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Television Production, 16th Edition

Book Description

Gain the skills you need to succeed in the television industry and master the production process, from shooting and producing, to editing and distribution. This new and updated 16th edition of Television Production offers a thorough and practical guide to professional TV and video production techniques. You will learn how to anticipate and quickly overcome commonly-encountered problems in television production, as Jim Owens details all the major features of television production, including the secrets of top-grade camerawork, persuasive lighting techniques, effective sound treatment, as well as the subtle processes of scenic design, and the art of video editing. The 16th edition of this classic text now explores the changing television landscape, the effects of the "second screen" on viewer experience, 4K and 8K shooting and the real implications it has for your production, and much more. This new edition also includes:

  • Discussions on the changing definition of "television" and how new technology effects veiwers and their viewing habits
  • Updated interviews with professionals in the industry, such as noted documentary filmmaker, Sarah Leckie, about the challenges they face during the production process and the advice they would give to those trying to break in to the production and television industries
  • Thorough definitions of television and production terminology as well as information on LED lighting and other technologies used on set
  • A comprehensive resource page for instructors, containing slides and testing materials to aid in the learning process can be found at www.focalpress.com/cw/owens.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. CONTENTS
  6. CHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF TELEVISI ON PRODUCTION
    1. What Is Television?
    2. The Second Screen
      1. Television Production
      2. Equipment Has Become Simpler to Use
      3. The Illusion of Reality
      4. It’s All About How You Do It
      5. Techniques Will Tell
      6. Having the Edge
    3. Overview
      1. Organization
    4. Television, Video, or Film?
      1. Television versus New Media
      2. The Equipment Is Always Changing
      3. Today’s Equipment
    5. The Production Team
      1. The Hidden Factors of Production
    6. Interview with a Professional: Vicky Collins
    7. Review Questions
  7. CHAPTER 2 THE PEOPLE WHO MAKE IT HAPPEN
    1. The Production Crew
      1. Members of the Production Crew
    2. The Freelance Crew
    3. What Do You Wear?
      1. What Do You Bring with You?
    4. Interview with a Professional: Taylor Vinson
    5. Interview with a Professional: Phil Bowdle
    6. Review Questions
  8. CHAPTER 3 THE TELEVISION PRODUCTION FACILITY
    1. Production Methods
    2. The Venue
      1. The Television Studio
      2. Remote Production Facilities
    3. The Production Switcher
      1. The Wipe
      2. Chromakey
      3. Synchronized Movements with the Virtual Set
      4. Digital Video Effects
    4. Interview with a Professional: Bryan Jenkins
    5. Review Questions
  9. CHAPTER 4 THE PRODUCTION PROCESS
    1. The Production Process
    2. Stage 1: Planning and Preparation
      1. Why Plan?
      2. The Idea: Starting with a Concept
      3. Setting the Goals and Objectives
      4. The Target Audience
      5. The Budget
      6. Limitations/Restrictions
      7. The Production Plan
      8. Production Methods
      9. Schedule
      10. Building a Program Outline
      11. Research
      12. Coverage
      13. Thinking through the Shots
      14. Treatment Breakdown
      15. Developing the Camera Plan
      16. Storyboards
      17. Production Aspects
      18. The Production Meeting
      19. Remote Location Surveys (Recce)
      20. Setup
      21. The Rehearsal
    3. Stage 2: The Production
      1. The Director during the Production
      2. The Producer during the Production
      3. Creating the Show
      4. The Tools
      5. Selective Techniques
      6. The Screen Transforms Reality
      7. Interpretative Production Techniques
    4. Stage 3: Postproduction
    5. Interview with a Professional: James Stuart
    6. Review Questions
  10. CHAPTER 5 THE SCRIPT AND PRODUCTION PLAN
    1. The Script’s Purpose
    2. The Production Plan
      1. The Unscripted Production Plan
      2. The Outline Script: Semi-Scripted Production
