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Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, Fifteenth Edition

Book Description

This full-color text offers a clear, complete introduction and detailed reference for creating 3D models and 2D documentation drawings. Building on its reputation as a trusted reference, this edition expands on the role that 3D CAD databases now play in design and documentation. Superbly integrated illustrations, text, step-by-step instructions, and navigation make it easier than ever to master key skills and knowledge. Throughout, the authors demonstrate 3D and 2D drawing skills and CAD usage in real-world work practice in today’s leading disciplines. They combine strong technical detail, real-world examples, and current standards, materials, industries, and processes–all in a format that is efficient, colorful, and visual.

 Features:

  • Splash Spread: Appealing chapter opener provides context and motivation.

  • References and Web Links: Useful weblinks and standards provided upfront in each chapter.

  • Understanding Section: Foundational introductions, tabbed for easy navigation, outline each topic’s importance, use, visualization tips, and theory.

  • Detail Section: Detailed, well-tested explanations of drawing techniques, variations, and examples–organized into quick-read sections, numbered for easy reference.

  • CAD at Work Section: Breakout pages offer tips on generating drawings from 2D or 3D models.

  • Portfolio Section: Examples of finished drawings show how techniques are applied in the real world.

  • Key Words: Italicized on first reference, summarized after each chapter.           

  • Chapter: Summaries and Review Questions: Efficiently reinforce learning.

  • Exercises: Outstanding problem sets with updated exercises, including parts, assembly drawings from CAD models, sketching problems, and orthographic projections.

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. About this Book
      1. Updated Content
      2. Teaching/Learning Features
      3. Chapter Opener
      4. “Spotlight” Sections
      5. “Foundations” Section
      6. “Detail” Section
      7. “Step by Step” Activities
      8. “CAD at Work”
      9. “Industry Case”
      10. “Portfolio”
      11. Solid Model Visualization Art
      12. Illustrations
      13. Chapter Review
      14. Chapter Exercises
    5. Preface
      1. The Fifteenth Edition
      2. Online Resources
      3. Acknowledgments
    6. Contents
    7. Chapter One. The Worldwide Graphic Language for Design
      1. Understanding the Role of Technical Drawings
        1. The Design Process
        2. Concurrent Engineering
        3. Computer-Aided Design and Product Development
        4. Designing Quality into Products
        5. The Digital Database
      2. 1.1 Graphics Tools in Action
        1. Design Phase: Problem Identification
        2. Design Phase: Ideation
        3. Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
        4. Design Phase: Refinement
        5. Design Phase: Analysis
        6. Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
        7. Design Phase: Implementation
        8. Design Phase: Documentation
      3. 1.2 Rapid Prototyping
      4. 1.3 Drafting Standards
      5. 1.4 Creativity Techniques
        1. Examine Manufactured Products
        2. Study the Natural World
        3. Watch the Web
        4. Research Patent Drawings
        5. Design Groups
      6. 1.5 Product Definition
      7. 1.6 Showing the Design Process in a Portfolio
      8. Key Words
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Review Questions
      11. Chapter Exercises
      12. Reverse Engineering Projects
        1. Can Opener Project
        2. Locking Pliers Project
    8. Chapter Two. Layouts and Lettering
      1. Understanding Projections
        1. Types of Projections
        2. Drawing Vocabulary
      2. 2.1 Alphabet of Lines
      3. 2.2 Freehand Lines
      4. 2.3 Measurement Systems
        1. U.S. Customary Units
        2. The Metric System
      5. 2.4 Drawing Scale
      6. 2.5 Specifying the Scale on a Drawing
      7. 2.6 Lettering
      8. 2.7 Lettering Standards
      9. 2.8 Using Guidelines for Hand Lettering
      10. 2.9 Vertical and Inclined Letters and Numerals
      11. 2.10 Fractions
      12. 2.11 Spacing of Letters and Words
        1. Spacing between Letters
        2. Spacing between Words
        3. Spacing between Rows
      13. 2.12 Lettering for Titles
      14. 2.13 Drawing Pencils
      15. 2.14 Templates
      16. 2.15 CAD Tools
      17. 2.16 Sketching and Drawing Media
      18. 2.17 Standard Sheets
      19. 2.18 Standard Layout Elements
        1. Margins and Borders
        2. Zones
        3. Typical Letter Sizes
        4. Title Block
      20. 2.19 Layouts
      21. 2.20 Planning your Drawing or Sketch
        1. Show Details Clearly
      22. Key Words
      23. Chapter Summary
      24. Review Questions
      25. Chapter Exercises
