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Television Production, 15th Edition

Book Description

Television Production offers you a very practical guide to professional TV and video production techniques. Here you will find straightforward descriptions and explanations of the equipment you will use, and discover the best ways to use it. The authors also tell you how to anticipate and quickly overcome commonly-encountered problems in television production. You will explore in detail all the major features of television production, learning the secrets of top-grade camerawork, persuasive lighting techniques, effective sound treatment, as well as the subtle processes of scenic design and the art of video editing. Successful program-making is about communication and persuasion. It is not merely a matter of knowing which buttons to press, but how to influence and persuade your audience, hold their attention, develop their interest, and arouse their emotions. This book tells you how to do all this - and much more. The 15th edition has been completely revamped to include lessons on: * 3D- how to use 3D cameras, field-tested 3D workflows, and more * Shooting with DSLRs * Lighting with LEDs

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. Part 1: The Foundations of Television Production
    1. Chapter 1: An Overview of Television Production
      1. Television Production
        1. Equipment Has Become Simpler to Use
        2. The Illusion of Reality
        3. It’s All about How You Do It
        4. Techniques Will Tell
        5. Having the Edge
      2. Overview
        1. Organization
      3. Television, Video, or Film?
        1. Television versus New Media
        2. The Equipment Is Always Changing
        3. Today’s Equipment
      4. The Production Team
        1. The Hidden Factors of Production
      5. Review Questions
      6. Interview with a Professional: Vicky Collins
    2. Chapter 2: The People Who Make It Happen
      1. The Production Crew
        1. Members of the Production Crew
      2. Talent
      3. The Freelance Crew
      4. What Do you Wear?
      5. What Do you Bring with you?
      6. Review Questions
      7. Interview with a Professional: Taylor Vinson
      8. Interview with a Professional: Phil Bowdle
    3. Chapter 3: The Television Production Facility
      1. Production Methods
      2. The Venue
        1. The Television Studio
        2. Remote Production Facilities
      3. The Production Switcher
        1. The Wipe
        2. Chroma-Key
        3. Synchronized Movements with the Virtual Set
        4. Digital Video Effects
      4. Review Questions
      5. Interview with a Professional: Bryan Jenkins
  10. Part 2: The Process, Script, and Production Plan
    1. Chapter 4: The Production Process
      1. The Three Stages of Production
      2. Stage 1: Planning and Preparation
        1. Why Plan?
        2. The Idea: Starting with a Concept
        3. Setting the Goals and Objectives
        4. The Target Audience
        5. The Budget
        6. Limitations/Restrictions
        7. The Production Plan
        8. Production Methods
        9. Schedule
        10. Coverage
        11. Building a Program Outline
        12. Research
        13. Thinking through the Shots
        14. Treatment Breakdown
        15. Developing the Camera Plan
        16. Storyboards
        17. Production Aspects
        18. The Production Meeting
        19. Remote Location Surveys (Recce)
        20. Setup
        21. The Rehearsal
      3. Stage 2: Production
        1. The Director during the Production
        2. The Producer during the Production
        3. Production Emphasis
        4. Selective Tools
        5. Selective Techniques
        6. The Screen Transforms Reality
        7. Interpretative Production Techniques
      4. Stage 3: Postproduction
      5. Review Questions
      6. Interview with a Professional: James Stuart
    2. Chapter 5: The Script and Production Plan
      1. The Script’s Purpose
      2. The Script/Production Plan
        1. The Unscripted Production Plan
        2. The Outline Script: Semiscripted Production
        3. Fully Scripted Shows
        4. Script Stages
        5. Basic Script Layout Formats
        6. Keep It Brief
      3. Suggestions on Scriptwriting
        1. Be Visual
        2. Pacing the Program
        3. Style
        4. Hints on Developing the Script
        5. Scripting Tools
        6. Storyboards
        7. Additional Production Plan Information
      4. Review Questions
      5. Interview with a Professional: Andrea Gyertson Nasfell
      6. Interview with a Professional: Hakem Dermish
  11. Part 3: Visualizing the Story
    1. Chapter 6: What the Camera Can Do
      1. Television Cameras
      2. Types of Cameras
        1. Camcorders
        2. Studio Cameras
        3. Miniature or Point-of-View Cameras
      3. Camera Basics
        1. The Viewfinder
        2. The Camera’s Controls
      4. The Camera Lens
        1. Lens Angle
        2. Supplementary Lenses
        3. Lens Controls
        4. Working Practices
      5. Types of Lenses
        1. Zoom Lens
        2. Prime Lens
        3. Extender Lens
      6. Focusing
        1. Why Focus?
        2. Focusing Methods
        3. Focusing the Zoom Lens
        4. Adjusting the Zoom’s Back Focus
      7. Lens Aperture (f-Stop)
      8. f-Stops (f-Numbers)
