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The Art of Followership: How Great Followers Create Great Leaders and Organizations

Book Description

The Art of Followership puts dynamic leader-follower interaction at the forefront of discussion. It examines the multiple roles followers play and their often complex relationship to leaders. With contributions from leading scholars and practitioners from the burgeoning field of leadership/followership studies, this groundbreaking book outlines how followers contribute to effective leadership and to organizations overall.

Drawing from various disciplines-from philosophy, to psychology and management, to education-the book defines followership and its myriad meanings. The Art of Followership explores the practice and research that promote positive followership and reveals the part that followers play in setting the standards and formulating the culture and policies of the group.

The contributors include new models of followership and explore fresh perspectives on the contributions that followers make to groups, organizations, societies, and leaders. The book also explores the most current research on followership and includes insights and perspectives on the future of leader-follower relationships.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. FOREWORD
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  4. ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS
  5. INTRODUCTION
  6. 1. Defining and Redefining Followership
    1. 1. Rethinking Followership
      1. 1.1. FOLLOWERSHIP STYLES
      2. 1.2. RETHINKING FOLLOWERSHIP
        1. 1.2.1. World Events
        2. 1.2.2. Culture
        3. 1.2.3. Leader(ship)
        4. 1.2.4. Follower Qualities
        5. 1.2.5. Role of the Follower
        6. 1.2.6. Language of Followership
        7. 1.2.7. Courageous Conscience
      3. 1.3. CONCLUSION
    2. 2. Leadership: A Partnership in Reciprocal Following
      1. 2.1. THE ETHICS OF FOLLOWERSHIP: FOLLOWERSHIP IS MORE THAN AN ART
    3. 3. Three Perspectives on Followership
      1. 3.1. FOLLOWERSHIP AS AN INTERACTIVE ROLE
        1. 3.1.1. Antecedents of an Interactive Role Orientation
      2. 3.2. FOLLOWERSHIP AS AN INDEPENDENT ROLE
        1. 3.2.1. Antecedents of an Independent Role Orientation
      3. 3.3. FOLLOWERSHIP AS A SHIFTING ROLE
        1. 3.3.1. Antecedents of a Shifting Role Orientation
      4. 3.4. CONCLUSION AND ISSUES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
    4. 4. A New Leadership-Followership Paradigm
      1. 4.1. THE LEADER-FOLLOWER PARADIGM
        1. 4.1.1. Concepts
        2. 4.1.2. Assumptions
        3. 4.1.3. Values
        4. 4.1.4. Techniques
        5. 4.1.5. Limitations
      2. 4.2. THE LEADERSHIP-FOLLOWERSHIP ORGANIZATIONAL POSITION PARADIGM
        1. 4.2.1. Concepts
        2. 4.2.2. Assumptions
        3. 4.2.3. Values
        4. 4.2.4. Techniques
        5. 4.2.5. Limitations
      3. 4.3. THE LEADERSHIP-FOLLOWERSHIP STATE PARADIGM
        1. 4.3.1. Concepts
        2. 4.3.2. Assumptions
        3. 4.3.3. Values
        4. 4.3.4. Techniques
        5. 4.3.5. Limitations
    5. 5. Followership: An Outmoded Concept
      1. 5.1. FOLLOWERSHIP
      2. 5.2. FOLLOWER
      3. 5.3. CONCLUSION
      4. 5.4. APPENDIX: DEFINITIONS OF THE VERB TO FOLLOW
  7. 2. Effective Followership
    1. 6. Creating New Ways of Following
      1. 6.1. THE NEED TO CREATE A NEW AWARENESS
      2. 6.2. THE MODEL
