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TCP/IP Guide

Book Description

The TCP/IP Guide is both an encyclopedic and comprehensible guide to the TCP/IP protocol suite that will appeal to newcomers and the seasoned professional. It details the core protocols that make TCP/IP internetworks function, and the most important classical TCP/IP applications. Its personal, easy-going writing style lets anyone understand the dozens of protocols and technologies that run the Internet, with full coverage of PPP, ARP, IP, IPv6, IP NAT, IPSec, Mobile IP, ICMP, RIP, BGP, TCP, UDP, DNS, DHCP, SNMP, FTP, SMTP, NNTP, HTTP, Telnet and much more. The author offers not only a detailed view of the TCP/IP protocol suite, but also describes networking fundamentals and the important OSI Reference Model.

Table of Contents

  1. THE TCP/IP GUIDE
  2. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
  3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  4. INTRODUCTION
    1. Goals of The TCP/IP Guide
    2. Scope of The TCP/IP Guide
    3. The TCP/IP Guide Features
    4. The TCP/IP Guide Online!
    5. Your Feedback and Suggestions
  5. I-1. NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS
    1. 1. NETWORKING INTRODUCTION, CHARACTERISTICS, AND TYPES
      1. Introduction to Networking
        1. What Is Networking?
        2. The Advantages and Benefits of Networking
        3. The Disadvantages and Costs of Networking
      2. Fundamental Network Characteristics
        1. Networking Layers, Models, and Architectures
        2. Protocols: What Are They, Anyway?
        3. Circuit-Switching and Packet-Switching Networks
          1. Circuit Switching
          2. Packet Switching
          3. Which Switching Method to Choose?
        4. Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols
      3. Messages: Packets, Frames, Datagrams, and Cells
        1. Message Formatting: Headers, Payloads, and Footers
        2. Message Addressing and Transmission Methods: Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast
      4. Network Structural Models and Client-Server and Peer-to-Peer Networking
      5. Types and Sizes of Networks
      6. Segments, Networks, Subnetworks, and Internetworks
      7. The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets
    2. 2. NETWORK PERFORMANCE ISSUES AND CONCEPTS
      1. Putting Network Performance in Perspective
      2. Balancing Network Performance with Key Nonperformance Characteristics
      3. Performance Measurements: Speed, Bandwidth, Throughput, and Latency
        1. Speed
        2. Bandwidth
        3. Throughput
        4. Latency
        5. Summary of Performance Measurements
      4. Understanding Performance Measurement Units
        1. Bits and Bytes
        2. Baud
      5. Theoretical and Real-World Throughput, and Factors Affecting Network Performance
        1. Normal Network Overhead
        2. External Performance Limiters
        3. Network Configuration Problems
        4. Asymmetry
      6. Simplex, Full-Duplex, and Half-Duplex Operation
        1. Simplex Operation
        2. Half-Duplex Operation
        3. Full-Duplex Operation
      7. Quality of Service (QoS)
    3. 3. NETWORK STANDARDS AND STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS
      1. Proprietary, Open, and De Facto Standards
        1. Proprietary Standards
        2. Open Standards
        3. De Facto Standards
      2. Networking Standards
      3. International Networking Standards Organizations
      4. Networking Industry Groups
      5. Internet Standards Organizations (ISOC, IAB, IESG, IETF, IRSG, and IRTF)
      6. Internet Registration Authorities and Registries (IANA, ICANN, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, and RIPE NCC)
        1. Internet Centralized Registration Authorities
        2. Modern Hierarchy of Registration Authorities
      7. Internet Standards and the Request for Comment (RFC) Process
        1. RFC Categories
        2. The Internet Standardization Process
    4. 4. A REVIEW OF DATA REPRESENTATION AND THE MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTING
      1. Binary Information and Representation: Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, Octets, and Characters
        1. Binary Information
        2. Binary Information Representation and Groups
        3. Byte Versus Octet
      2. Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers
        1. Binary Numbers and Their Decimal Equivalents
        2. Making Binary Numbers Easier to Use by Grouping Bits
        3. Octal Numbers
        4. Hexadecimal Numbers
      3. Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Number Conversion
        1. Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Conversions
        2. Conversion from Binary, Octal, or Hexadecimal to Decimal
        3. Conversion from Decimal to Binary, Octal, or Hexadecimal
          1. Conversion from Decimal to Binary
          2. Conversion from Decimal to Octal or Hexadecimal
      4. Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Arithmetic
        1. Binary Arithmetic
        2. Octal and Hexadecimal Arithmetic
      5. Boolean Logic and Logical Functions
        1. Boolean Logical Functions
          1. NOT
          2. AND and OR
          3. Exclusive-OR (XOR or EOR)
        2. Combining Boolean Expressions
