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TCP/IP Guide by Charles M. Kozierok

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TCP Checksum Calculation and the TCP Pseudo Header

TCP is designed to provide reliable data transfer between a pair of devices on an IP internetwork. Much of the effort required to ensure reliable delivery of data segments is focused on the problem of ensuring that data is not lost in transit. But there's another important critical impediment to the safe transmission of data: the risk of errors being introduced into a TCP segment during its travel across the internetwork.

Detecting Transmission Errors Using Checksums

If the data gets where it needs to go but is corrupted, and we do not detect the corruption, this is in some ways worse than it never showing up at all. To provide basic protection against errors in transmission, TCP includes a 16-bit ...

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