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Test and Measurement: Know It All

Book Description

The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors
• Hot topics covered
• The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume

Table of Contents

  1. Brief Table of Contents
  2. Table of Contents
  3. Copyright
  4. About the Authors
  5. Part I. Measurement Technology and Techniques
    1. Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Measurement
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. Fundamental Concepts
      3. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 2. Sensors and Transducers
      1. 2.1. Basic Sensor Technology
      2. 2.2. Sensor Systems
      3. 2.3. Application Considerations
      4. 2.4. Sensor Characteristics
      5. 2.5. System Characteristics
      6. 2.6. Instrument Selection
      7. 2.7. Data Acquisition and Readout
      8. 2.8. Installation
      9. 2.9. Measurement Issues and Criteria
    3. Chapter 3. Data Acquisition Hardware and Software
      1. 3.1. ADCs
      2. 3.2. Types of ADCs
      3. 3.3. ADC Comparison
      4. 3.4. Sample and Hold
      5. 3.5. Real Parts
      6. 3.6. Microprocessor Interfacing
      7. 3.7. Clocked Interfaces
      8. 3.8. Serial Interfaces
      9. 3.9. Multichannel ADCs
      10. 3.10. Internal Microcontroller ADCs
      11. 3.11. Codecs
      12. 3.12. Interrupt Rates
      13. 3.13. Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers
      14. 3.14. Design Checklist
  6. Part II. Measurement Systems
    1. Chapter 4. Overview of Measurement Systems
      1. 4.1. Transducers
      2. 4.2. Methods of Measurement
      3. 4.3. Sensitivity
      4. 4.4. Zero, Range, Linearity, and Span
      5. 4.5. Resolution, Hysteresis, and Error
      6. 4.6. Fourier Analysis
      7. 4.7. Dynamic Response
      8. 4.8. PID Control
      9. 4.9. Accuracy and Repeatability
      10. 4.10. Mechanical Models
    2. Chapter 5. Acceleration, Shock, and Vibration
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Technology Fundamentals
      3. 5.3. Selecting and Specifying Accelerometers
      4. 5.4. Applicable Standards
      5. 5.5. Interfacing and Designs
      6. 5.6. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Sensors
      7. References and Resources
    3. Chapter 6. Flow
      1. 6.1. General
      2. 6.2. Differential Pressure Flowmeters
      3. 6.3. Turbine Flowmeters
      4. 6.4. Vortex Shedding Flowmeters
      5. 6.5. Electromagnetic Flowmeters
      6. 6.6. Ultrasonic Flowmeters
      7. 6.7. Hot Wire Anemometer
      8. 6.8. Mass Flowmeters
    4. Chapter 7. Temperature
      1. 7.1. Temperature Scales
      2. 7.2. Types of Temperature Sensors
      3. 7.3. Measurement Errors
      4. 7.4. Selecting a Temperature Sensor
      5. 7.5. Thermocouple Temperature Sensors
      6. 7.6. RTD Temperature Sensors
      7. 7.7. Thermistor Temperature Sensors
      8. 7.8. Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors
    5. Chapter 8. Pressure
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. SI and Other Units
      3. 8.3. Absolute, Gauge, and Differential Pressure Modes
      4. 8.4. Primary Standards
      5. 8.5. Spinning Ball Gauge Standard
      6. 8.6. Secondary Standards
      7. 8.7. Working Standards
      8. 8.8. Pressure Measuring Instruments
      9. 8.9. Calibration of Pressure Standards and Instruments
      10. Bibliography
    6. Chapter 9. Position
      1. 9.1. Mechanical Switch
      2. 9.2. Potentiometric Sensor
      3. 9.3. Capacitive Transducer
      4. 9.4. LVDT
      5. 9.5. Angular Velocity Transducer
      6. 9.6. Position-Sensitive Diode Array
      7. 9.7. Motion Control
    7. Chapter 10. Strain Gauges, Load Cells, and Weighing
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Stress and Strain
      3. 10.3. Strain Gauges
      4. 10.4. Bridge Circuits
      5. 10.5. Load Cells
      6. 10.6. Weighing Systems
    8. Chapter 11. Light
      1. 11.1. Light
      2. 11.2. Measuring Light
      3. 11.3. Standards of Measurement
      4. 11.4. Thermal Detectors
      5. 11.5. Light-Dependent Resistor
      6. 11.6. Photodiode
      7. 11.7. Other Semiconductor Photodetectors
      8. 11.8. Optical Detectors
      9. 11.9. Photomultiplier