      3. Fully Scripted Shows
      4. When Is It Necessary to Fully Script a Production?
      5. Script Stages
      6. Basic Script Layout Formats
    3. Suggestions for Scriptwriting
      1. Be Visual
      2. Pacing the Program
      3. Style
      4. Hints on Developing the Script
      5. Scripting Tools
      6. Storyboards
      7. Additional Production Plan Information
    4. Interview with a Professional: Andrea Nasfell
    5. Interview with a Professional: Hakem Dermish
    6. Review Questions
  11. CHAPTER 6 WHAT THE CAMERA CAN DO
    1. Television Cameras
    2. Types of Cameras
      1. Camcorders
      2. Studio Cameras
      3. Miniature or Point-of-View Cameras
    3. Camera Basics
      1. The Viewfinder
      2. The Camera’s Controls
    4. The Camera Lens
      1. Lens Angle
      2. Normal Lens
      3. Telephoto Lens
      4. Wide-Angle Lens
      5. Supplementary Lenses
      6. Lens Controls
    5. Types of Lenses
      1. Zoom Lens
      2. Zoom Lens Controls
      3. Zoom Lens Advantages
      4. Zoom Lens Disadvantages
    6. Focusing
      1. Why Focus?
      2. Focusing Methods
      3. Focusing the Zoom Lens
      4. Adjusting the Zoom’s Back Focus
    7. Lens Aperture (F-Stop)
      1. F-Stops (F-Numbers)
    8. Exposure
      1. Automatic Iris
      2. Manual Iris Adjustment
      3. Remote Iris Control
    9. Shutter Speeds
    10. Video Gain Adjustment
    11. Camera Lens Filters
      1. Neutral-Density Filters
      2. Corrective Filter
      3. Star Filters
      4. Diffusion Disks
      5. UV (Haze) Filters
      6. Polarizing Filters
      7. Graduated Filters
      8. Camera Filter Wheel
    12. Supporting the Camera
      1. What Type of Support?
      2. The Handheld Camera
      3. Camera Stabilizers
      4. The Pan-and-Tilt Head
    13. Interview with a Professional: Nathan White
    14. Review Questions
  12. CHAPTER 7 USING THE CAMERA
    1. Standard Shots
      1. Selecting the Shot
      2. Checking the Shot
    2. Camera Operation
      1. Focusing
      2. Camera Moves
    3. Production Format Styles
      1. The Single-Camera Shoot
      2. The Multi-Camera Shoot
      3. The Camera Operator in a Multi-Camera Production
      4. Preparing for Rehearsals
    4. The Camera Operator during the Production
    5. Production Techniques That Impact the Camera Operator
    6. After the Show
    7. Interview with a Professional: Thomas Crescenzo
    8. Interview with a Professional: Jon Lord
    9. Review Questions
  13. CHAPTER 8 THE PERSUASIVE CAMERA
    1. Shooting Style
    2. Screen Size
    3. Selecting the Shot
      1. The Extreme Long Shot (ELS or XLS)
      2. The Long Shot (LS)
      3. Medium Shots (MS)
      4. The Close-Up (CU)
      5. The Extreme Close-Up (XCU or ECU)
      6. Large Depth of Field (Deep-Focus) Techniques
      7. Shallow Depth of Field (Shallow-Focus) Techniques
    4. Moving the Camera Head
      1. Panning the Camera
      2. Tilting the Camera Head
      3. Camera Height
      4. Extreme Camera Angles
    5. Moving the Camera
      1. Subjective Camera Treatment
      2. Imitative Camera Movement
      3. Movement Using the Zoom Lens
    6. Interview with a Professional: Matt Grimm
    7. Review Questions
  14. CHAPTER 9 CREATING AN EFFECTIVE IMAGE
    1. Behind the Picture
    2. Composing the Picture
      1. Practical Composition
      2. The Director and Composition
      3. Composition Principles
    3. The Effect of the Picture Frame
      1. Framing
      2. Pictorial Balance
      3. Unity (Order)
      4. Visual Patterns
      5. Leading Lines
      6. Rule of Thirds
      7. Context
      8. Scale
      9. Subject Prominence
      10. Impressions of the Subject
      11. Composition and Color
      12. Composition and Motion
      13. A Theory of Dynamic Composition
      14. Using Dynamic Composition
      15. Crossing the Line
    4. Anticipating Editing
      1. Continuity
      2. Improving Editing Flexibility
    5. Interview with a Professional: Keith Brown
    6. Review Questions
  15. CHAPTER 10 TELEVISION GRAPHICS
    1. Television Graphic Goals
      1. Types of Graphics
    2. Forms of Graphics
      1. Animated Graphics
      2. Interactive Graphics
    3. Designing Graphics
      1. Backgrounds for Graphics
    4. Graphic Equipment
    5. Interview with a Professional: Scott Rogers
    6. Review Questions
  16. CHAPTER 11 LIGHTING FOR TELEVISION
    1. The Goals of Lighting
    2. Why Is Lighting Necessary?
