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Television and Field Reporting, 6th Edition

Book Description

Television Field Production and Reporting provides an exciting introduction to the art of visual storytelling. Endorsed by the National Press Photographers Association, it focuses on the many techniques and tools available in television today.

The new edition of Television Field Production and Reporting will be 4-color for the first time, an absolute must in this visually oriented, rapidly changing field..

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
  7. About the Authors
  8. Introduction
    1. New Titles for New Job Descriptions
    2. How to Renew or Jumpstart your Career
    3. How to Excel in Multiple Capacities
    4. Anticipate Key Interview Questions
    5. Notes
  9. Chapter 1 Telling the Visual Story
    1. Through Stories we Share Human Experience and Understanding
    2. The Differences between Visual Stories and Reports
    3. Heart. Emotion. Demeanor
    4. Placing the Human Perspective in Perspective
    5. The Value of Pictorial Narrative
    6. Silence as a Writing Tool
    7. The Silent Languages of the Senses
    8. Putting it all Together
    9. Culture Impacts Perception
    10. How to Plan the Visual Story
    11. The Best Stories Convey a Sense of Progression
    12. Find Images that Convey a Clear Story Focus
    13. Write the Pictures First
    14. Reportorial Editing
    15. Working as Part of a Team
    16. Prove the Story's Focus Visually
    17. The Focus May Change
    18. Look for a Story Focus in Spot-News Events
    19. Tell your Story through People
    20. Strong Natural Sound Helps Tell the Story
    21. Build in Surprises
    22. Keep Sound Bites Short
    23. Address the Larger Issue
    24. Challenge your Focus Statement
    25. Video Packages are Factual Mini-Movies
    26. The Lead
    27. Provide Visual Proof for all Main Points
    28. The Close
    29. Be Hard on Yourself as a Writer
    30. Write from the Visuals
    31. Look for a Story While Capturing Uncontrolled Action
    32. Look for the Larger Story
    33. Summary
    34. Key Terms
    35. Discussion
    36. Exercises
    37. Notes
  10. Chapter 2 the Visual Grammar of Motion Picture Photography
    1. The Shot
    2. The Sequence
    3. Basic Shots
    4. Long Shot
    5. Medium Shot
    6. Close-Up
    7. How the Basic Shots Work Together
    8. Camera Movement
    9. Pan
    10. Moving Shot
    11. Combination Shot
    12. Tilt Shot
    13. Tracking Shot
    14. Trucking Shot
    15. Dolly Shot
    16. Changes in Camera Perspective
    17. Stabilization of Shaky Images
    18. Shots that Help Tell the Story
    19. One Shots to Crowd Shots
    20. Master Shot with Cut-Ins
    21. Overlapping Action
    22. Matched-Action Sequences can be Shot in Spot News
    23. Jump Cuts
    24. The Cutaway
    25. The Motivated Cutaway
    26. The Transition or Reveal Shot
    27. Using Camera Movement to Enhance Storytelling
    28. Point-of-View Movement
    29. Thinking Camera
    30. Screen Direction
    31. How to Avoid the False Reverse
    32. Vary Camera Angles
    33. Photograph People at Eye Level
    34. Angles Provide Psychological Impact
    35. Contrast and Comparison
    36. Composition
    37. Summary
    38. Key Terms
    39. Discussion
    40. Exercises
    41. Notes
  11. Chapter 3 Video Editing: The Invisible Art
    1. Editing is Another Writing Tool
    2. Toward a Philosophy of Editing
    3. Everyone is an Editor
    4. The Cut
    5. Choosing Edit Points
    6. There can be No Matched Action without Overlapping Action
    7. Cutting on Action or at Rest
    8. Into-Frame/Out-of-Frame Action
    9. Jump Cuts
    10. Pop Cuts
    11. Devices to Compress Time and Advance the Action
    12. Parallel Cutting
    13. Shot Order Impacts the Illusion of Continuity
    14. Content Dictates Pace
    15. Cutting to Condense Time
    16. Composition Affects Pace
    17. Screen Direction
    18. Editing to Eliminate the False Reverse
    19. The Transition Shot
    20. Sound as a Transitional Device
    21. Cold Cuts
    22. Flash Cuts
    23. Cutting to Leave Space for Audience Reaction
    24. Communication Pays
    25. Dissolves and Other Optical Effects
    26. Summary
    27. Key Terms
    28. Discussion
    29. Exercises
    30. Notes
  12. Chapter 4 Shooting Video in the Field
    1. Composition Guidelines
    2. The Rule of Thirds
    3. Pointers for Wide Screen Composition
    4. Use a Tripod Whenever Appropriate
    5. The Handheld Camera
    6. Balance the Camera
