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Text Entry Systems

Book Description

Text entry has never been so important as it is today. This is in large part due to the phenomenal, relatively recent success of mobile computing, text messaging on mobile phones, and the proliferation of small devices like the Blackberry and Palm Pilot. Compared with the recent past, when text entry was primarily through the standard “qwerty” keyboard, people today use a diverse array of devices with the number and variety of such devices ever increasing.

The variety is not just in the devices, but also in the technologies used: Entry modalities have become more varied and include speech recognition and synthesis, handwriting recognition, and even eye-tracking using image processing on web-cams. Statistical language modeling has advanced greatly in the past ten years and so therein is potential to facilitate and improve text entry—increasingly, the way people communicate.

This book consists of four parts, and covers these areas: Guidelines for Designing Better Entry Systems (including research methodologies, measurement, and language modelling); Devices and Modalities; Languages of the world and entry systems in those languages; and variety in users and their difficulties with text entry—and the possible design and guideline solutions for those individual user groups.

This book covers different aspects of text entry systems and offers prospective researchers and developers

* global guidelines for conducting research on text entry, in terms of design strategy, evaluation methodology, and requirements;

* history and current state of the art of entry systems, including coverage of recent research topics;

* specific guidelines for designing entry systems for a specific target, depending on devices, modalities, language, and different physical conditions of users