      1. Technical Reasons
      2. Artistic Reasons
    3. The Nature of Light
      1. Light Intensity
      2. The Color Quality of Light
      3. Light Dispersion
      4. Spotlights
      5. The Direction of the Light
      6. Three-Point Lighting
      7. Basic Guidelines for Lighting People
      8. Lighting Groups of People
      9. Lighting Areas of the Scene
    4. Light Sources
    5. Lighting Instruments
      1. Camera Light
      2. Fresnel Spotlights
      3. Ellipsoidal Spotlights
      4. Scoop
      5. Broad Light
      6. Soft Light
      7. Cyclorama Light
      8. Multi-Lamp Sources
      9. Open-Face Adjustable Light
      10. Reflectors
    6. Light Supports
      1. Grip Clamps
      2. Light Stands
      3. Studio Ceiling Supports
      4. Portable Light Kits
    7. Controlling the Lights
    8. Basic Lighting Plan
      1. What Is Going to Happen?
      2. The Lighting Plot
      3. Lamp Care and Safety
      4. Lighting and Camera Rehearsal
      5. Lighting on Location
    9. Interview with a Professional: Tommy Brown
    10. Review Questions
  17. CHAPTER 12 BACK GROUNDS AND SETS
    1. The Influence of the Television Background
    2. Basic Organization
      1. The Studio Plan
      2. The Floor Plan
      3. Lighting Plot
      4. Design Considerations
      5. Set Design for 16:9
      6. Real and Unreal Backgrounds
      7. The Neutral Background
    3. Economical Sets
      1. Semipermanent Sets
      2. Pictorial Backgrounds
      3. Cyclorama
      4. Chromakey/Matting
      5. Virtual Sets
      6. Outside/Backlot Sets
      7. The Location as a Background
      8. Miniatures
    4. Set Components
    5. Set Considerations
      1. Camera Height
      2. Foreground Pieces
      3. Creating Depth
      4. Versions of “Reality”
      5. What Can We Do about the Background?
      6. Rearranging the Background
      7. Altering the Background
      8. Partial Settings
      9. Typical Examples of Partial Settings
      10. Facing Reality
      11. Set Problems
      12. What Can You Shoot?
    6. Interview with a Professional: John DeCuir
    7. Review Questions
  18. CHAPTER 13 MAKE UP AND COSTUMES
    1. Forms of Makeup
      1. Straight Makeup
      2. Corrective Makeup
      3. Character Makeup
    2. Conditions of Television Makeup
      1. Camera Rehearsal
    3. Makeup Treatment
    4. Principles of Makeup
    5. Hair
      1. Hair Alteration
    6. Review Questions
  19. CHAPTER 14 AUDIO FOR TELEVISION
    1. The Audio System
    2. Acoustics
    3. Mono Sound
    4. Stereo Sound
    5. Surround Sound
    6. Microphone Characteristics
      1. Microphone Care
      2. Directional Features of Microphones
      3. Microphone Pickup Methods
    7. Types of Microphones
      1. Camera Microphones
      2. Handheld Microphone
      3. Shotgun Microphone
      4. Lavalier (Lapel or Clip-On) Microphone
      5. Boundary or PZM Microphone
      6. Hanging Microphone
      7. Surround Sound Microphone
      8. Suggestions for Using a Surround Sound Microphone
      9. Wireless Microphones
      10. Hidden Mics
    8. Microphone Stands and Mounts
    9. Controlling Dynamics
      1. Dynamic Range
      2. Automatic Control for Audio
      3. Manual Control
      4. Monitoring the Audio
      5. The Audio Mixer
      6. Using the Audio Mixer
      7. Natural Sound
      8. Anticipation
      9. Filtered Sound
      10. Reverberation
    10. Building the Soundtrack
      1. Types of Program Sound
      2. Program Music
      3. Sound Effects
      4. Anticipating Sound Editing
      5. Audio Sweetening
      6. Copyright
    11. Interview with a Professional: Bryant Falk
    12. Review Questions
  20. CHAPTER 15 RECORDING THE STORY
    1. Video Resolutions
      1. Standard-Definition Television
      2. High-Definition Television
      3. 4K Television
      4. 8K Television
    2. 3D Television
    3. Future Television?
    4. Video Recording Media
      1. Videotape
      2. Professional Digital Tape Formats
      3. Flash Memory
      4. Hard Disk Drive/Internal Memory
      5. External Camera Hard Drives
      6. Hard Disk Recorders
      7. Recording Media Care
      8. Video Recording Suggestions
    5. Interview with a Professional: Robin Broomfield
    6. Interview with a Professional: Ryan Hammer
    7. Review Questions
  21. CHAPTER 16 EDITING THE PRODUCTION
    1. Editing Techniques in Television
    2. Editing Basics
      1. Editing Decisions