    7. Use a Wide Stance
    8. Control Breathing
    9. Preplan Body Movement
    10. Walk in Lockstep
    11. Avoid Unplanned Camera Movement
    12. How to Use the Zoom Lens
    13. Avoid Calling Attention to the Zoom
    14. Adjust Speed and Duration of Zoom to Story Mood and Pace
    15. Recompose the Shot as You Zoom
    16. Storytelling and Planning
    17. Establish Communication in the Field
    18. Think before You Shoot
    19. Shoot Sequences
    20. Shoot and Move
    21. Anticipate Action
    22. Shoot Only the Shots You Need
    23. Avoid Indiscriminate Shooting
    24. Edit in the Camera
    25. Shoot to Eliminate the False Reverse
    26. Involve the Camera in the Action
    27. Working with People
    28. Avoid Distracting the Subject
    29. Staging Versus Motivating
    30. The One-Person Band
    31. How to Shoot and Conduct Interviews Simultaneously
    32. How to Photograph Your Own Standup
    33. Shooting in Cold Weather
    34. Safety First
    35. Distancing
    36. Safety in Numbers
    37. Plan to Make Mistakes
    38. On Returning to the Station
    39. Summary
    40. Key Terms
    41. Discussion
    42. Exercises
    43. Notes
  13. Chapter 5 Writing with Light
    1. Photography is the Art of Controlling Light
    2. Light-Mounted Filters
    3. Mixing Light Sources
    4. Basic Lighting Patterns
    5. The Role of Artificial Light
    6. Key Light
    7. Contrast Control
    8. The Inverse-Square Law of Light
    9. Backlight
    10. Broadlighting and Short Lighting
    11. Lighting for High Definition
    12. Flat Lighting
    13. Light Diffusion
    14. Bounce Lighting
    15. Eye Reflections
    16. Exposure
    17. Essential Lighting Equipment
    18. Lighting in Sunlight
    19. How to Light a News Conference
    20. Setting up Lights in Cooperation with Other Crews
    21. Lighting Etiquette
    22. Lighting Spot News at Night
    23. Photographing Subjects with Dark Skin
    24. Large-Scale Lighting
    25. Cautions
    26. Summary
    27. Key Terms
    28. Discussion
    29. Exercises
    30. Notes
  14. Chapter 6 the Sound Track
    1. How Microphones Work
    2. Directional Patterns
    3. On Choosing a Mike
    4. Impedance
    5. Frequency Response
    6. Microphones for the Video Journalist
    7. The Wireless Transmitter-Receiver
    8. The Mixer
    9. Essential Points for Audio
    10. Techniques to Reduce Wind Noise
    11. Be Aggressive
    12. The Microphone Hears Differently
    13. Sound Perspective
    14. Stereo and Surround Sound
    15. Covering News Conferences
    16. Recording Group Discussions
    17. The Two-Person Interview
    18. Record Room Tone
    19. The Seductive Quality of Nat Sound
    20. Watch What You Say
    21. Sound and Video Accessories
    22. Summary
    23. Key Terms
    24. Discussion
    25. Exercises
    26. Notes
  15. Chapter 7 The Video Interview
    1. Establish Trust
    2. Practice Good Manners
    3. The Most Important Interview Question
    4. Save Your Questions for the Interview
    5. Do Your Homework
    6. How to Frame Interview Questions
    7. Use a Wireless Microphone
    8. The Art of Listening
    9. Avoid the Easy Questions
    10. Avoid Two-Part Questions
    11. “How Do You Feel?”
    12. Anticipate Questions the Viewers Would Ask
    13. Practice the Fine Art of Hesitation
    14. Pitch Reporting Opportunities
    15. Prearrange Signals between Reporter and Photographer
    16. How to React without Appearing to Agree
    17. Retain Control of the Interview
    18. Interviewing Children
    19. The Talking Head
    20. Influencing how Viewers Perceive the Subject
    21. One-Eyed Talking Heads
    22. Body Language
    23. After the Interview is Over
    24. Interviews Allow Reporting through Direct Observation
    25. Summary
    26. Key Term
    27. Discussion
    28. Exercises
    29. Notes
  16. Chapter 8 Video Script Formats
    1. Reader
    2. Vtr Vo (Voice-Over Video)
    3. Vtr Vo (Voice-Over Video) Vo/Sot/Vo (Vo Sot Or A/B for Short)
    4. Intros to Live Shots
    5. Live Intros to Packages
    6. Package Scripts
    7. Reporter and Anchor Closes
    8. The Case for Caps and Lowercase
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. Exercises
    12. Notes
  17. Chapter 9 Writing the Package
    1. Define Your Focus
    2. Write the Beginning (Studio Lead-In)
    3. Write the Package Lead
    4. Write the Middle Or Main Body
    5. Write the Close
    6. Preplan the Package
    7. Spot-News Packages
    8. Set a High Standard for Packages
    9. Use Natural Sound Liberally
