*This chapter calls on maths, but the maths is relatively elementary. Section* *4.1* *requires only the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Section* *4.2* *requires calculus. Section* *4.3* *requires trigonometry, but is a rather direct extension of the methods we have already met in Chapter* *2**. Section* *4.5* *assumes some geometrical facility in picturing planes, circles and ellipses. Section* *4.6* *assumes a background in integration and differentiation.*

Let there be light! Light is a basic physical entity. One might argue that light is the most fundamental physical phenomenon of all.

Physics is about energy and matter and their interaction. This chapter is about energy in its purest form, energy in the form ...

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