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Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems

Book Description

This book provides the reader with knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. The author covers faults and failures in ULSI devices induced by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha-rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn how to make numerical models from physical insights, to determine the kind of mathematical approaches that should be implemented to analyze radiation effects. A wide variety of prediction, detection, characterization and mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them, and explains how electronic systems including servers and routers are shut down due to environmental radiation.

  • Provides an understanding of how electronic systems are shut down due to environmental radiation by constructing physical models and numerical algorithms

  • Covers both terrestrial and avionic-level conditions

  • Logically presented with each chapter explaining the background physics to the topic followed by various modelling techniques, and chapter summary

  • Written by a widely-recognized authority in soft-errors in electronic devices

  • Code samples available for download from the Companion Website

  • This book is targeted at researchers and graduate students in nuclear and space radiation, semiconductor physics and electron devices, as well as other areas of applied physics modelling. Researchers and students interested in how a variety of physical phenomena can be modelled and numerically treated will also find this book to present helpful methods.

    Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright
    3. Dedication
    4. About the Author
    5. Preface
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Acronyms
    8. Chapter 1: Introduction
      1. 1.1 Basic Knowledge on Terrestrial Secondary Particles
      2. 1.2 CMOS Semiconductor Devices and Systems
      3. 1.3 Two Major Fault Modes: Charge Collection and Bipolar Action
      4. 1.4 Four Hierarchies in Faulty Conditions in Electronic Systems: Fault – Error – Hazard – Failure
      5. 1.5 Historical Background of Soft-Error Research
      6. 1.6 General Scope of This Book
      7. References
    9. Chapter 2: Terrestrial Radiation Fields
      1. 2.1 General Sources of Radiation
      2. 2.2 Backgrounds for Selection of Terrestrial High-Energy Particles
      3. 2.3 Spectra at the Avionics Altitude
      4. 2.4 Radioisotopes in the Field
      5. 2.5 Summary of Chapter 2
      6. References
    10. Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Radiation Effects
      1. 3.1 General Description of Radiation Effects
      2. 3.2 Definition of Cross Section
      3. 3.3 Radiation Effects by Photons (Gamma-ray and X-ray)
      4. 3.4 Radiation Effects by Electrons (Beta-ray)
      5. 3.5 Radiation Effects by Muons
      6. 3.6 Radiation Effects by Protons
      7. 3.7 Radiation Effects by Alpha-Particles
      8. 3.8 Radiation Effects by Low-Energy Neutrons
      9. 3.9 Radiation Effects by High-Energy Neutrons
      10. 3.10 Radiation Effects by Heavy Ions
      11. 3.11 Summary of Chapter 3
      12. References
    11. Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Electronic Devices and Systems
      1. 4.1 Fundamentals of Electronic Components
      2. 4.2 Fundamentals of Electronic Systems
      3. 4.3 Summary of Chapter 4
      4. References
    12. Chapter 5: Irradiation Test Methods for Single Event Effects
      1. 5.1 Field Test
      2. 5.2 Alpha Ray SEE Test
      3. 5.3 Heavy Ion Particle Irradiation Test
      4. 5.4 Proton Beam Test
      5. 5.5 Muon Test Method
      6. 5.6 Thermal/Cold Neutron Test Methods
      7. 5.7 High-Energy Neutron Test
      8. 5.8 Testing Conditions and Matters That Require Attention
      9. 5.9 Summary of Chapter 5
      10. References
    13. Chapter 6: Integrated Device Level Simulation Techniques
      1. 6.1 Overall Multi-scale and Multi-physics Soft-Error Analysis System
      2. 6.2 Relativistic Binary Collision and Nuclear Reaction Models
      3. 6.3 Intra-nuclear Cascade (INC) Model for High-Energy Neutrons and Protons
      4. 6.4 Evaporation Model for High-Energy Neutrons and Protons
      5. 6.5 Generalised Evaporation Model (GEM) for Inverse Reaction Cross Sections
      6. 6.6 Neutron Capture Reaction Model
      7. 6.7 Automated Device Modelling
      8. 6.8 Setting of Random Position of Spallation Reaction Point in a Component
      9. 6.9 Algorithms for Ion Tracking
      10. 6.10 Fault Mode Models
      11. 6.11 Calculation of Cross Section
      12. 6.12 Prediction for Scaling Effects of Soft Error Down to 22 nm Design Rule in SRAMs
      13. 6.13 Evaluation of Effects of Heavy Elements in Semiconductor Devices by Nuclear Spallation Reaction
      14. 6.14 Upper Bound Fault Simulation Model
      15. 6.15 Upper Bound Fault Simulation Results
      16. 6.16 Upper Bound Simulation Method for SOC (System On Chip)
      17. 6.17 Summary of Chapter 6
      18. References
    14. Chapter 7: Prediction, Detection and Classification Techniques of Faults, Errors and Failures
      1. 7.1 Overview of Failures in the Field
      2. 7.2 Prediction and Estimation of Faulty Conditions due to SEE
      3. 7.3 In-situ Detection of Faulty Conditions due to SEE
      4. 7.4 Classification of Faulty Conditions
      5. 7.5 Faulty Modes in Each Hierarchy
      6. 7.6 Summary of Chapter 7
      7. References
    15. Chapter 8: Mitigation Techniques of Failures in Electronic Components and Systems
      1. 8.1 Conventional Stack-layer Based Mitigation Techniques, Their Limitations and Improvements
      2. 8.2 Challenges for Hyper Mitigation Techniques
      3. 8.3 Summary of Chapter 8
      4. References
    16. Chapter 9: Summary
      1. 9.1 Summary of Terrestrial Radiation Effects on ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems
      2. 9.2 Directions and Challenges in the Future
    17. Appendices
      1. A.1 Hamming Code
      2. A.2 Marching Algorithms
      3. A.3 Why VB Is Used For Simulation?
      4. A.4 Basic Knowledge of Visual Basic
      5. A.5 Database Handling by Visual Basic and SQL
      6. A.6 Algorithms in Text Handling and Sample Codes
      7. A.7 How to Make a Self-Consistent Calculation
      8. A.8 Sample Code for Random Selection of Hit Points in a Triangle
    18. Index
    19. End User License Agreement