        1. Drawing Exercises
        2. Lettering Exercises
    9. Chapter Three. Visualization and Sketching
      1. Understanding Solid Objects
        1. Types of Solids
      2. Understanding Sketching Techniques
        1. Analyzing Complex Objects
        2. Viewpoint
        3. Shading
        4. Edges and Vertices
        5. Points and Lines
        6. Angles
        7. Drawings and Sketches
        8. Freehand Sketching
      3. 3.1 Technique of Lines
        1. Lineweights
      4. 3.2 Sketching Straight Lines
        1. Blocking in a Freehand Drawing
      5. 3.3 Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses
        1. Circles
        2. Sketching Arcs
        3. Sketching Ellipses
      6. 3.4 Maintaining Proportions
      7. 3.5 One-View Drawings
      8. 3.6 Pictorial Sketching
      9. 3.7 Projection Methods
      10. 3.8 Axonometric Projection
        1. Axonometric Projections and 3D Models
      11. 3.9 Isometric Projection
        1. Isometric Axes
        2. Nonisometric Lines
        3. Isometric Scales
      12. 3.10 Isometric Drawings
        1. Positions of the Isometric Axes
      13. 3.11 Making an Isometric Drawing
      14. 3.12 Offset Location Measurements
        1. Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces
      15. 3.13 Hidden Lines and Centerlines
      16. 3.14 Angles in Isometric
      17. 3.15 Irregular Objects
      18. 3.16 Curves in Isometric
      19. 3.17 True Ellipses in Isometric
      20. 3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings
      21. 3.19 Drawing Isometric Cylinders
      22. 3.20 Screw Threads in Isometric
      23. 3.21 Arcs in Isometric
      24. 3.22 Spheres in Isometric
      25. 3.23 Oblique Sketches
        1. Appearance of Oblique Drawings
        2. Choosing the Front Surface
        3. Angle of Receding Lines
      26. 3.24 Length of Receding Lines
        1. Cavalier Projection
        2. Cabinet Projection
      27. 3.25 Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings
      28. 3.26 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
      29. 3.27 Angles in Oblique Projection
      30. 3.28 Sketching Assemblies
      31. 3.29 Sketching Perspectives
        1. The Three Types of Perspective
        2. Bird’s-Eye View versus Worm’s-Eye View
      32. 3.30 Curves and Circles in Perspective
      33. 3.31 Shading
      34. 3.32 Computer Graphics
      35. 3.33 Drawing on Drawing
      36. Key Words
      37. Chapter Summary
      38. Review Questions
      39. Sketching Exercises
    10. Chapter Four. Geometry for Modeling and Design
      1. Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling
        1. Specifying Location
      2. Geometric Entities
        1. Points
        2. Lines
        3. Planes
        4. Circles
        5. Arcs
      3. 4.1 Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc
      4. 4.2 Drawing Tangents to Two Circles
      5. 4.3 Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and Through a Point
      6. 4.4 Bisecting an Angle
      7. 4.5 Drawing a Line through a Point and Parallel to a Line
      8. 4.6 Drawing a Triangle with Sides Given
      9. 4.7 Drawing a Right Triangle with Hypotenuse and One Side Given
      10. 4.8 Laying Out an Angle
      11. 4.9 Drawing an Equilateral Triangle
      12. 4.10 Polygons
      13. 4.11 Drawing a Regular Pentagon
      14. 4.12 Drawing a Hexagon
      15. 4.13 Ellipses
      16. 4.14 Spline Curves
      17. 4.15 Geometric Relationships
      18. 4.16 Solid Primitives
        1. Making Complex Shapes with Boolean Operations
      19. 4.17 Recognizing Symmetry
        1. Right- and Left-Hand Parts
        2. Parting-Line Symmetry
      20. 4.18 Extruded Forms
        1. Swept Shapes
      21. 4.19 Revolved Forms
      22. 4.20 Irregular Surfaces
      23. 4.21 User Coordinate Systems
      24. 4.22 Transformations
        1. Geometric Transformations
        2. Viewing Transformations
      25. Key Words
      26. Chapter Summary
      27. Skills Summary
      28. Review Questions
      29. Chapter Exercises
    11. Chapter Five. Modeling and Design
      1. Refinement and Modeling
      2. Kinds of Models
        1. Descriptive Models
        2. Analytical Models
      3. 5.1 2D Models
        1. Paper Drawings
        2. 2D CAD Models
        3. 2D Constraint-Based Modeling
      4. 5.2 3D Models
        1. Physical Models
        2. 3D CAD Models
      5. 5.3 Types of 3D Models
        1. Wireframe Models
        2. Surface Models
        3. Solid Models
      6. 5.4 Constraint-Based Modeling
      7. 5.5 Constraints Define the Geometry
        1. Feature-Based Modeling
      8. 5.6 Planning Parts for Design Flexibility
      9. 5.7 Sketch Constraints
        1. Overconstrained Sketches
        2. Underconstrained Sketches
        3. Applying Constraints
        4. Setting the Base Point
      10. 5.8 The Base Feature
        1. Adding Features to the Model
        2. Parent-Child Relationships
        3. Datum Planes and Surfaces
