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Television Production, 14th Edition

Book Description

Television Production offers you a very practical guide to professional TV and video production techniques. You will find straightforward description and explanations of the equipment you will use, and discover the best ways to use it. You will also learn how to anticipate and quickly overcome typical everyday problems.

You will explore in detail all the major features of television production, learning the secrets of top-grade camerawork, persuasive lighting techniques, effective sound treatment, as well as the subtle processes of scenic design and the art of video editing.

Successful program-making is about communication and persuasion. It is not merely a matter of knowing which buttons to press, but how to influence and persuade your audience, hold their attention, develop their interest, and arouse their emotions. This book tells you how to do all this - and much more.

The fourteenth edition has been completely revamped:
* New: Coauthor Jim Owens brings his wealth of teaching and international broadcasting experience
* New: In brilliant full color for the first time, hundreds of new photos and illustrations demonstrate the techniques presented in the book
* New: Thoroughly overhauled with the latest developments in tools and technology
* New: Focus on the latest equipment, delivery methods, and convergence of digital technology

Table of Contents

  1. Fornt Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. INTRODUCTION
  9. PART 1 • The Foundations of Television Production
    1. CHAPTER 1 An Overview of Television Production
      1. Television Production
        1. Equipment Has Become Simpler to Use
        2. The Illusion of Reality
        3. Television versus New Media
        4. It's Not Just Academic
        5. Techniques Will Tell
        6. Having the Edge
      2. Overview
        1. Organization
      3. Television, Video, or Film?
        1. Television Organizations
        2. The Equipment Is Always Changing
        3. Today's Equipment
      4. The Production Team
        1. The Hidden Factors of Production
      5. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 2 The People Who Make It Happen
      1. The Production Crew
      2. Talent
      3. The Freelance Crew
      4. Review Questions
    3. CHAPTER 3 The Television Production Facility
      1. Production Methods
      2. The Venue
        1. The Television Studio
        2. Remote Production Facilities
      3. The Production Switcher
        1. The Wipe
        2. Chroma-Key
        3. Synchronized Movements with the Virtual Set
        4. Practical Examples
        5. Digital Video Effects
      4. Review Questions
    4. CHAPTER 4 How Television Works
      1. The Video Signal
        1. Light and Shade
        2. Distributing the Signal
        3. Television Standard Compatibility
      2. The Television Picture
        1. Picture Detail
        2. Picture Tones
      3. Review Questions
  10. PART 2 • The Process, Script, and Production Plan
    1. CHAPTER 5 The Production Process
      1. The Three Stages of Production
      2. Stage 1: Planning and Preparation
        1. Why Plan?
        2. The Idea: Starting with a Concept
        3. Setting the Goals and Objectives
        4. The Target Audience
        5. The Budget
        6. Limitations/Restrictions
        7. The Production Plan
        8. Production Methods
        9. Schedule
        10. Coverage
        11. Building an Outline
        12. Research
        13. Regular Studio Formats
        14. Complex Productions
        15. Treatment Breakdown
        16. Developing the Camera Plan
        17. Storyboards
        18. Production Aspects
        19. The Production Meeting
        20. Location Surveys (Recce)
        21. Setup
        22. The Rehearsal
      3. Stage 2: Production
        1. The Director During the Production
        2. The Producer During the Production
        3. Production Emphasis
        4. Selective Tools
        5. Selective Techniques
        6. The Screen Transforms Reality
        7. Interpretative Production Techniques
      4. Stage 3: Postproduction
      5. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 6 The Script and Production Plan
      1. The Script's Purpose
      2. The Live Event Production Plan
        1. The Outline Script: Semiscripted Production
        2. Fully Scripted Shows
        3. Basic Script Layout Formats
        4. Keep It Brief
      3. Suggestions on Scriptwriting
        1. Be Visual
        2. Pacing the Program
        3. Style
        4. Hints on Developing the Script
        5. Storyboards
        6. Additional Production Plan Information
      4. Review Questions
  11. PART 3 • Visualizing the Story
    1. CHAPTER 7 What the Camera Can Do
      1. Television Cameras
      2. Types of Cameras
        1. Camcorders
        2. Studio Cameras
        3. Miniature or Point-of-View Cameras
      3. Camera Basics
        1. The Viewfinder
        2. The Camera's Controls
      4. The Camera Lens
        1. Lens Systems
        2. Lens Controls
        3. Focal Length
      5. Lens Angle
        1. Normal Lens
        2. Telephoto Lens
        3. Wide-Angle Lens
        4. Supplementary Lenses
        5. Zoom Lens
        6. Focusing
        7. Exposure
        8. Camera Lens Filters
        9. Camera Filter Wheel