  7. Part III. Instrumentation Design Techniques for Test and Measurement
    1. Chapter 12. Signal Processing and Conditioning
      1. 12.1. Conditioning Bridge Circuits
      2. 12.2. Amplifiers for Signal Conditioning
      3. References
    2. Chapter 13. Interfacing and Data Communications
      1. 13.1. Interfacing
      2. 12.2. Input/Output Ports
      3. 13.3. Polling
      4. 13.4. Interrupts
      5. 13.5. Direct Memory Access (DMA)
      6. 13.6. Serial Port
      7. 13.7. Serial Port Addresses
      8. 13.8. Serial Port Registers
      9. 13.9. Serial Port Registers and Interrupts
      10. 13.10. Serial Port Baud Rate
      11. 13.11. Serial Port Operation
      12. 13.12. Parallel Printer Port
      13. 13.13. Parallel Port Registers
      14. 13.14. Parallel Printer Port Operation
      15. 13.15. Communications
      16. 13.16. Byte-to-Serial Conversion
      17. 13.17. RS232 Interface
      18. 13.18. Synchronization
      19. 13.19. UART (6402)
      20. 13.20. Line Drivers
      21. 13.21. UART Clock
      22. 13.22. UART Master Reset
      23. 13.23. Null Modem
      24. 13.24. Serial Port BIOS Services
      25. 13.25. Serial Port Operation in BASIC
      26. 13.26. Hardware Handshaking
      27. 13.27. RS485
      28. 13.28. GPIB
      29. 13.29. USB
      30. 13.30. TCP/IP
    3. Chapter 14. Data Acquisition Software
      1. 14.1. An Overview of DA&C Software
      2. 14.2. Data Acquisition and Control in Real Time
      3. 14.3. Implementing Real-Time Systems on the PC
      4. 14.4. Robustness, Reliability, and Safety
    4. Chapter 15. Scaling and Calibration
      1. 15.1. Scaling of Linear Response Curves
      2. 15.2. Linearization
      3. 15.3. Polynomial Linearization
      4. 15.4. Interpolation between Points in a Lookup Table
      5. 15.5. Interpolation vs. Power-Series Polynomials
      6. 15.6. Interactive Calibration Programs
      7. 15.7. Practical Issues
    5. Chapter 16. Synthetic Instruments
      1. 16.1. What Is a Synthetic Instrument?
      2. 16.2. History of Automated Measurement
      3. 16.3. Synthetic Instruments Defined
      4. 16.4. Advantages of Synthetic Instruments
      5. 16.5. Synthetic Instrument Misconceptions
      6. 16.6. Synthetic Measurement System Hardware Architectures
      7. 16.7. System Concept—The CCC Architecture
      8. 16.8. Hardware Requirements Traceability
      9. 16.9. Stimulus
      10. 16.10. Stimulus Digital-Signal Processing
      11. 16.11. Stimulus Triggering
      12. 16.12. The Stimulus D/A
      13. 16.13. Stimulus Conditioning
      14. 16.14. Stimulus Cascade—Real-World Example
      15. 16.15. Real-World Design: A Synthetic Measurement System
      16. 16.16. Universal High-Speed RF Microwave Test System
      17. 16.17. System Architecture
      18. 16.18. DUT Interface
      19. 16.19. Calibration
      20. 16.20. Software Solutions
      21. 16.21. Conclusions
      22. References
    6. Chapter 17. Real-World Measurement Applications
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Applications of Precision-Measurement Σ-Δ ADCs
      3. 17.3. Weigh Scale Design Analysis Using the AD7730 ADC
      4. 17.4. Thermocouple Conditioning Using the AD7793 ADC
      5. 17.5. Direct Digital Temperature Measurements
      6. 17.6. Microprocessor Substrate Temperature Sensors
      7. 17.7. Applications of ADCs in Power Meters
      8. References
  8. Part IV. Circuit and Board Testing
    1. Chapter 18. Testing Methods
      1. 18.1. The Order-of-Magnitude Rule
      2. 18.2. A Brief (Somewhat Apocryphal) History of Test
      3. 18.3. Test Options
      4. 18.4. Summary
    2. Chapter 19. Boundary Scan Techniques
      1. 19.1. Latch-Scanning Arrangements
      2. 19.2. Enter Boundary Scan
      3. 19.3. Hardware Requirements
      4. 19.4. Modes and Instructions
      5. 19.5. Implementing Boundary Scan
      6. 19.6. Partial-Boundary-Scan Testing
      7. 19.7. Other Alternatives
      8. 19.8. Summary
    3. Chapter 20. Inspection Test
      1. 20.1. Striking a Balance
      2. 20.2. Postpaste Inspection
      3. 20.3. Postplacement/Postreflow
      4. 20.4. Summary
  9. Part V. EMC and RF Emissions Testing and Measurement
    1. Chapter 21. EMC Fundamentals
      1. 21.1. What Is EMC?