      11. 5.9 Editing the Model
        1. Standard Features
        2. Working with Built-in Features
        3. Complex Shapes
      12. 5.10 Constraint-Based Modeling Modes
        1. Assemblies
        2. Drawings from the Model
      13. 5.11 Choosing the Right Modeling Method
      14. Key Words
      15. Chapter Summary
      16. Review Questions
      17. Chapter Exercises
    12. Chapter Six. Orthographic Projection
      1. Understanding Projections
        1. Views of Objects
        2. The Six Standard Views
        3. Principal Dimensions
        4. Projection Method
        5. The Glass Box
        6. Spacing between Views
        7. Transferring Depth Dimensions
        8. Measuring from a Reference Surface
        9. Necessary Views
        10. Orientation of the Front View
        11. First- and Third-Angle Projection
        12. Third-Angle Projection
        13. Alternative Arrangements for Third-Angle Projection
        14. First-Angle Projection
        15. Projection System Drawing Symbol
        16. Hidden Lines
        17. Centerlines
      2. 6.1 Hidden Line Technique
      3. 6.2 Precedence of Lines
      4. 6.3 Centerlines
      5. 6.4 Laying Out a Drawing
      6. 6.5 Developing Views from 3D Models
        1. Placing the Views
        2. Isometric Views
      7. 6.6 Visualization
        1. Surfaces, Edges, and Corners
      8. 6.7 Views of Surfaces
      9. 6.8 Normal Surfaces
      10. 6.9 Inclined Surfaces
      11. 6.10 Oblique Surfaces
      12. 6.11 Edges
      13. 6.12 Normal Edges
      14. 6.13 Inclined Edges
      15. 6.14 Oblique Edges
      16. 6.15 Parallel Edges
      17. 6.16 Angles
      18. 6.17 Vertices
      19. 6.18 Interpreting Points
      20. 6.19 Interpreting Lines
      21. 6.20 Similar Shapes of Surfaces
      22. 6.21 Interpreting Views
      23. 6.22 Models
        1. Rules for Visualizing from a Drawing: Putting It All Together
      24. 6.23 Projecting a Third View
      25. 6.24 Becoming a 3D Visualizer
      26. Key Words
      27. Chapter Summary
      28. Review Questions
      29. Chapter Exercises
    13. Chapter Seven. 2D Drawing Representation
      1. Practices for 2D Documentation Drawings
        1. Common Manufactured Features
        2. Conventional Representations
        3. Intersections and Tangencies
        4. Removed Views
      2. 7.1 Visualizing and Drawing Complex Cylindrical Shapes
      3. 7.2 Cylinders when Sliced
      4. 7.3 Cylinders and Ellipses
      5. 7.4 Intersections and Tangencies
        1. Intersections of Cylinders
      6. 7.5 Fillets and Rounds
      7. 7.6 Runouts
      8. 7.7 Conventional Edges
      9. 7.8 Necessary Views
      10. 7.9 Partial Views
        1. Showing Enlarged Details
        2. Conventional Breaks
      11. 7.10 Alignment of Views
      12. 7.11 Removed Views
      13. 7.12 Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts
      14. 7.13 Revolution Conventions
        1. Common Hole Features Shown in Orthographic Views
        2. Common Features Shown in Orthographic Views
      15. Key Words
      16. Chapter Summary
      17. Review Questions
      18. Chapter Exercises
    14. Chapter Eight. Section Views
      1. Understanding Sections
        1. Sections of Single Parts
        2. Full Sections
        3. The Cutting Plane
        4. Lines behind the Cutting Plane
      2. 8.1 Placement of Section Views
      3. 8.2 Labeling Cutting Planes
      4. 8.3 Line Precedence
      5. 8.4 Rules for Lines in Section Views
      6. 8.5 Cutting-Plane Line Style
        1. Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction
      7. 8.6 Section-Lining Technique
        1. Section Lining Large Areas
        2. Section-Lining Symbols
        3. Section Lining in CAD
      8. 8.7 Half Sections
      9. 8.8 Broken Out Sections
      10. 8.9 Revolved Sections
      11. 8.10 Removed Sections
      12. 8.11 Offset Sections
      13. 8.12 Ribs in Section
      14. 8.13 Aligned Sections
      15. 8.14 Partial Views
      16. 8.15 Intersections in Sections
      17. 8.16 Conventional Breaks and Sections
      18. 8.17 Assembly Sections
      19. Key Words
      20. Chapter Summary
      21. Review Questions
      22. Chapter Exercises
        1. Freehand Sectioning Problems
    15. Chapter Nine. Auxiliary Views
      1. Understanding Auxiliary Views
        1. The Auxiliary Plane
        2. Primary Auxiliary Views
        3. Visualizing an Auxiliary View as a Revolved Drawing
        4. Classification of Auxiliary Views
        5. Successive Auxiliary Views
        6. Secondary Auxiliary Views
        7. Reference Planes
      2. 9.1 Using Triangles to Sketch Auxiliary Views
      3. 9.2 Using Grid Paper to Sketch Auxiliary Views
      4. 9.3 Using CAD to Create Auxiliary Views
      5. 9.4 Circles and Ellipses in Auxiliary Views
      6. 9.5 Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views
      7. 9.6 Partial Auxiliary Views
      8. 9.7 Half Auxiliary Views
      9. 9.8 Reverse Construction