      9. Exposure
        1. Automatic Iris
        2. Manual Iris Adjustment
        3. Remote Iris Control
      10. Shutter Speeds
      11. Video Gain Adjustment
      12. Camera Lens Filters
        1. Neutral-Density Filters
        2. Corrective Filters
        3. Star Filters
        4. Diffusion Disks
        5. UV (Haze) Filters
        6. Polarizing Filters
        7. Graduated Filters
        8. Camera Filter Wheel
      13. Supporting the Camera
        1. What Type of Support?
        2. The Handheld Camera
        3. Camera Stabilizers
        4. The Pan and Tilt Head
      14. Review Questions
      15. Interview With A Professional: Nathan White
    2. Chapter 7: Using the Camera
      1. Standard Shots
        1. Selecting the Shot
        2. Checking the Shot
      2. Camera Operation
        1. Focusing
        2. Camera Moves
      3. Production Format Styles
        1. The Single-Camera Shoot
        2. The Multicamera Shoot
      4. Review Questions
      5. Interview with a Professional: Thomas Crescenzo
      6. Interview with a Professional: Jon Lord
    3. Chapter 8: The Persuasive Camera
      1. Shooting Style
      2. Screen Size
      3. Selecting the Shot
        1. The Extreme Long Shot
        2. The Long Shot
        3. The Medium Shot
        4. The Close-Up
        5. The Extreme Close-Up
      4. Depth of Field
        1. Large Depth of Field (Deep-Focus) Techniques
        2. Shallow Depth of Field (Shallow-Focus) Techniques
      5. Moving the Camera Head
        1. Panning the Camera
        2. Tilting the Camera Head
        3. Camera Height
        4. Extreme Camera Angles
      6. Moving the Camera
        1. Subjective Camera Treatment
        2. Imitative Camera Movement
        3. Using the Zoom Lens
      7. Review Questions
      8. Interview with a Professional: Matt Grimm
    4. Chapter 9: Creating an Effective Image
      1. Behind the Picture
      2. Composing the Picture
        1. Practical Composition
        2. The Director and Composition
        3. Composition Principles
      3. The Effect of the Picture Frame
        1. Framing
        2. Pictorial Balance
        3. Unity (Order)
        4. Visual Patterns
        5. Leading Lines
        6. Rule of Thirds
        7. Context
        8. Scale
        9. Subject Prominence
        10. Impressions of the Subject
        11. Composition and Color
        12. Composition and Motion
        13. A Theory of Dynamic Composition
        14. Using Dynamic Composition
        15. Crossing the Line
      4. Anticipating Editing
        1. Continuity
        2. Improving Editing Flexibility
      5. Review Questions
      6. Interview with a Professional: Keith Brown
    5. Chapter 10: Television Graphics
      1. Television Graphics Goals
        1. Types of Graphics
      2. Forms of Graphics
        1. Animated Graphics
        2. Interactive 3D Graphics
      3. Designing Graphics
        1. Backgrounds for Graphics
      4. Graphics Equipment
      5. Review Questions
      6. Interview with a Professional: Scott Rogers
  12. Part 4: Lighting, Backgrounds, and Sets
    1. Chapter 11: Lighting for Television
      1. The Goals of Lighting
      2. Why Is Lighting Necessary?
        1. Technical Reasons
        2. Artistic Reasons
      3. The Nature of Light
        1. Light Intensity
        2. The Color Quality of Light
        3. Light Dispersion
        4. The Direction of the Light
        5. Three-Point Lighting
        6. Basic Guidelines for Lighting People
        7. Lighting Groups of People
        8. Lighting Areas of the Scene
      4. Light Sources
      5. Lighting Instruments
        1. Camera Light
        2. Fresnel Spotlights
        3. Ellipsoidal Spotlights
        4. Scoop
        5. Broad Light
        6. Soft Light
        7. Cyclorama Light
        8. Multilamp Sources
        9. Open-Face Adjustable Light
        10. Reflectors
      6. Light Supports
        1. Grip Clamps
        2. Light Stands
        3. Studio Ceiling Supports
        4. Portable Light Kits
      7. Controlling the Lights
      8. Basic Lighting Plan
        1. What Is Going to Happen?
        2. The Lighting Plot
        3. Lamp Care and Safety
        4. Lighting and Camera Rehearsal
        5. Sound Boom Shadows
        6. Lighting on Location
      9. Review questions
      10. Interview with a Professional: Tommy Brown