      3. 6.3. STYLES OF FOLLOWERSHIP
      4. 6.4. USING HYPOTHETICALS TO ENRICH APPRECIATION FOR STYLES OF FOLLOWERSHIP
      5. 6.5. THE LIMITS OF HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS
      6. 6.6. RISK AND COURAGE
      7. 6.7. FEAR
      8. 6.8. HIGH-PROFILE LEADERSHIP FAILURES AS CAUTIONARY TALES
      9. 6.9. SKILL
      10. 6.10. APPLICATIONS
      11. 6.11. THE COURAGE TO TAKE MORAL ACTION
      12. 6.12. CONCLUDING ON A RIGHT NOTE
    2. 7. Rethinking Leadership and Followership
    3. 8. The Hero's Journey to Effective Followership and Leadership
      1. 8.1. SETTING THE CONTEXT
      2. 8.2. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP ARE TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN
      3. 8.3. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP DEVELOPMENT AT NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
      4. 8.4. THE LEADERSHIP ALCHEMY PROMISE
      5. 8.5. PROGRAM ATTENDEES AND THEIR FOLLOWERSHIP CHALLENGE
      6. 8.6. THE FUTURE WE DESIRE IS WHAT'S AT STAKE
      7. 8.7. "PAYING IT FORWARD": LEADERSHIP ALCHEMY SUCCESS STORIES
      8. 8.8. CONCLUSION
    4. 9. Courageous Followers, Servant-Leaders, and Organizational Transformations
      1. 9.1. THE COURAGEOUS FOLLOWER AT GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY
      2. 9.2. WHAT PMC OFFERS IN COMMON WITH "JESUIT EDUCATION": HOW WE PROMOTE "MEN AND WOMEN IN SERVICE TO EACH OTHER"
      3. 9.3. COMMITMENT: THE FOUNDATION OF RESPONSIBILITY AND SERVICE
      4. 9.4. THE BARRIERS TO COMMITMENT
      5. 9.5. COURAGEOUS FOLLOWERSHIP AND COMMITMENT
      6. 9.6. THE CONNECTION OF ACCOUNTABILITY TO EXCELLENCE AND QUALITY
      7. 9.7. THE ROLE OF THE LEADER'S PRACTICES
      8. 9.8. THE PROBLEM WITH ERNIE
      9. 9.9. CONCLUSION
    5. 10. Followership in a Professional Services Firm
      1. 10.1. INTRODUCING COURAGEOUS FOLLOWERSHIP IN MY FIRM
      2. 10.2. BENEFITS OF FOSTERING A CULTURE OF COURAGEOUS FOLLOWERSHIP
        1. 10.2.1. Increasing Employee Engagement and Effectiveness
        2. 10.2.2. Reducing the Elements of Risk Faced by the Organization
        3. 10.2.3. Providing an Antidote to Flawed or Toxic Leadership
      3. 10.3. BARRIERS TO BUILDING A CULTURE OF COURAGEOUS FOLLOWERSHIP
      4. 10.4. CAUSES FOR OPTIMISM AND PERSISTENCE
      5. 10.5. QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER IN DEVISING AN INITIATIVE
      6. 10.6. STRATEGY AND IMPLEMENTATION
      7. 10.7. CONCLUSION
    6. 11. Developing Great Leaders, One Follower at a Time
      1. 11.1. ENIGMATIC MAJORITY
      2. 11.2. ORGANIZATIONAL PUZZLE
      3. 11.3. 4-D FOLLOWERSHIP MODEL
        1. 11.3.1. Quadrant I: Disciple (Focus: Serving Others' Needs)
        2. 11.3.2. Quadrant II: Doer (Focus: Serving Own Needs)
        3. 11.3.3. Quadrant III: Disengaged (Focus: Passive Reactions to Stress)
        4. 11.3.4. Quadrant IV: Disgruntled (Focus: Active Reactions to Stress)
      4. 11.4. PRACTICAL APPLICATION
        1. 11.4.1. John Bean's Typical and Current Behavior
        2. 11.4.2. Applying the 4-D Followership Approach to John Bean
        3. 11.4.3. Mark Mook's Typical and Current Behavior
        4. 11.4.4. Applying the 4-D Followership Approach to Mark Mook
      5. 11.5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    7. 12. Getting Together
      1. 12.1. LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS: HOW WE GOT HERE
      2. 12.2. HOW DO YOU LIKE ME NOW?