      10. 9.9 Auxiliary Sections
      11. 9.10 Viewing-Plane Lines and Arrows
      12. 9.11 Uses of Auxiliary Views
      13. 9.12 True Length of a Line
      14. 9.13 Point View of a Line
        1. Showing the Point View of a Line
      15. 9.14 Edge View of a Plane
        1. Showing the Edge View of a Plane
      16. 9.15 True Size of an Oblique Surface
        1. Showing the True Size and Shape of an Oblique Surface
      17. 9.16 Dihedral Angles
      18. Understanding Developments and Intersections
        1. Surface Terminology
        2. Developable Surfaces
        3. Principles of Intersections
      19. 9.17 Developments
        1. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and Developing the Prism
        2. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Cylinder and Developing the Cylinder
      20. 9.18 Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials
      21. 9.19 More Examples of Developments and Intersections
        1. Developing a Plane and an Oblique Prism
        2. Developing a Plane and an Oblique Cylinder
        3. Developing a Plane and a Pyramid
        4. Developing a Plane and a Cone
        5. Developing a Hood and Flue
      22. 9.20 Transition Pieces
      23. 9.21 Triangulation
      24. 9.22 Developing a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis
      25. 9.23 Developing a Plane and a Sphere
      26. 9.24 Revolution
        1. Axis of Revolution
        2. Creating a Revolved Drawing
      27. 9.25 Primary and Successive Revolutions
      28. 9.26 True Length of a Line: Revolution Method
      29. Key Words
      30. Chapter Summary
      31. Review Questions
      32. Chapter Exercises
        1. Design Project
        2. Auxiliary View Projects
        3. Revolution Exercises
        4. Development Exercises
    16. Chapter Ten. Modeling for Manufacture and Assembly
      1. Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service
      2. 10.1 Assembly Models
        1. Constraint-Based Assemblies
        2. Choosing the Parent Part
        3. Assembly Constraints
        4. Managing Assembly Files
      3. 10.2 Assemblies and Design
        1. Layout Drawings
        2. Assembling to a Skeleton
        3. Global Parameters
        4. Seed Parts
        5. Constraint-Based Drawing Elements
      4. 10.3 Assemblies and Simulation
      5. 10.4 Parts for Assemblies
        1. Standard Parts
        2. Fastener Libraries
      6. 10.5 Using your Model to Check Fits
        1. Interference Checking
        2. Accessibility Checking
      7. 10.6 Manufacturing Processes
        1. Designing Plastic Parts
        2. Cast Parts
        3. Modeling Machined Parts
        4. Modeling Sheet Metal Parts
        5. Other Methods of Production
      8. 10.7 Dos and Don’ts of Practical Design
        1. Casting Design
        2. Practical Considerations
      9. 10.8 Manufacturing Materials
        1. Material Assignment in Models
      10. 10.9 Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling
      11. 10.10 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish
      12. 10.11 Net-Shape Manufacturing
      13. 10.12 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
        1. Major Applications of Computers in Manufacturing
      14. 10.13 Shared Manufacturing
      15. 10.14 Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing
      16. 10.15 Modeling for Testing and Refinement
      17. 10.16 Determining Mass Properties
        1. Understanding Mass Property Calculations
      18. 10.17 Exporting Data from the Database
        1. File Formats
        2. Common Formats for Export
        3. Vector versus Raster Data
      19. 10.18 Downstream Applications
        1. Spreadsheets
        2. Equation Solvers
        3. Finite Element Analysis
        4. Simulation Software
        5. Human Factors
        6. Integrated Modeling and Design Software
      20. 10.19 Prototyping Your Design
        1. Rapid Prototyping
        2. Translating the Model
        3. Rapid Prototyping Systems
        4. Rapid Tooling
      21. Key Words
      22. Chapter Summary
      23. Skills Summary
      24. Review Questions
      25. Chapter Exercises
        1. Mass Properties Exercises
    17. Chapter Eleven. Dimensioning
      1. Understanding Dimensioning
        1. Three Aspects of Good Dimensioning
        2. Tolerance
        3. Geometric Breakdown
      2. 11.1 Lines Used in Dimensioning
      3. 11.2 Using Dimension and Extension Lines
      4. 11.3 Arrowheads
      5. 11.4 Leaders
        1. For the Best Appearance, Make Leaders
        2. Don’t Make Leaders
      6. 11.5 Drawing Scale and Dimensioning
        1. Keeping Dimensions and Lettering Legible at Smaller Scales
      7. 11.6 Direction of Dimension Values and Notes
      8. 11.7 Dimension Units
      9. 11.8 Millimeter Values
      10. 11.9 Decimal-Inch Values
      11. 11.10 Rules for Dimension Values
      12. 11.11 Rules for Rounding Decimal Dimension Values
        1. Examples of Rounded Decimal Values