    2. Chapter 12: Backgrounds and Sets
      1. The Influence of the Television Background
      2. Basic Organization
        1. The Studio Plan
        2. The Floor Plan
        3. Lighting Plot
        4. Design Considerations
        5. Set Design for 16:9
        6. Real and Unreal Backgrounds
        7. The Neutral Background
      3. Economical Sets
        1. Semipermanent Sets
        2. Pictorial Backgrounds
        3. Cyclorama
        4. Chroma-Key/Matting
        5. Virtual Sets
        6. Outside/Backlot Sets
        7. The Location As a Background
      4. Set Components
      5. Set Considerations
        1. Camera Height
        2. Foreground Pieces
        3. Creating Depth
        4. Versions of “Reality”
        5. What Can We Do about the Background?
        6. Rearranging the Background
        7. Altering the Background
        8. Partial Settings
        9. Typical Examples of Partial Settings
        10. Facing Reality
        11. Set Problems
        12. What Can You Shoot?
      6. Review Questions
      7. Interview with a Professional: JOHN DECUIR
    3. Chapter 13: Makeup and Costumes
      1. Forms of Makeup
        1. Straight Makeup
        2. Corrective Makeup
        3. Character Makeup
      2. Conditions of Television Makeup
        1. Camera Rehearsal
      3. Makeup Treatment
      4. Principles of Makeup
      5. Hair
        1. Hair Alteration
      6. Costumes (Wardrobe)
      7. Review Questions
      8. Interview with a professional: Ruth Haney
  13. Part 5: Recording and Editing the Production
    1. Chapter 14: Audio for Television
      1. The Audio System
      2. Acoustics
      3. Mono Sound
      4. Stereo Sound
      5. Surround Sound
      6. Microphone Characteristics
        1. Microphone Care
        2. Directional Features of Microphones
        3. Microphone Pickup Methods
      7. Types of Microphones
        1. Camera Microphones
        2. Handheld Microphone
        3. Shotgun Microphone
        4. Lavalier (Lapel or Clip-On) Microphone
        5. Boundary or PZM Microphone
        6. Hanging Microphone
        7. Surround-Sound Microphone
        8. Suggestions for Using a Surround-Sound Microphone
      8. Microphone Stands and Mounts
        1. Wireless Microphones
        2. Hidden Mics
      9. Controlling Dynamics
        1. Dynamic Range
        2. Automatic Control for Audio
        3. Manual Control
        4. Monitoring the Audio
        5. The Audio Mixer
        6. Using the Audio Mixer
        7. Natural Sound
        8. Anticipation
        9. Filtered Sound
        10. Reverberation
      10. Building the Soundtrack
        1. Types of Program Sound
        2. Program Music
        3. Sound Effects
        4. Anticipating Sound Editing
        5. Audio Sweetening
        6. Copyright
      11. Review Questions
      12. Interview With a Professional: Bryant Falk
    2. Chapter 15: Recording the Story
      1. Recording the Video
        1. Standard-Definition Television
        2. High-Definition Television
      2. Television and Video Formats
        1. Videotape
        2. Analog and Digital Tapes
        3. Consumer Digital Tape Formats
        4. Professional Digital Tape Formats
        5. Flash Memory
        6. Hard Disk Drive/Internal Hard Drive
        7. External Camera Hard Drives
        8. Hard Disk Recorders
        9. Recordable DVD
        10. XDCAM Disc
        11. Recording Media Care
        12. Video Recording Suggestions
      3. Review Questions
      4. Interview with a Professional: Ryan Hammer
      5. Interview with a Professional: Robin Broomfifeld
    3. Chapter 16: Editing the Production
      1. Editing Techniques in Television
      2. Editing Basics
        1. Editing Decisions
        2. Editing Possibilities
      3. The Mechanics of Editing
        1. Editing In-Camera
        2. Production Switcher (Vision Mixer)
        3. Linear Editing
        4. Nonlinear Editing
      4. Postproduction Logging
      5. The Art and Techniques of Editing: Multiple Cameras and Postproduction
        1. Selecting the Appropriate Shots
        2. The Order of Shots
        3. Where Should the Edits be Made?
        4. What Transition Should be Used?
        5. Good Continuity
        6. How to Use Transitions
        7. Cause–Effect Relationships
        8. Montage
        9. Duration of Shots
        10. Priority: Video or Sound?
        11. Good Directing/Editing Techniques