      3. 12.3. INALIENABLE TRUTHS
      4. 12.4. PARADOXES
      5. 12.5. SO MANY PARADOXES, JUST ONE PARADIGM
      6. 12.6. THE BIGGER PICTURE: RISKS IN LEADER-FOLLOWER RELATIONS
      7. 12.7. NO FREE LUNCH
      8. 12.8. LET'S GO BACKWARD ... AND FORWARD
      9. 12.9. WHERE DID THAT COME FROM?
      10. 12.10. THE LEADER-FOLLOWER ORGANIZATION
      11. 12.11. EPILOGUE
  8. 3. The Pitfalls and Challenges of Followership
    1. 13. Following Toxic Leaders
      1. 13.1. A BRIEF DEFINITION OF TOXIC LEADERS
      2. 13.2. WHY WE FOLLOW THEM
      3. 13.3. HOW WE FALL VICTIM TO TOXIC LEADERS: THE SHORT VERSION
      4. 13.4. TWO ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN CONDITION: EXISTENTIAL ANXIETY AND SITUATIONAL FEAR
      5. 13.5. A THIRD ASPECT OF THE HUMAN CONDITION: OPENNESS TO LIFE'S POSSIBILITIES
      6. 13.6. BEWARE LEADERS BEARING GIFTS AND GRAND ILLUSIONS
      7. 13.7. LEADERS OFFER ILLUSIONS: OUR LIFELINE IN AN UNCERTAIN WORLD
      8. 13.8. TWIN ILLUSIONS: BEING THE CHOSEN AND BEING AT THE CENTER OF ACTION
        1. 13.8.1. Being the Chosen
        2. 13.8.2. Membership in the Center of Action
      9. 13.9. COSTS AT THE CENTER
      10. 13.10. EXHILARATION, ANXIETY, AND WAR
      11. 13.11. TWO TYPES OF EXHILARATION
    2. 14. What Can Milgram's Obedience Experiments Contribute to Our Understanding of Followership?
      1. 14.1. CONCLUSION
    3. 15. What Kind of Leader Do People Want to Follow?
      1. 15.1. THE NEED FOR LEADERS
      2. 15.2. THE CHANGING SOCIAL CHARACTER
      3. 15.3. WHY PEOPLE FOLLOW LEADERS
      4. 15.4. LEADERS FOR THE NEW CONTEXT
    4. 16. Bystanders to Children's Bullying
      1. 16.1. BYSTANDERS TO BULLYING: OLD IDEAS HINDER US
      2. 16.2. CHILDREN'S BULLYING: WHAT IS IT, AND WHY IS IT "STILL" A PROBLEM?
      3. 16.3. BULLYING: A DEFINITION WE CAN ALL USE
      4. 16.4. THREE TYPES OF BULLYING
      5. 16.5. BULLYING SYSTEM COMPONENTS: SPOTLIGHT ON THE BYSTANDERS
      6. 16.6. CHILDREN'S BULLYING IS AN ADULT PROBLEM
      7. 16.7. ADULTS AS BYSTANDERS TO KIDS' BULLYING
      8. 16.8. BYSTANDERS' COSTS AND DILEMMAS
      9. 16.9. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IS THE KEY TO ARRESTING BULLYING
      10. 16.10. CHANGING A FUTURE REQUIRES A NEW PAST
      11. 16.11. LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP: SKILL DEVELOPMENT FOR ADULTS AND CHILDREN
      12. 16.12. ACTION STEPS ADULTS CAN TAKE TO STOP KIDS' BULLYING NOW
      13. 16.13. CONCLUSION
    5. 17. Whistleblowing as Responsible Followership
      1. 17.1. WHISTLEBLOWERS ARE NOT GENTLEMEN
      2. 17.2. A GENTLEMAN'S AGREEMENT
      3. 17.3. RESPONSIBLE FOLLOWERSHIP AS SELF-SACRIFICE
        1. 17.3.1. Whistleblower as Poison
        2. 17.3.2. Whistleblower as Cure
        3. 17.3.3. Containing Individuality
      4. 17.4. PREVENTING AN EPIDEMIC OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR
      5. 17.5. CASE STUDY: ROBERT HARRIS AND THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
      6. 17.6. SOURCES OF ORGANIZATIONAL POWER
        1. 17.6.1. The Cunning of Feudal Power