      13. 11.12 Dual Dimensioning
        1. Position Method
        2. Bracket Method
      14. 11.13 Combination Units
      15. 11.14 Dimensioning Symbols
      16. 11.15 Placing and Showing Dimensions Legibly
        1. Rules for Placing Dimensions Properly
      17. 11.16 Superfluous Dimensions
      18. 11.17 Dimensioning Angles
      19. 11.18 Dimensioning Arcs
      20. 11.19 Fillets and Rounds
      21. 11.20 Size Dimensioning: Prisms
      22. 11.21 Size Dimensioning: Cylinders
      23. 11.22 Size Dimensioning: Holes
      24. 11.23 Applying Standard Dimensioning Symbols
      25. 11.24 Dimensioning Counterbores and Spotfaces with Fillets
      26. 11.25 Dimensioning Triangular Prisms, Pyramids, and Cones
      27. 11.26 Dimensioning Curves
      28. 11.27 Dimensioning Curved Surfaces
      29. 11.28 Dimensioning Rounded-End Shapes
      30. 11.29 Dimensioning Threads
      31. 11.30 Dimensioning Tapers
      32. 11.31 Dimensioning Chamfers
      33. 11.32 Shaft Centers
      34. 11.33 Dimensioning Keyways
      35. 11.34 Dimensioning Knurls
      36. 11.35 Finish Marks
      37. 11.36 Surface Roughness
        1. Applications of Surface Roughness Symbols
      38. 11.37 Location Dimensions
      39. 11.38 Mating Dimensions
      40. 11.39 Coordinate Dimensioning
      41. 11.40 Tabular Dimensions
      42. 11.41 Dimensioning for Numerically-Controlled Machining
      43. 11.42 Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions
      44. 11.43 Sheet Metal Bends
      45. 11.44 Notes
        1. General Notes
        2. Local Notes
      46. 11.45 Standards
      47. 11.46 Dos and Don’ts of Dimensioning
      48. Key Words
      49. Chapter Summary
      50. Review Questions
      51. Chapter Exercises
    18. Chapter Twelve. Tolerancing
      1. Understanding Tolerance
        1. Tolerance
        2. Quality Control
        3. Definitions for Size Designation
        4. Variations in Form
        5. Tolerance Envelope
        6. Implied Right Angles
        7. Fits between Mating Parts
        8. Selective Assembly
        9. Hole System
        10. Shaft System
      2. 12.1 Specifying Tolerances
      3. 12.2 General Tolerance Notes
      4. 12.3 Limit Tolerances
        1. Single-Limit Dimensioning
      5. 12.4 Plus-or-Minus Tolerances
      6. 12.5 Tolerance Stacking
        1. Chained or Continuous Dimensioning
        2. Baseline Dimensioning
      7. 12.6 Using American National Standard Limits and Fit Tables
      8. 12.7 Tolerances and Machining Processes
      9. 12.8 Metric System of Tolerances and Fits
      10. 12.9 Preferred Sizes
      11. 12.10 Preferred Fits
      12. 12.11 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
      13. 12.12 Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form
      14. 12.13 Datum Features
        1. Datum Features versus Datum Feature Simulator
        2. Datum Reference Frame
        3. Datum Targets
      15. 12.14 Positional Tolerances
      16. 12.15 Maximum Material Condition
      17. 12.16 Tolerances of Angles
      18. 12.17 Form Tolerances for Single Features
      19. 12.18 Orientations for Related Features
      20. 12.19 Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
      21. 12.20 Tolerances and Digital Product Definition
      22. 12.21 Computer Graphics
      23. Key Words
      24. Chapter Summary
      25. Review Questions
      26. Chapter Exercises
        1. Design Project
        2. Tolerancing Projects
    19. Chapter Thirteen. Threads, Fasteners, and Springs
      1. Understanding Threads and Fasteners
        1. Screw Thread Terms
        2. Screw Thread Forms
        3. Thread Pitch
        4. Thread Series
        5. Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads
        6. Single and Multiple Threads
        7. American National Thread Fits
        8. Metric and Unified Thread Fits
        9. Three Methods for Drawing Thread
      2. 13.1 Thread Notes
        1. Acme Thread Notes
      3. 13.2 External Thread Symbols
      4. 13.3 Internal Thread Symbols
      5. 13.4 Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads
        1. Detailed Internal Square Thread
        2. Detailed External Square Thread
      6. 13.5 Threads in Assembly
      7. 13.6 Modeling Thread
      8. 13.7 American National Standard Pipe Threads
      9. 13.8 Use of Phantom Lines
      10. 13.9 Tapped Holes
      11. 13.10 Bolts, Studs, and Screws
      12. 13.11 Standard Bolts and Nuts
      13. 13.12 Drawing Standard Bolts
      14. 13.13 Specifications for Bolts and Nuts
      15. 13.14 Locknuts and Locking Devices
      16. 13.15 Standard Cap Screws
      17. 13.16 Standard Machine Screws
      18. 13.17 Standard Set Screws
      19. 13.18 American National Standard Wood Screws
      20. 13.19 Miscellaneous Fasteners
      21. 13.20 Keys
      22. 13.21 Machine Pins
      23. 13.22 Rivets
        1. Riveted Joints
        2. Rivet Symbols
        3. Small Rivets
        4. Blind Rivets
      24. 13.23 Springs