      6. Bit Masking (Setting, Clearing, and Inverting) Using Boolean Logical Functions
        1. Setting Groups of Bits with OR
        2. Clearing Bits with AND
        3. Inverting Bits with XOR
  6. I-2. THE OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION (OSI) REFERENCE MODEL
    1. 5. GENERAL OSI REFERENCE MODEL ISSUES AND CONCEPTS
      1. History of the OSI Reference Model
      2. General Reference Model Issues
        1. The Benefits of Networking Models
        2. Why Understanding the OSI Reference Model Is Important to You
        3. How to Use the OSI Reference Model
        4. Other Network Architectures and Protocol Stacks
      3. Key OSI Reference Model Concepts
        1. OSI Reference Model Networking Layers, Sublayers, and Layer Groupings
        2. "N" Notation and Other OSI Model Layer Terminology
        3. Interfaces: Vertical (Adjacent Layer) Communication
        4. Protocols: Horizontal (Corresponding Layer) Communication
        5. Data Encapsulation, Protocol Data Units (PDUs), and Service Data Units (SDUs)
        6. Indirect Device Connection and Message Routing
    2. 6. OSI REFERENCE MODEL LAYERS
      1. Physical Layer (Layer 1)
      2. Data Link Layer (Layer 2)
      3. Network Layer (Layer 3)
      4. Transport Layer (Layer 4)
      5. Session Layer (Layer 5)
      6. Presentation Layer (Layer 6)
      7. Application Layer (Layer 7)
    3. 7. OSI REFERENCE MODEL SUMMARY
      1. Understanding the OSI Model: An Analogy
      2. Remembering the OSI Model Layers: Some Mnemonics
      3. Summarizing the OSI Model Layers: A Summary Chart
  7. I-3. TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE AND ARCHITECTURE
    1. 8. TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE AND ARCHITECTURE
      1. TCP/IP Overview and History
        1. TCP/IP History and Development
        2. Important Factors in the Success of TCP/IP
      2. TCP/IP Services
      3. The TCP/IP Client/Server Structural Model
        1. Hardware and Software Roles
        2. Transactional Roles
      4. TCP/IP Architecture and the TCP/IP Model
        1. Network Interface Layer
        2. Internet Layer
        3. Host-to-Host Transport Layer
        4. Application Layer
      5. TCP/IP Protocols
  8. II-1. TCP/IP NETWORK INTERFACE LAYER PROTOCOLS
    1. 9. TCP/IP SERIAL LINE INTERNET PROTOCOL (SLIP) AND POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL (PPP) OVERVIEW AND FUNDAMENTALS
      1. SLIP versus PPP
      2. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
        1. SLIP Data Framing Method and General Operation
        2. Problems and Limitations of SLIP
      3. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Overview and Fundamentals
        1. Development and Standardization
        2. Function and Architecture
        3. Advantages and Benefits
        4. PPP Main Components
        5. PPP Functional Groups
        6. General Operation
        7. PPP Link Setup and Phases
          1. Link Dead Phase
          2. Link Establishment Phase
          3. Authentication Phase
          4. Network Layer Protocol Phase
          5. Link Open Phase
          6. Link Termination Phase
        8. PPP Standards
    2. 10. PPP CORE PROTOCOLS: LINK CONTROL, NETWORK CONTROL, AND AUTHENTICATION
      1. Link Control Protocol (LCP)
        1. LCP Packets
        2. LCP Link Configuration
        3. LCP Link Maintenance
        4. LCP Link Termination
        5. Other LCP Messages
      2. The Network Control Protocols (IPCP, IPXCP, NBFCP, and Others)
        1. Operation of NCPs
        2. The Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP): An Example NCP
      3. PPP Authentication Protocols: PAP and CHAP
        1. PAP
        2. CHAP
    3. 11. PPP FEATURE PROTOCOLS
      1. PPP Link Quality Monitoring and Reporting (LQM, LQR)
        1. LQR Setup
        2. Using Link Quality Reports
      2. PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP) and Compression Algorithms
        1. CCP Operation: Compression Setup
        2. CCP Configuration Options and Compression Algorithms
        3. Compression Algorithm Operation: Compressing and Decompressing Data
      3. PPP Encryption Control Protocol (ECP) and Encryption Algorithms
        1. ECP Operation: Encryption Setup
        2. ECP Configuration Options and Encryption Algorithms
        3. Encryption Algorithm Operation: Encrypting and Decrypting Data
      4. PPP Multilink Protocol (MP, MLP, MLPPP)
        1. PPP Multilink Protocol Architecture
        2. PPP Multilink Protocol Setup and Configuration
        3. PPP Multilink Protocol Operation
      5. PPP Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) and Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP)
        1. BACP Operation: Configuring the Use of BAP
        2. BAP Operation: Adding and Removing Links
    4. 12. PPP PROTOCOL FRAME FORMATS
      1. PPP General Frame Format
        1. Protocol Field Ranges
        2. Protocol Field Values
        3. PPP Field Compression
      2. PPP General Control Protocol Frame Format and Option Format
        1. PPP Control Messages and Code Values
        2. PPP Control Message Option Format
        3. Summary of PPP Control Message Formatting
      3. PPP Link Control Protocol (LCP) Frame Formats
      4. PAP and CHAP Frame Formats
        1. PPP PAP Control Frame Formats