        12. Anticipating Editing
      6. Review Questions
      7. Interview with a Professional: Scott Powell
  14. Part 6: Production Techniques
    1. Chapter 17: Production Practices
      1. Production Pressures
      2. Shooting Styles
      3. Single-Camera Techniques
        1. Single-Camera Setups
        2. Shooting Uncontrolled Action
        3. Shooting Controlled Action
        4. Segmented Shooting
      4. Multicamera Techniques
        1. Visual Variety
        2. Crossing the Axis of Action Line
        3. Organizing the Angles
        4. Program Opening
        5. Focusing Audience Attention
        6. Shifting Visual Interest
        7. Creating Tension
        8. Pace
        9. Timing
      5. Visual Clarity
        1. Viewing Angle
        2. Distractions
        3. Confusing and Frustrating Subject Treatment
        4. The Visual Problem
        5. The Illusion of Time
        6. Time Lapses
        7. Flashbacks
        8. Cutaway Shots (Insert Shots)
        9. Reaction Shots/Partials/Cut-In Shots
        10. The Recorded Insert
        11. Stock Shots (Library Shots)
      6. Review Questions
      7. Interview with a Professional: David Nixon
    2. Chapter 18: The Studio Production
      1. Unrehearsed Formats
      2. Advance Rehearsals
        1. Studio Rehearsal
        2. Rehearsal Procedures
      3. The Floor Manager
        1. Rehearsal
        2. Recording/Transmission
        3. Guiding the Talent
      4. Cueing
        1. Methods of Cueing
        2. Prompting the Talent
        3. Production Timing
      5. Recording the Production
        1. Live-on-Tape
        2. Basic Retakes
        3. Shooting Out of Order
        4. Isolated Camera (ISO)
        5. Single-Camera Recording
      6. Review Questions
      7. Interview with A Professional: Fiona Catherwood
      8. Interview with a Professional: Lauren Claus
    3. Chapter 19: Directing Talent
      1. Talent
      2. Importance of People in the Scene
      3. Presenting the Information
      4. Selecting Talent
      5. The Challenges of Working with Talent
        1. Inexperienced Talent
        2. The Host
        3. The Off-Camera Host
      6. When There Are Problems
      7. Research
      8. What Should Talent Wear?
      9. Review Questions
      10. Interview with a Professional: Sarah Leckie
      11. Interview with a Professional: Morgan Schutters
    4. Chapter 20: Production Style
      1. Visual Style
        1. Appropriateness
        2. Routines
        3. Ambience
        4. The Illusion of Truth
        5. Pictorial Function
        6. Picture Applications
        7. Production Rhetoric
      2. Audio Style
        1. Imaginative Sound
        2. Sound Elements
        3. Sound Emphasis
        4. Sound Applications
        5. Offscreen Sound
        6. Substituted Sound
        7. Controlling Sound Treatment
        8. The Effect of Combining Sounds
        9. Selective Sound
      3. Audio/Video Relationships
      4. Review Questions
      5. Interview with a Professional: Dave Greider
      6. Interview with a Professional: Jeremy Rauch
    5. Chapter 21: Remote Production
      1. What Is a Remote Production?
        1. Remote Production versus Studio Production
        2. Shooting on Location
      2. The Single Camera on Location
        1. Typical Setups
        2. Power Supplies
      3. Single-Camera Shooting
        1. Handling the Camera
        2. Lens Angles
        3. Automatic Controls
        4. Audio
        5. Storing the Gear
      4. Multicamera Remote Production
        1. Multicamera Planning and Preparation
      5. Remote Production Vehicles
        1. Remote Production Truck/OB Van
      6. Live Transmission
        1. Event Coverage
        2. Sports Action
      7. Review Questions
      8. Interview With a Professional: Tom Cavanaugh
      9. Interview with a Professional: Cindy Pennington
  15. Part 7: Distribution
    1. Chapter 22: Distributing Your Production
      1. Broadcast Distribution
        1. 3G/4G Transmission
      2. Traditional NonBroadcast Distribution (usually referred to as video)
        1. Distributing Hard Copies of the Production
        2. Online Distribution
        3. Live Online Distribution
        4. IPTV
        5. Festivals and Competitions
        6. Summary
      3. Review Questions
      4. Interview with a Professional: Tripp Crosby
  16. Glossary
  17. Index