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TCP/IP Guide by Charles M. Kozierok

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Chapter 31. ICMP CONCEPTS AND GENERAL OPERATION

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The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the underappreciated "worker bees" of the networking world. Everyone knows how important key protocols such as the Internet Protocol (IP) are to TCP/IP, but few realize that the suite as a whole relies on many functions that ICMP provides. Originally created to allow the reporting of a small set of error conditions, ICMP messages are now used to implement a wide range of error-reporting, feedback, and testing capabilities. While each message type is unique, they are all implemented using a common message format, sent, and then received based on ...

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