        10. Video Gain Adjustment
        11. Shutter Speeds
        12. Supporting the Camera
        13. Camera Stabilizers
        14. Choosing the Right Camera Mount
      6. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 8 Using the Camera
      1. Standard Shots
        1. Selecting the Shot
        2. Checking the Shot
      2. Camera Operation
        1. Focusing
        2. Camera Moves
      3. Production Format Styles
        1. The Single-Camera Shoot
        2. The Multicamera Shoot
      4. Review Questions
    3. CHAPTER 9 The Persuasive Camera
      1. Shooting Style
      2. Screen Size
      3. Selecting the Shot
        1. The Extreme Long Shot
        2. The Long Shot
        3. Medium Shots
        4. The Close-Up
        5. The Extreme Close-Up
        6. Deep-Focus Techniques
        7. Shallow-Focus Techniques
      4. Moving the Camera Head
        1. Panning the Camera
        2. Tilting the Camera Head
        3. Camera Height
        4. Extreme Camera Angles
      5. Moving the Camera
        1. Subjective Camera Treatment
        2. Imitative Camera Movement
        3. Using the Zoom Lens
      6. Review Questions
    4. CHAPTER 10 Creating an Effective Image
      1. Behind the Picture
      2. Composing the Picture
        1. Practical Composition
        2. The Director and Composition
        3. Composition Principles
      3. The Effect of the Picture Frame
        1. Framing
        2. Pictorial Balance
        3. Unity (Order)
        4. Visual Patterns
        5. Leading Lines
        6. Rule of Thirds
        7. Scale
        8. Subject Prominence
        9. Impressions of the Subject
        10. Composition and Color
        11. Composition and Motion
        12. A Theory of Dynamic Composition
        13. Using Dynamic Composition
        14. Crossing the Line
      4. Anticipating Editing
        1. Continuity
        2. Improving Editing Flexibility
      5. Review Questions
    5. CHAPTER 11 Television Graphics
      1. Television Graphic Goals
        1. Types of Graphics
      2. Forms of Graphics
        1. Animated Graphics
        2. Interactive 3D Graphics
      3. Designing Graphics
        1. Backgrounds for Graphics
      4. Graphic Equipment
      5. Review Questions
  12. PART 4 • Lighting, Backgrounds, and Sets
    1. CHAPTER 12 Lighting for Television
      1. The Goals of Lighting
      2. Why Is Lighting Necessary?
        1. Technical Reasons
        2. Artistic Reasons
      3. The Nature of Light
        1. Light Intensity
        2. The Color Quality of Light
        3. Light Dispersion
        4. Spotlights
        5. The Direction of the Light
        6. Three-Point Lighting
        7. General Maxims for Lighting People
        8. Lighting Groups of People
        9. Lighting Areas of the Scene
      4. Light Sources
      5. Lighting Instruments
        1. Camera Light
        2. Scoop
        3. Broad Light
        4. Soft Light
        5. Multilamp Sources
        6. Open-Face Adjustable Light
        7. Fresnel Spotlights
        8. Reflectors
      6. Light Supports
        1. Grip Clamps
        2. Light Stands
        3. Studio Ceiling Supports
        4. Portable Light Kits
      7. Controlling the Lights
      8. Basic Lighting Plan
        1. What Is Going to Happen?
        2. The Lighting Plot
        3. Lamp Care and Safety
        4. Lighting and Camera Rehearsal
        5. Sound Boom Shadows
        6. Lighting on Location
      9. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 13 Backgrounds and Sets
      1. The Influence of the Television Background
      2. Basic Organization
        1. The Studio Plan
        2. The Floor Plan
        3. Lighting Plot
        4. Design Considerations
        5. Set Design for 16:9
        6. Real and Unreal Backgrounds
        7. The Neutral Background
      3. Economical Sets
        1. Semipermanent Sets
        2. Pictorial Backgrounds
        3. Cyclorama
        4. Chroma-Key/Matting
        5. Virtual Sets
        6. Outside/Backlot Sets
        7. The Location As a Background
      4. Set Components
      5. Set Considerations
        1. Camera Height
        2. Foreground Pieces
        3. Creating Depth
        4. Versions of “Reality”
        5. What Can We Do About the Background?
        6. Rearranging the Background
        7. Altering the Background
        8. Partial Settings
        9. Typical Examples of Partial Settings
        10. Facing Reality
        11. Set Problems
      6. Review Questions
    3. CHAPTER 14 Makeup and Costumes
      1. Forms of Makeup
        1. Straight Makeup
        2. Corrective Makeup
        3. Character Makeup
      2. Conditions of Television Makeup
        1. Camera Rehearsal
      3. Makeup Treatment
      4. Principles of Makeup
      5. Hair
        1. Hair Alteration
      6. Costumes (Wardrobe)
      7. Review Questions
  13. PART 5 • Recording and Editing the Production
    1. CHAPTER 15 Audio for Television
      1. The Audio System
      2. Acoustics
      3. Mono Sound
      4. Stereo Sound
      5. Surround Sound
      6. Microphone Characteristics
        1. Microphone Care
        2. Directional Features of Microphones
        3. Microphone Pickup Methods
      7. Types of Microphones
        1. Camera Microphones
        2. Handheld Microphone
        3. Shotgun Microphone
        4. Lavalier (Lapel or Clip-On) Microphone