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Exercises
    13. Notes
  18. Chapter 10 Write like a Storyteller
    1. Transmitting the Experience
    2. Writing Your First Sentence
    3. The Three Horses—Storytelling Tools for Video Stories
    4. First Horse: Surprise
    5. Second Horse: Quest
    6. Third Horse: Character
    7. Tips for Writing Strong Stories
    8. Summary
    9. Discussion
    10. Exercises
  19. Chapter 11 Video Journalism
    1. The Big Picture
    2. Size Matters—Bigger is Not Always Better
    3. Bottom Line
    4. Starting Out, Over or Up
    5. Six Overlooked Tools for Video Journalists
    6. Minute by Minute—One Man Band Lessons Learned in the Field
    7. A Guided Tour: Lessons Learned
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Discussion
    11. Exercises
    12. Notes
  20. Chapter 12 How to Improve Your Storytelling Ability
    1. Seek Gradual Improvement
    2. Have a Story
    3. Involve the Camera
    4. Sequences Advance the Story
    5. Don'T Try to Show All of New Zealand
    6. Pursue Your Interest in People
    7. Motivate Viewers to Watch
    8. Develop Video Fluency
    9. Know the Community
    10. Curiosity Pays
    11. See beyond the Obvious
    12. Show Audiences What they Missed
    13. Help Viewers Experience the Story as You Did
    14. Adapt Your Reporting to Story Demands
    15. Reporting the Nonvisual Story
    16. Personal Appearance and Conduct
    17. Etiquette
    18. Shooting and Reporting Spot News
    19. Toward a News Philosophy
    20. Summary
    21. Key Terms
    22. Discussion
    23. Exercises
    24. Notes
  21. Chapter 13 Live Shots and Remotes
    1. What Does It Take to “Go Live”?
    2. Spot News
    3. Television Live Shot Formats
    4. Narration
    5. Helicopter Live Shots
    6. Live in the Newsroom
    7. Live Graphics
    8. Live/Anchor Intros
    9. Reporter Close
    10. Anchor Close
    11. Why Go Live?
    12. Why Not Go Live?
    13. Live Phoners
    14. Live Teases
    15. Some Parting Advice
    16. A Final Thought
    17. Summary
    18. Key Terms
    19. Exercises
  22. Chapter 14 Law and the Digital Journalist
    1. Gathering the News
    2. Libel
    3. Invasion of Privacy
    4. Defamation
    5. Use of the Word Alleged
    6. Apparent Authority
    7. Technology
    8. Telephone Recordings
    9. Subpoenas and Shield Laws
    10. Access Laws
    11. Courtroom Television
    12. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998
    13. Fair Use
    14. Summary
    15. Key Terms
    16. Discussion
    17. Exercises
    18. Notes
  23. Chapter 15 Journalistic Ethics
    1. Definition of Ethics
    2. Effects of Competition
    3. Situational Ethics
    4. Licensing
    5. Contract with the Public
    6. At Issue: Image Manipulation
    7. Case Studies in Ethical Dilemmas
    8. Reverse-Angle Questions
    9. Staged News Events
    10. Reenactments
    11. File Video
    12. Material Provided by outside Sources
    13. Toward an Individual Code of Ethics
    14. Summary
    15. Key Terms
    16. Discussion
    17. Exercises
    18. Discussion of Ethical Conflict Situations
    19. Notes
  24. Appendix A Shooting Video
    1. The Camera
    2. The Lens
    3. Summary
    4. Key Terms
    5. Discussion
    6. Exercises
  25. Appendix B Improving Performance in Field Reporting
    1. Develop Qualities that Make You Interesting and Interested
    2. Reasons for Standups
    3. Seek Reaction
    4. Communicate What You Feel about the Story
    5. Delivering from the Studio
    6. Put Experience into Your Reports
    7. Multidimensional Reporting
    8. Marking Copy
    9. Learn How to Relax
    10. Develop Conversational Delivery
    11. Your Appearance
    12. Field Lighting for Hdtv
    13. Let the Audience Know You as a Friend
    14. Impact How People Perceive Your Interview Sources
    15. Posture Matters
    16. Split-Focus Presentation
    17. The Anchor Debrief
    18. When You are before the Camera
    19. How Reporters Evolve into Anchors
    20. Summary
    21. Key Terms
    22. Notes
  26. Appendix C the Assignment Editor and Producer
    1. The Assignment Editor
    2. Assignment Editors Help Conceptualize the Package
    3. The Producer
    4. Toward a News Philosophy
    5. Teases
    6. Help Make the Station a Regional Force
    7. Improve Audio-Video Linkage
    8. Visuals
    9. Freshen File Video
    10. Use Talking Heads with Purpose
    11. Weather and Sports
    12. Summary
    13. Key Terms
    14. Discussion
    15. Exercises
    16. Notes
  27. Glossary
  28. Credits
  29. Index