      2. 21.2. Compatibility between and within Systems
      3. References
    2. Chapter 22. Measuring RF Emissions
      1. 22.1. Emissions Measuring Instruments
      2. 22.2. Transducers
      3. 22.3. Sites and Facilities
      4. References
    3. Chapter 23. Test Methods
      1. 23.1. Test Setup
      2. 23.2. Test Procedure
      3. 23.3. Tests above 1 GHz
      4. 23.4. Military Emissions Tests
      5. 23.5. Measurement Uncertainty
      6. References
    4. Chapter 24. Test Planning
      1. 24.1. The Need for a Test Plan
      2. 24.2. Contents of the Test Plan
      3. 24.3. Immunity Performance Criteria
      4. References
  10. Part VI. Accelerated Testing
    1. Chapter 25. Accelerated Testing Fundamentals
      1. 25.1. Scenario 1. A Key Physical Property Is Wrong
      2. 25.2. Scenario 2. A Primary Failure Mode of a Product
      3. 25.3. Scenario 3. The Mean Time to Failure
    2. Chapter 26. HALT and FMVT
      1. 26.1. A Typical HALT
      2. 26.2. Hot Temperature Steps
      3. 26.3. Cold Temperature Steps
      4. 26.4. Ramp Rates
      5. 26.5. Vibration
      6. 26.6. Combined Run
      7. 26.7. Business Structures
      8. 26.8. Failure-Mode Verification Testing
      9. 26.9. Development FMVT
      10. 26.10. More about Stress
      11. 26.11. What Can Break the Product?
      12. 26.12. More about Failures
      13. 26.13. More about Setup and Execution
      14. 26.14. More on Data Analysis
      15. 26.15. Comparison FMVT
      16. 26.16. Method 1. Time to First Failure
      17. 26.17. Method 2. Failure-Mode Progression Comparison
      18. 26.18. FMVT Life Prediction—Equivalent Wear and Cycle Counting
      19. 26.19. FMVT Warranty
      20. 26.20. More on Vibration
      21. 26.21. Reliability and Design Maturity
      22. 26.22. Business Considerations
    3. Chapter . Hall-Effect Sensors
      1. 1. A Quantitative Examination
      2. 2. Hall Effect in Metals
      3. 3. The Hall Effect in Semiconductors
      4. 4. A Silicon Hall-Effect Transducer
      5. 5. Practical Transducers
      6. 6. Transducer Interfacing
      7. References
    4. Chapter . Sampling
      1. 1. Introduction
      2. 2. Digital I/O
      3. 3. Sensors for Analog Signals
      4. 4. Handling Analog Signals
      5. 5. Digitization and Signal Conversion
      6. 6. Analog Measurements
      7. 7. Timers and Pacing
      8. 8. Sampling, Noise, and Filtering
      9. 9. Sampling and Aliasing
      10. 10. Noise and Filtering
      11. References
    5. Chapter . Wireless Systems
      1. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
      2. Individual Wireless Sensor Node Architecture
      3. Wireless Sensor Networks Architecture
      4. Radio Options for the Physical Layer in Wireless Sensor Networks
      5. Power Consideration in Wireless Sensor Networks
      6. Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
      7. Future Developments
      8. Conclusion
      9. Acknowledgment
  11. Appendix . Standard Interfaces
    1. 1. IEEE 1451.2
    2. 2. 4–20-mA Current Loop
    3. 3. Fieldbus
  12. Index
    1. SYMBOL
    2. A
    3. B
    4. C
    5. D
    6. E
    7. F
    8. G
    9. H
    10. I
    11. J
    12. K
    13. L
    14. M
    15. N
    16. O
    17. P
    18. Q
    19. R
    20. S
    21. T
    22. U
    23. V
    24. W
    25. X
    26. Y