        5. Boundary or PZM Microphone
        6. Hanging Microphone
        7. Surround-Sound Microphone
        8. Suggestions for Using a Surround-Sound Microphone
      8. Microphone Stands and Mounts
        1. Wireless Microphones
        2. Hidden Mics
      9. Controlling Dynamics
        1. Dynamic Range
        2. Automatic Control for Audio
        3. Manual Control
        4. Monitoring the Audio
        5. The Audio Mixer
        6. Using the Audio Mixer
        7. Natural Sound
        8. Anticipation
        9. Filtered Sound
        10. Reverberation
      10. Building the Soundtrack
        1. Types of Program Sound
        2. Program Music
        3. Sound Effects
        4. Anticipating Sound Editing
        5. Audio Sweetening
        6. Copyright
      11. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 16 Recording and Viewing the Program
      1. Recording the Video
        1. Standard-Definition Television
        2. High-Definition Television
        3. Videotape
        4. Analog and Digital
        5. Tape Formats
        6. Flash Memory
        7. Hard Disk Drive/Internal Hard Drive
        8. External Camera Hard Drives
        9. Hard Disk Recorders
        10. Recordable DVD
        11. XD Cam Disc
        12. Recording Media Care
        13. Video Recording Suggestions
      2. Viewing the Video
        1. How We See Color
        2. How the Camera Sees Color
        3. Monitors and Receivers
      3. Review Questions
    3. CHAPTER 17 Editing the Production
      1. Editing Techniques in Television
      2. Editing Basics
        1. Editing Decisions
        2. Editing Opportunities
      3. The Mechanics of Editing
        1. Editing In-Camera
        2. Production Switcher (Vision Mixer)
        3. Linear Editing
        4. Nonlinear Editing
      4. Postproduction Logging
      5. Postproduction Editing Process
        1. The Art and Techniques of Editing: Multiple Cameras and Postproduction
        2. How To Use Transitions
        3. Cause–Effect Relationships
        4. Montage
        5. Duration of Shots
        6. Priority: Video or Sound?
        7. Good Directing/Editing Techniques
        8. Anticipating Editing
      6. Review Questions
  14. PART 6 • Production Techniques
    1. CHAPTER 18 Production Practices
      1. Production Pressures
      2. Shooting Styles
      3. Single-Camera Techniques
        1. Single-Camera Setups
        2. Shooting Uncontrolled Action
        3. Shooting Controlled Action
        4. Segmented Shooting
      4. Multicamera Techniques
        1. Visual Variety
        2. Crossing the Axis of Action Line
        3. Organizing the Angles
        4. Program Opening
        5. Focusing Audience Attention
        6. Shifting Visual Interest
        7. Creating Tension
        8. Pace
        9. Timing
      5. Visual Clarity
        1. Viewing Angle
        2. Distractions
        3. Confusing and Frustrating Subject Treatment
        4. The Visual Problem
        5. The Illusion of Time
        6. Time Lapses
        7. Flashbacks
        8. Cutaway Shots
        9. Reaction Shots/Partials/Cut-In Shots
        10. The Recorded Insert
        11. Stock Shots (Library Shots)
      6. Review Questions
    2. CHAPTER 19 The Studio Production
      1. Unrehearsed Formats
      2. Advance Rehearsals
        1. Studio Rehearsal
        2. Rehearsal Procedures
      3. The Floor Manager
        1. Rehearsal
        2. Recording/Transmission
        3. Guiding the Talent
      4. Cueing
        1. Methods of Cueing
        2. Prompting the Talent
        3. Production Timing
      5. Recording the Production
        1. Live-on-Tape
        2. Basic Retakes
        3. Shooting Out of Order (By Set)
        4. Block and Shoot
        5. Isolated Camera (ISO)
        6. Single-Camera Recording
      6. Review Questions
    3. CHAPTER 20 Production Style
      1. Visual Style
        1. Appropriateness
        2. Routines
        3. Ambience
        4. The Illusion of Truth
        5. Pictorial Function
        6. Picture Applications
        7. Production Rhetoric
      2. Audio Style
        1. Imaginative Sound
        2. Sound Elements
        3. Sound Emphasis
        4. Sound Applications
        5. Off-Screen Sound
        6. Substituted Sound
        7. Controlling Sound Treatment
        8. The Effect of Combining Sounds
        9. Focusing Attention
        10. Selective Sound
      3. Audio/Video Relationships
      4. Review Questions
    4. CHAPTER 21 Remote Production
      1. What Is a Remote Production?
        1. Remote Production versus Studio Production
        2. Shooting on Location
      2. The Single Camera on Location
        1. Typical Setups
        2. Power Supplies
      3. Single-Camera Shooting
        1. Handling the Camera
        2. Lens Angles
        3. Automatic Controls
        4. Audio
        5. Storing the Gear
      4. Multicamera Remote Production
        1. Multicamera Planning and Preparation
      5. Remote Production Vehicles
        1. Remote Production Truck/OB Van
      6. Live Transmission
        1. Event Coverage
        2. Sports Action
      7. Review Questions
  15. PART 7 • Engineering
    1. CHAPTER 22 Basic Video Engineering
      1. Behind the Scenes
        1. Maintenance/Servicing
        2. Camera Setup
      2. Test Equipment
        1. Adjusting Picture Quality
      3. Review Questions
  16. Glossary
  17. Index