1. All Good Things...
  39. Endnotes
    1. Hello
    2. Chapter 1: Designer
    3. Chapter 2: Experience
    4. Chapter 3: Game
    5. Chapter 4: Elements
    6. Chapter 5: Theme
    7. Chapter 6: Idea
    8. Chapter 7: Iteration
    9. Chapter 8: Player
    10. Chapter 9: Player’s Mind
    11. Chapter 10: Game Mechanics
    12. Chapter 11: Balance
    13. Chapter 12: Puzzles
    14. Chapter 13: Interface
    15. Chapter 14: Interest Curves
    16. Chapter 15: Story
    17. Chapter 16: Indirect Control
    18. Chapter 17: Worlds
    19. Chapter 18: Characters
    20. Chapter 19: Spaces
    21. Chapter 20: Aesthetics
    22. Chapter 21: Other Players
    23. Chapter 22: Communities
    24. Chapter 23: Team
    25. Chapter 25: Playtesting
    26. Chapter 26: Technology
    27. Chapter 27: Client
    28. Chapter 28: Pitch
    29. Chapter 29: Profit
    30. Chapter 30: Transform
    31. Chapter 31: Responsibilities
  40. Bibliography