        2. 17.6.2. Men with Guns
        3. 17.6.3. Capillaries Carry Blood and Power in Both Directions
      7. 17.7. THE SACRED AND DREADFUL ORGANIZATION
  9. 4. Followers and Leaders
    1. 18. Followers' Cognitive and Affective Structures and Leadership Processes
      1. 18.1. INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL FOLLOWER STRUCTURES
        1. 18.1.1. Self-Regulation
      2. 18.2. COLLECTIVE-LEVEL FOLLOWER STRUCTURES
        1. 18.2.1. Followership and Structure Emergence
      3. 18.3. LEADER-FOLLOWER DYNAMICS
        1. 18.3.1. Leaders' Influence on Followers
      4. 18.4. CONCLUSION
    2. 19. Social Identity Processes and the Empowerment of Followers
      1. 19.1. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
      2. 19.2. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
      3. 19.3. SOCIAL IDENTITY AND FOLLOWERSHIP
      4. 19.4. CONCLUDING COMMENTS AND A PRESCRIPTION FOR EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERSHIP
    3. 20. Lead, Follow, and Get out of the Way
      1. 20.1. LEADERSHIP, FOLLOWERSHIP, AND ORGANIZATIONAL VISION
      2. 20.2. STUDY 1: A CASE OF VISION MISALIGNMENT
      3. 20.3. STUDY 2: PROMOTING ALIGNMENT THROUGH PARTICIPATION
      4. 20.4. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROMOTING PARTICIPATION
        1. 20.4.1. Participation in Vision Communication
        2. 20.4.2. Participation in Vision Implementation
      5. 20.5. CONCLUSION
    4. 21. Effective Followership for Creativity and Innovation
      1. 21.1. STARTING POINTS
      2. 21.2. FOUNDATIONS OF FOLLOWERSHIP
      3. 21.3. DIMENSIONS OF EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERSHIP FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
        1. 21.3.1. Red or Blue?
        2. 21.3.2. 1-D or 3-D?
      4. 21.4. TYPES OF EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERS FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS
        1. 21.4.1. Creative Catalyst
        2. 21.4.2. Creative Supporter
        3. 21.4.3. Creative Skeptic
        4. 21.4.4. Creative Static
      5. 21.5. EFFECTIVE FOLLOWERSHIP FOR CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION IN ORGANIZATIONS: CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
    5. 22. Conformist, Resistant, and Disguised Selves
      1. 22.1. FOLLOWERSHIP AND FOLLOWER IDENTITY
      2. 22.2. A POST-STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO FOLLOWERSHIP
      3. 22.3. CONFORMIST SELVES
      4. 22.4. RESISTANT SELVES
      5. 22.5. DISGUISED SELVES
      6. 22.6. ROMANTICIZING FOLLOWERSHIP?
      7. 22.7. CONCLUSION
    6. 23. The Rise of Authentic Followership
      1. 23.1. PSYCHOLOGICAL OWNERSHIP
        1. 23.1.1. What Constitutes Psychological Ownership
        2. 23.1.2. Benefits of Psychological Ownership
      2. 23.2. TRUST
        1. 23.2.1. Building Trust
        2. 23.2.2. Risk in Vulnerability
        3. 23.2.3. Benefits of Trust
      3. 23.3. TRANSPARENCY
        1. 23.3.1. Benefits of Transparency
        2. 23.3.2. Transparency and Psychological Safety
      4. 23.4. CONCLUSION
  10. NOTES