        1. Helical Springs
      25. 13.24 Drawing Helical Springs
      26. 13.25 Modeling Springs
      27. Key Words
      28. Chapter Summary
      29. Review Questions
      30. Chapter Exercises
        1. Design Project
        2. Thread and Fastener Projects
    20. Chapter Fourteen. Working Drawings
      1. Working Drawings or Construction Drawings
        1. Assembly Drawings
        2. Detail Drawings or Piece Part Drawings
      2. 14.1 Subassemblies
      3. 14.2 Identification
        1. Multidetail Drawings
      4. 14.3 Parts Lists
        1. Automatic BOM Generation
        2. Locating the Parts List
        3. Listing Standard Parts
      5. 14.4 Assembly Sections
      6. 14.5 Working Drawing Assembly
      7. 14.6 Installation Assemblies
      8. 14.7 Check Assemblies
      9. 14.8 Working Drawing Formats
        1. Number of Details Per Sheet
        2. Digital Drawing Transmittal
        3. Title and Record Strips
      10. 14.9 Drawing Numbers
      11. 14.10 Zoning
      12. 14.11 Checking Drawings
      13. 14.12 Drawing Revisions
      14. 14.13 Simplifying Drawings
      15. 14.14 Patent Drawings
      16. Key Words
      17. Chapter Summary
      18. Review Questions
      19. Chapter Exercises
        1. Design Exercises
        2. Working Drawing Exercises
    21. Chapter Fifteen. Drawing Control and Data Management
      1. Documentation and the Design Database
      2. 15.1 Requirements for Engineering Documentation
      3. 15.2 Drawing Control Methods
        1. Drawing Approval and Release
        2. Change Orders
        3. Revision Block
        4. A Drawing as a Snapshot in Time
      4. 15.3 Good Practices for Electronic Drawing Storage
        1. Storing Electronic Files
        2. Organized Directory Structures
        3. File Naming Conventions
      5. 15.4 Drawing Standards
      6. 15.5 Permission and Ownership
      7. 15.6 Backing up Drawing Files
      8. 15.7 Storage Media
      9. 15.8 Using the 3D Design Database in Concurrent Engineering
      10. 15.9 Quality Management
        1. ISO 9000/9001
      11. 15.10 Product Data Management
        1. Organized by Product
        2. A Relational Database
      12. 15.11 Managing Work Flow
        1. Archiving Work History
        2. Individual Productivity
      13. 15.12 Data Management and the Web
        1. CAD Files on the Web
      14. Key Words
      15. Chapter Summary
      16. Skills Summary
      17. Review Questions
      18. Chapter Exercises
    22. Chapter Sixteen. Gears and Cams
      1. Understanding Gears
        1. Using Gears to Transmit Power
        2. Spur Gear Definitions and Formulas
      2. 16.1 Constructing a Base Circle
      3. 16.2 The Involute Tooth Shape
      4. 16.3 Approximate Involute Using Circular Arcs
      5. 16.4 Spacing Gear Teeth
      6. 16.5 Rack Teeth
      7. 16.6 Working Drawings of Spur Gears
      8. 16.7 Spur Gear Design
      9. 16.8 Worm Gears
      10. 16.9 Working Drawings of Worm Gears
      11. 16.10 Bevel Gears
      12. 16.11 Bevel Gear Definitions and Formulas
      13. 16.12 Working Drawings of Bevel Gears
      14. 16.13 Cams
      15. 16.14 Displacement Diagrams
      16. 16.15 Cam Profiles
      17. 16.16 Offset and Pivoted Cam Followers
      18. 16.17 Cylindrical Cams
      19. 16.18 Other Drive Devices
      20. Key Words
      21. Chapter Summary
      22. Review Questions
      23. Chapter Exercises
        1. Gearing and Cam Exercises
        2. Gearing
        3. Cams
    23. Chapter Seventeen. Electronic Diagrams
      1. Understanding Electronic Diagrams
        1. Standard Symbols
        2. CAD Symbol Libraries
        3. Types of Electronic Diagrams
      2. 17.1 Drawing Size, Format, and Title
      3. 17.2 Line Conventions and Lettering
      4. 17.3 Standard Symbols for Electronic Diagrams
      5. 17.4 Abbreviations
      6. 17.5 Grouping Parts
      7. 17.6 Arrangement of Electrical/Electronic Symbols
        1. Symbol Arrangement
        2. Signal Path
      8. 17.7 Connections and Crossovers
      9. 17.8 Interrupted Paths
      10. 17.9 Terminals
      11. 17.10 Color Coding
      12. 17.11 Division of Parts
      13. 17.12 Electron Tube Pin Identification
      14. 17.13 Reference Designations
      15. 17.14 Numerical Values
        1. Inductance
        2. Part Value Placement
      16. 17.15 Functional Identification and Other Information
      17. 17.16 Integrated Circuits
      18. 17.17 Printed Circuits
      19. 17.18 Computer Graphics
      20. Key Words
      21. Chapter Summary
      22. Review Questions
      23. Chapter Exercises
    24. Chapter Eighteen. Structural Drawing
      1. Structural Drawings
      2. 18.1 Wood Construction
        1. Nominal Sizes for Wood Products
        2. Symbols for Finished Surfaces on Wood Products
        3. Wood Joints
        4. Connector Designs
        5. Metal Ring Connectors
        6. Straps and Plates
      3. 18.2 Structural Steel
        1. Piece Marks
        2. Erection Plans