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Interactive Technologies
  5. Copyright
  6. Preface: Variety and Universality
  7. Part 1: Foundations
    1. Chapter 1: Historical Overview of Consumer Text Entry Technologies
      1. 1.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 1.2 TYPEWRITER, 1870s TO 1980s
      3. 1.3 PERSONAL COMPUTER, 1980s TO PRESENT
      4. 1.4 MOBILE PHONES, 1990s TO PRESENT
      5. 1.5 HANDHELD COMPUTERS
      6. 1.6 CONCLUSIONS
      7. 1.7 FURTHER READING
    2. Chapter 2: Language Models for Text Entry
      1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 2.2 BASIC MODEL OF TEXT ENTRY
      3. 2.3 N-GRAM MODELS
      4. 2.4 HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL
      5. 2.5 ADAPTIVE MODELS
      6. 2.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
    3. Chapter 3: Measures of Text Entry Performance
      1. 3.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 3.2 AGGREGATE MEASURES
      3. 3.3 CHARACTER-LEVEL MEASURES
      4. 3.4 MEASUREMENTS FROM LOG FILES
      5. 3.5 METHOD-SPECIFIC MEASURES
      6. 3.6 DISCUSSION OF MEASURES
      7. 3.7 FURTHER READING
    4. Chapter 4: Evaluation of Text Entry Techniques
      1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 4.2 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TEXT ENTRY TECHNIQUES
      3. 4.3 EXPERIMENT DESIGN
      4. 4.4 LEARNING
      5. 4.5 SUMMARY AND FURTHER READING
  8. Part 2: Entry Modalities and Devices
    1. Chapter 5: Text Entry Using a Small Number of Buttons
      1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 5.2 MOBILE PHONE KEYPAD AND ENTRY METHODS
      3. 5.3 CHARACTERISTIC MEASURES FOR AMBIGUOUS KEYBOARDS
      4. 5.4 MOBILE PHONE KEYPAD VARIANTS
      5. 5.5 EVALUATING KEYBOARDS
      6. 5.6 ENTRY BY COMPLETION
      7. 5.7 SUMMARY AND FURTHER READING
    2. Chapter 6: English Language Handwriting Recognition Interfaces
      1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 6.2 OFFLINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION
      3. 6.3 ONLINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION
      4. 6.4 SHORTHAND
      5. 6.5 COMMERCIAL ONLINE SYSTEMS
      6. 6.6 CASE STUDY
      7. 6.7 FURTHER READING
    3. Chapter 7: Introduction to Shape Writing
      1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 7.2 THE BASIC CONCEPT OF SHAPE WRITING
      3. 7.3 INFORMATION AND CONSTRAINTS
      4. 7.4 SHAPE-WRITING RECOGNITION
      5. 7.5 OUT-OF-LEXICON INPUT, AMBIGUITY, AND ERROR HANDLING
      6. 7.6 HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SHAPE AS AN ENCODING MODALITY AND THE PROGRESSION FROM TRACING TO DIRECT SHAPE WRITING
      7. 7.7 EFFICIENCY AND LAYOUT MATTERS
      8. 7.8 THE MULTIPLE DIMENSIONS AND GUIDELINES OF EFFICIENT TEXT ENTRY
      9. 7.9 FURTHER READING
    4. Chapter 8: Speech-Based Interfaces
      1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 8.2 CATEGORIES OF SPEECH RECOGNITION TASKS
      3. 8.3 PRINCIPLES OF SPEECH RECOGNITION
      4. 8.4 DICTATION SYSTEMS AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
      5. 8.5 SPOKEN DIALOGUE SYSTEMS AND THEIR DIFFICULTIES
      6. 8.6 EVALUATION OF SPEECH-BASED INPUT SYSTEMS
      7. 8.7 CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 9: Text Entry by Gaze: Utilizing Eye Tracking
      1. 9.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 9.2 DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO TEXT ENTRY BY GAZE
      3. 9.3 CASE STUDIES AND GUIDELINES
      4. 9.4 FURTHER READING
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  9. Part 3: Language Variations
    1. Chapter 10: Writing System Variation and Text Entry
      1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 10.2 VARIATION IN WRITING SYSTEMS
      3. 10.3 TEXT ENTRY PROBLEMS IN DIFFERENT WRITING SYSTEMS
      4. 10.4 ALPHABETIC SCRIPTS
      5. 10.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. 10.6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  10. Part 4: Accessibility, Universality
    1. Chapter 11: Text Entry in East Asian Languages
      1. 11.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 11.2 LANGUAGE DESCRIPTION
      3. 11.3 NONPREDICTIVE METHODS
      4. 11.4 PREDICTIVE ENTRY BASED ON PHONETICS
      5. 11.5 PREDICTIVE ENTRY BASED ON SHAPES
      6. 11.6 ENTRY ON OTHER DEVICES
      7. 11.7 IDEOGRAM ENTRY SYSTEM FOR NONNATIVES
      8. 11.8 CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 12: Text Entry in South and Southeast Asian Scripts
      1. 12.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 12.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ABUGIDA
      3. 12.3 TEXT ENTRY ISSUES
      4. 12.4 TEXT ENTRY SYSTEMS IN INDIA
      5. 12.5 TEXT ENTRY SYSTEMS IN THAILAND
      6. 12.6 CONCLUSION
      7. 12.7 FURTHER READING
    3. Chapter 13: Text Entry in Hebrew and Arabic Scripts
      1. 13.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 13.2 ARABIC AND HEBREW SCRIPTS
      3. 13.3 STANDARD ENTRY
      4. 13.4 ENTRY ON MOBILE DEVICES
      5. 13.5 TOWARD COMPUTER-AIDED ENTRY
      6. 13.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. 13.7 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    4. Chapter 14: Text Input for the Elderly and the Young
      1. 14.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 14.2 OVERVIEW OF AGE EFFECTS
      3. 14.3 TEXT INPUT FOR THE ELDERLY
      4. 14.4 TEXT INPUT FOR CHILDREN
      5. 14.5 CASE STUDY—EVALUATING TEXT INPUT WITH CHILDREN
      6. 14.6 FURTHER READING
    5. Chapter 15: Text Entry When Movement is Impaired
      1. 15.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 15.2 USING KEYBOARDS
      3. 15.3 ASSISTIVE INPUT TECHNIQUES
      4. 15.4 ALTERNATIVES TO STANDARD KEYBOARDS
      5. 15.5 AAC TEXT INPUT
      6. 15.6 CASE STUDY: DISAMBIGUATION
      7. 15.7 FURTHER READING
    6. Chapter 16: Text Entry for People with Visual Impairments
      1. 16.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 16.2 TEXT ENTRY FOR LATIN ALPHABETS
      3. 16.3 TEXT ENTRY FOR IDEOGRAPHIC CHARACTERS
      4. 16.4 SELECTION-BASED TEXT ENTRY INTERFACES
      5. 16.5 DESIGN GUIDELINES
      6. 16.6 CONCLUSION
      7. RELATED ORGANIZATIONS AND RESEARCH GROUPS
      8. MAJOR PRODUCTS
  11. Index
  12. About the Authors