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The Architecture of Privacy

Book Description

Technology’s influence on privacy not only concerns consumers, political leaders, and advocacy groups, but also the software architects who design new products. In this practical guide, experts in data analytics, software engineering, security, and privacy policy describe how software teams can make privacy-protective features a core part of product functionality, rather than add them late in the development process.

Ideal for software engineers new to privacy, this book helps you examine privacy-protective information management architectures and their foundational components—building blocks that you can combine in many ways. Policymakers, academics, students, and advocates unfamiliar with the technical terrain will learn how these tools can help drive policies to maximize privacy protection.

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword
  2. Preface
    1. Who Should Read This Book
    2. Why We Wrote This Book
    3. A Word on Privacy and Technology Today
    4. Navigating This Book
    5. Safari® Books Online
    6. How to Contact Us
    7. Acknowledgments
      1. Courtney Bowman
      2. Ari Gesher
      3. John K. Grant
      4. Daniel Slate
  3. I. Getting Started
  4. 1. What Is Privacy?
    1. How to Think About Privacy
      1. Defining Privacy
      2. A Short History of U.S. Informational Privacy
      3. Today
      4. “East Coast” Code and “West Coast” Code
    2. Why Privacy Is Important
    3. Before You Get Started
  5. 2. Personal Data and Privacy
    1. Data Collection: Understanding Privacy’s First Frontier
    2. Policy Considerations
    3. Implementation Considerations
    4. Conclusion
  6. 3. Case Studies in Data Collection
    1. Google Street View WiFi: Inadvertent Over-Collection of Data
    2. iPhone Location Database
    3. Conclusion
  7. 4. Information Security: Protecting Data from Unauthorized Access
    1. InfoSec Best Practices for Privacy-Protected Systems
    2. Further Reading
    3. Conclusion
  8. II. Access and Control: Controlling Authorized Data Access
  9. 5. Security Architecture
    1. Overview
    2. Separating Roles, Separating Powers
    3. Making Roles Secure
      1. The End User
      2. The Application Administrator
      3. The System Administrator
      4. The Hardware or Cloud Administrator
      5. The Network Administrator
    4. Conclusion
  10. 6. Access Controls
    1. Overview
    2. Access-Control Models
    3. Types of Access
      1. Basic Access
      2. Discovery Access
    4. Managing Access
      1. Role-Based Access
      2. Time-Based Access, or Data Leasing
      3. Functional Access
    5. Strengths and Weaknesses of Access Control
      1. Strengths
      2. Weaknesses
    6. Access Controls and the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)
    7. When to Use Access Controls
    8. Conclusion
  11. 7. Data Revelation
    1. Overview
    2. The Case for Data Revelation
    3. Requirements of Data Revelation
    4. Selective Revelation
    5. Purpose-Driven Revelation
    6. Scope-Driven Revelation
    7. Hybrid Revelation and Practical Scoping
    8. Designing for Data Revelation
    9. Strengths and Weaknesses of Data Revelation
      1. Strengths
      2. Weaknesses
    10. Data Revelation and the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)
    11. When to Use Data Revelation
    12. Conclusion
  12. III. Oversight: Holding Users and Systems Accountable
  13. 8. Federated Systems
    1. Overview
    2. “Always-On” Federation
    3. Asynchronous Federation
    4. Asking Out and Being Asked
    5. Strengths and Weaknesses of Federated Systems
      1. Strengths
      2. Weaknesses
    6. Federated Systems and the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)
    7. When to Use Federated Architecture
      1. Complex Regulatory Regimes
      2. Lack of Trust
      3. PR Imperatives
    8. Conclusion
  14. 9. Audit Logging
    1. Overview
    2. Why Are Audit Records Important?
    3. But Auditing Is Easy, Right?
    4. What Are the Challenges to Effective Auditing and How Do I Meet Them?
      1. Perspective
      2. Context
      3. Format and Readability
      4. Scale
      5. Retrievability
      6. Security
      7. Access Control
      8. Retention
    5. Audit Logging and the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs)
    6. Advanced Auditing Considerations
      1. Reactive Versus Proactive Auditing
      2. Emergency Stop for Audit-Log Failures
      3. Audit the Auditors
    7. Conclusion
  15. 10. Data Retention and Data Purging
    1. Overview
    2. What Is Data Retention?
    3. Why Is Data Retention Important?
    4. How to Set Retention and Purge Policies
    5. So You Want to Purge Data. Now What?
      1. Nondeletion Purging (or Not-Quite-Gone)
      2. Deletion Purging (or Gradations of Gone)
    6. Practical Steps of Data Retention
    7. Data Retention, Purging, and the FIPPs
      1. Designing Deletes
    8. Conclusion
  16. IV. Putting It All Together
  17. 11. Practical Applications and Use Cases
    1. Basic Framework
    2. Use Case #1: Social Media Analysis
    3. Use Case #2: Secure Messaging
    4. Use Case #3: Automated License Plate Readers (ALPR)
    5. Conclusion
  18. 12. Enter the Privacy Engineer
    1. The Role of the Privacy Engineer
      1. Privacy Engineers: How to Find One
    2. Avoiding Privacy Tunnel Vision
    3. Conclusion
  19. 13. The Future of Privacy
    1. The “Death” of Privacy
    2. Legal Reform
    3. Greater Transparency and Control
    4. Privacy in Plain Sight
    5. The Destiny of Data
    6. Anonymization Under Siege
    7. Expect the Unexpected
  20. Index