      4. 18.3 Structural Steel Shapes
      5. 18.4 Specifications
      6. 18.5 Welded and Bolted Connections
      7. 18.6 Riveted Connections
      8. 18.7 Frame Beam Connections
      9. 18.8 Welding
      10. 18.9 High-Strength Bolting for Structural Joints
      11. 18.10 Accuracy of Dimensions
      12. 18.11 Concrete Construction
      13. 18.12 Reinforced Concrete Drawings
      14. 18.13 Structural Clay Products
      15. 18.14 Stone Construction
      16. Key Words
      17. Chapter Summary
      18. Review Questions
      19. Chapter Exercises
    25. Chapter Nineteen. Landform Drawings
      1. Understanding Landform Drawings
        1. Definitions
      2. Getting Information for Maps
      3. 19.1 Symbols
      4. 19.2 Bearings
      5. 19.3 Elevation
      6. 19.4 Contours
        1. Interpolating Elevation Data
        2. 3D Terrain Models
      7. 19.5 City Maps
        1. Subdivision Plats
        2. Uses for Subdivision Plats
        3. Landscape Drawings
      8. 19.6 Structure Location Plans
      9. 19.7 Highway Plans
      10. Key Words
      11. Chapter Summary
      12. Review Questions
      13. Chapter Exercises
    26. Chapter Twenty. Piping Drawings
      1. Understanding Piping Drawings
        1. Standard Symbols
        2. Types of Drawings
        3. Dimensioning Piping Drawings
      2. 20.1 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe
      3. 20.2 Cast Iron Pipe
      4. 20.3 Seamless Brass and Copper Pipe
      5. 20.4 Copper Tubing
      6. 20.5 Plastic and Specialty Pipes
      7. 20.6 Pipe Fittings
      8. 20.7 Pipe Joints
        1. Flanged Joints
        2. Welded Joints
      9. 20.8 Valves
        1. Globe Valves
        2. Check Valves
        3. Gate Valves
        4. Solenoid-Actuated Valves
      10. 20.9 American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping
      11. Key Words
      12. Chapter Summary
      13. Review Questions
      14. Chapter Exercises
    27. Chapter Twenty-One. Welding Representation
      1. Understanding Weldment Drawings
        1. Welding Processes
        2. Standard Symbols
      2. Understanding a Welding Symbol
      3. 21.1 Types of Welded Joints
      4. 21.2 Types of Welds
      5. 21.3 Welding Symbols
      6. 21.4 Fillet Welds
        1. Fillet Weld Length
        2. Intermittent Fillet Welding
        3. Surface Contour and Fillet Welds
      7. 21.5 Groove Welds
        1. Surface Contour and Groove Welds
      8. 21.6 Back or Backing Welds
      9. 21.7 Surface Welds
      10. 21.8 Plug and Slot Welds
      11. 21.9 Spot Welds
      12. 21.10 Seam Welds
      13. 21.11 Projection Welds
      14. 21.12 Flash and Upset Welds
      15. 21.13 Welding Applications
      16. 21.14 Welding Templates
      17. 21.15 Computer Graphics
      18. Key Words
      19. Chapter Summary
      20. Review Questions
      21. Chapter Exercises
        1. Roof Truss Exercises
    28. Chapter Twenty-Two. Axonometric Projection
      1. Understanding Axonometric Projection
        1. Projection Methods Reviewed
        2. Types of Axonometric Projection
      2. 22.1 Dimetric Projection
      3. 22.2 Approximate Dimetric Drawings
      4. 22.3 Trimetric Projection
      5. 22.4 Trimetric Scales
      6. 22.5 Trimetric Ellipses
      7. 22.6 Axonometric Projection Using Intersections
        1. Use of an Enclosing Box to Create an Isometric Sketch using Intersections
      8. 22.7 Computer Graphics
      9. 22.8 Oblique Projections
        1. Directions of Projectors
      10. 22.9 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
        1. Alternative Four-Center Ellipses
        2. Four-Center Ellipse for Cavalier Drawings
      11. 22.10 Offset Measurements
      12. 22.11 Oblique Dimensioning
      13. 22.12 Computer Graphics
      14. Key Words
      15. Chapter Summary
      16. Review Questions
      17. Chapter Exercises
        1. Axonometric Problems
        2. Oblique Projection Problems
    29. Chapter Twenty-Three. Perspective Drawings
      1. Understanding Perspectives
      2. 23.1 Perspective from a Multiview Projection
      3. 23.2 Nonrotated Side View Method for Perspective
      4. 23.3 Drawing an Angular Perspective
      5. 23.4 Position of the Station Point
      6. 23.5 Location of the Picture Plane
      7. 23.6 Bird’s-Eye View or Worm’s-Eye View
      8. 23.7 The Three Types of Perspectives
      9. 23.8 One-Point Perspective
      10. 23.9 One-Point Perspective of a Cylindrical Shape
      11. 23.10 Two-Point Perspective
      12. 23.11 Three-Point Perspective
      13. 23.12 Measurements in Perspective
      14. 23.13 Direct Measurements Along Inclined Lines
      15. 23.14 Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines
      16. 23.15 Inclined Lines in Perspective, Joining Endpoint Method
      17. 23.16 Curves and Circles in Perspective
      18. 23.17 The Perspective Plan Method
      19. 23.18 Perspective Diagram
      20. 23.19 Shading
      21. 23.20 Computer Graphics
      22. Key Words