      2. Editing Possibilities
    3. The Mechanics of Editing
      1. Editing In-Camera
      2. Production Switcher (Vision Mixer)
      3. Linear Editing
      4. Nonlinear Editing
    4. Postproduction Logging
      1. The Art and Techniques of Editing: Multiple Cameras and Postproduction
      2. How to Use Transitions
      3. Cause-Effect Relationships
      4. Montage
      5. Duration of Shots
      6. Priority: Video or Sound?
      7. Good Directing/Editing Techniques
      8. Anticipating Editing
    5. Interview with a Professional: Scott Powell
    6. Review Questions
  22. CHAPTER 17 PRODUCTION PRACTICES
    1. Production Pressures
    2. Shooting Styles
    3. Single-Camera Techniques
      1. Single-Camera Setups
      2. Shooting Uncontrolled Action
      3. Shooting Controlled Action
      4. Segmented Shooting
    4. Multi-Camera Techniques
      1. Visual Variety
      2. Crossing the Axis of Action Line
      3. Organizing the Angles
      4. Program Opening
      5. Focusing Audience Attention
      6. Shifting Visual Interest
      7. Creating Tension
      8. Pace
      9. Timing
    5. Visual Clarity
      1. Viewing Angle
      2. Distractions
      3. Confusing and Frustrating Subject Treatment
      4. The Visual Problem
      5. The Illusion of Time
      6. Time Lapses
      7. Flashbacks
      8. Cutaway Shots (Insert Shots)
      9. Reaction Shots/Partials/Cut-In Shots
      10. The Recorded Insert
      11. Stock Shots (Library Shots)
    6. Interview with a Professional: David Nixon
    7. Review Questions
  23. CHAPTER 18 THE STUDIO PRODUCTION
    1. Unrehearsed Formats
    2. Advance Rehearsals
      1. Studio Rehearsal
      2. Rehearsal Procedures
    3. The Floor Manager
      1. Rehearsal
      2. Recording/Transmission
      3. Guiding the Talent
    4. Cueing
      1. Methods of Cueing
      2. Prompting the Talent
      3. Production Timing
    5. Recording the Production
      1. Live-to-Tape
      2. Basic Retakes
      3. Shooting out of Order
      4. Isolated Camera (ISO)
      5. Single-Camera Recording
    6. Interview with a Professional: Fiona Catherwood
    7. Interview with a Professional: Lauren Claus
    8. Review Questions
  24. CHAPTER 19 DIRECTING TALENT
    1. Talent
    2. Importance of People in the Scene
    3. Presenting the Information
    4. Selecting Talent
    5. The Challenges of Working with Talent
      1. Inexperienced Talent
      2. The Host
      3. The Off-Camera Host
      4. When There Are Problems
    6. Research
    7. What Should Talent Wear?
    8. Interview with a Professional: Sarah Leckie
    9. Interview with a Professional: Morgan Schutters
    10. Review Questions
  25. CHAPTER 20 PRODUCTION STYLE
    1. Visual Style
      1. Appropriateness
      2. Routines
      3. Ambience
      4. The Illusion of Truth
      5. Pictorial Function
      6. Picture Applications
      7. Production Rhetoric
    2. Audio Style
      1. Imaginative Sound
      2. Sound Elements
      3. Sound Emphasis
      4. Sound Applications
      5. Off-Screen Sound
      6. Substituted Sound
      7. Controlling Sound Treatment
      8. The Effect of Combining Sounds
      9. Selective Sound
    3. Audio/Video Relationships
    4. Interview with a Professional: Dave Greider
    5. Interview with a Professional: Jeremy Rauch
    6. Review Questions
  26. CHAPTER 21 REMOTE PRODUCTION
    1. What Is a Remote Production?
      1. Remote Production versus Studio Production
      2. Shooting on Location
    2. The Single Camera on Location
      1. Typical Setups
      2. Power Supplies
    3. Single-Camera Shooting
      1. Handling the Camera
      2. Lens Angles
      3. Automatic Controls
      4. Audio
      5. Storing the Gear
    4. Multi-Camera Remote Production
      1. Multi-Camera Planning and Preparation
    5. Remote Production Vehicles
      1. Remote Production Truck/OB Van
    6. Live Transmission
      1. Event Coverage
      2. Sports Action
    7. Interview with a Professional: Tom Cavanaugh
    8. Interview with a Professional: Cindy Pennington
    9. Review Questions
  27. CHAPTER 22 DISTRIBUTING YOUR PRODUCTION
    1. Non-Live Distribution
      1. Online Distribution
      2. Festivals and Competitions
    2. Live Distribution (or Mostly Live …)
      1. Live Online Distribution
      2. IPTV
      3. 3G/4G Transmission
      4. Summary
    3. Interview with a Professional: Tripp Crosby
    4. Review Questions
  28. Glossary
  29. Index