      23. Chapter Summary
      24. Review Questions
      25. Chapter Exercises
    30. Glossary
    31. Appendices
      1. Contents
      2. 1 List of Standards Organizations
      3. 2 Abbreviations for Use on Drawings and in Text—American National Standard
        1. A
        2. B
        3. C
        4. D
        5. E
        6. F
        7. G
        8. H
        9. I
        10. J
        11. K
        12. L
        13. M
        14. N
        15. O
        16. P
        17. Q
        18. R
        19. S
        20. T
        21. U
        22. V
        23. W
        24. Y
        25. Z
      4. 3 Useful Formulas for Geometric Entities
        1. Formulas for Circles
        2. Formulas for Triangles
        3. Formulas for Four-Sided Polygons
        4. Formulas for Ellipses and Parabolas
        5. Formulas for Regular Polygons
        6. Formulas for 3D Shapes
      5. 4 Running and Sliding Fitsa—American National Standard
      6. 5 Clearance Locational Fitsa—American National Standard
      7. 6 Transition Locational Fitsa—American National Standard
      8. 7 Interference Locational Fitsa—American National Standard
      9. 8 Force and Shrink Fitsa—American National Standard
      10. 9 International Tolerance Gradesa
      11. 10 Preferred Metric Hole Basis Clearance Fitsa—American National Standard
      12. 11 Preferred Metric Hole Basis Transition and Interference Fitsa—American National Standard
      13. 12 Preferred Metric Shaft Basis Clearance Fitsa—American National Standard
      14. 13 Preferred Metric Shaft Basis Transition and Interference Fitsa—American National Standard
      15. 14 Screw Threads, American National, Unified, and Metric
      16. 15 Twist Drill Sizes—American National Standard and Metric
      17. 16 Acme Threads, General Purposea
      18. 17 Bolts, Nuts, and Cap Screws—Square and Hexagon—American National Standard and Metric
      19. 18 Cap Screws, Slotteda and Socket Headb—American National Standard and Metric
      20. 19 Machine Screws—American National Standard and Metric
      21. 20 Keys—Square, Flat, Plain Taper,a and Gib Head
      22. 21 Screw Threads,a Square and Acme
      23. 22 Woodruff Keysa—American National Standard
      24. 23 Woodruff Key Sizes for Different Shaft Diametersa
      25. 24 Pratt and Whitney Round-End Keys
      26. 25 Washers,a Plain—American National Standard
      27. 26 Washers,a Lock—American National Standard
      28. 27 Wire Gage Standardsa
      29. 28 Taper Pinsa—American National Standard
      30. 29 Cotter Pinsa—American National Standard
      31. 30 Metric Equivalents
      32. 31 Welding Symbols and Processes—American Welding Society Standarda
      33. 32 Topographic Symbols
      34. 33 Piping Symbols—American National Standard
      35. 34 Heating, Ventilating, and Ductwork Symbolsa—American National Standard
      36. 35 Amer. Nat’l Std. Graphical Symbols for Electronic Diagrams
      37. 36 Form and Proportion of Datum Symbolsa
      38. 37 Form and Proportion of Geometric Characteristic Symbolsa
      39. 38 Form and Proportion of Geometric Dimensioning Symbolsa
      40. 39 Form and Proportion of Modifying Symbolsa
      41. 40 Form and Proportion of Dimensioning Symbols and Lettersa
      42. 41 Comparison of Symbolsa
      43. 42 Wrought Steel Pipea and Taper Pipe Threadsb—American National Standard
      44. 43 Cast Iron Pipe, Thicknesses and Weights—American National Standard
      45. 44 Cast Iron Pipe Screwed Fittings,a 125 lb—American National Standard
      46. 45 Cast Iron Pipe Screwed Fittings,a 250 lb—American National Standard
      47. 46 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Fittings,a 125 lb—American National Standard
      48. 47 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges, Drilling for Bolts and Their Lengths,a 125 lb—American National Standard
      49. 48 Shaft Center Sizes
      50. 49 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Fittings,a 250 lb—American National Standard
      51. 50 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges, Drilling for Bolts and Their Lengths,a 250 lb—American National Standard
      52. 51 Types of Scales
        1. Metric Scales
        2. Engineers’ Scales
        3. Decimal-Inch Scales
        4. Mechanical Engineers’ Scales
      53. 52 Additional Geometric Constructions
        1. Drawing an Approximate Ellipse
        2. Drawing a Parabola
        3. Joining Two Points by a Parabolic Curve
        4. Drawing a Hyperbola
        5. Drawing an Equilateral Hyperbola
        6. Drawing a Spiral of Archimedes
        7. Drawing a Helix
        8. Drawing an Involute
        9. Drawing a Cycloid
        10. Drawing an Epicycloid or a Hypocycloid
    32. Index
    33. Credits
      1. Chapter One
      2. Chapter Three
      3. Chapter Four
      4. Chapter Five
      5. Chapter Six
      6. Chapter Seven
      7. Chapter Ten
      8. Chapter Twelve
      9. Chapter Thirteen
      10. Chapter Fifteen
      11. Appendices