        2. PPP CHAP Control Frame Formats
      5. PPP Multilink Protocol (MP) Frame Format
        1. PPP MP Frame Fragmentation Process
        2. PPP MP Fragment Frame Format
        3. PPP MP Fragmentation Demonstration
  9. II-2. TCP/IP NETWORK INTERFACE/INTERNET LAYER CONNECTION PROTOCOLS
    1. 13. ADDRESS RESOLUTION AND THE TCP/IP ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (ARP)
      1. Address Resolution Concepts and Issues
        1. The Need for Address Resolution
          1. Addressing at Layer 2 and Layer 3
          2. General Address Resolution Methods
        2. Address Resolution Through Direct Mapping
          1. How Direct Mapping Works
          2. Problems with Direct Mapping
        3. Dynamic Address Resolution
          1. How Dynamic Addressing Works
          2. Dynamic Address Resolution Caching and Efficiency Issues
          3. Other Enhancements to Dynamic Resolution
      2. TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
        1. ARP Address Specification and General Operation
          1. ARP Message Types and Address Designations
          2. ARP General Operation
        2. ARP Message Format
        3. ARP Caching
          1. Static and Dynamic ARP Cache Entries
          2. Cache Entry Expiration
          3. Other Caching Features
        4. Proxy ARP
      3. TCP/IP Address Resolution for IP Multicast Addresses
      4. TCP/IP Address Resolution for IP Version 6
    2. 14. REVERSE ADDRESS RESOLUTION AND THE TCP/IP REVERSE ADDRESS RESOLUTION PROTOCOL (RARP)
      1. The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
      2. RARP General Operation
      3. Limitations of RARP
  10. II-3. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 (IP/IPV4)
    1. 15. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSIONS, CONCEPTS, AND OVERVIEW
      1. IP Overview and Key Operational Characteristics
      2. IP Functions
      3. IP History, Standards, Versions, and Closely Related Protocols
        1. IP Versions and Version Numbers
        2. IP-Related Protocols
    2. 16. IPV4 ADDRESSING CONCEPTS AND ISSUES
      1. IP Addressing Overview and Fundamentals
        1. Number of IP Addresses Per Device
        2. Address Uniqueness and Network Specificity
        3. Contrasting IP Addresses and Data Link Layer Addresses
        4. Private and Public IP Network Addresses
        5. IP Address Configuration and Addressing Types
      2. IP Address Size, Address Space, and Notation
        1. IP Address Size and Binary Notation
        2. IP Address Dotted Decimal Notation
        3. IP Address Space
      3. IP Basic Address Structure and Main Components
        1. Network ID and Host ID
        2. Location of the Division Between Network ID and Host ID
      4. IP Addressing Categories and IP Address Adjuncts
        1. Conventional (Classful) Addressing
        2. Subnetted Classful Addressing
        3. Classless Addressing
        4. Subnet Mask and Default Gateway
      5. Number of IP Addresses and Multihoming
      6. IP Address Management and Assignment Methods and Authorities
    3. 17. CLASSFUL (CONVENTIONAL) ADDRESSING
      1. IP Classful Addressing Overview and Address Classes
        1. IP Address Classes
        2. Rationale for Classful Addressing
      2. IP Classful Addressing Network and Host Identification and Address Ranges
        1. Classful Addressing Class Determination Algorithm
        2. Determining Address Class from the First Octet Bit Pattern
      3. IP Address Class A, B, and C Network and Host Capacities
      4. IP Addresses with Special Meanings
      5. IP Reserved, Private, and Loopback Addresses
        1. Reserved Addresses
        2. Private, Unregistered, Nonroutable Addresses
        3. Loopback Addresses
        4. Reserved, Private, and Loopback Addressing Blocks
      6. IP Multicast Addressing
        1. Multicast Address Types and Ranges
        2. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
      7. Problems with Classful IP Addressing
    4. 18. IP SUBNET ADDRESSING (SUBNETTING) CONCEPTS
      1. IP Subnet Addressing Overview, Motivation, and Advantages
      2. IP Subnetting: Three-Level Hierarchical IP Subnet Addressing
      3. IP Subnet Masks, Notation, and Subnet Calculations
        1. Function of the Subnet Mask
        2. Subnet Mask Notation
        3. Applying the Subnet Mask: An Example
        4. Rationale for Subnet Mask Notation
      4. IP Default Subnet Masks for Address Classes A, B, and C
      5. IP Custom Subnet Masks
        1. Deciding How Many Subnet Bits to Use
        2. Determining the Custom Subnet Mask
        3. Subtracting Two from the Number of Hosts per Subnet and (Possibly) Subnets per Network
      6. IP Subnet Identifiers, Subnet Addresses, and Host Addresses
        1. Subnet Identifiers
        2. Subnet Addresses
        3. Host Addresses Within Each Subnet
      7. IP Subnetting Summary Tables for Class A, Class B, and Class C Networks
      8. IP Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)
        1. The Solution: Variable Length Subnet Masking
        2. Multiple-Level Subnetting Using VLSM
    5. 19. IP SUBNETTING PRACTICAL SUBNET DESIGN AND ADDRESS DETERMINATION EXAMPLE
      1. IP Subnetting Step 1: Analyzing Requirements
      2. IP Subnetting Step 2: Partitioning Network Address Host Bits
        1. Class C Subnetting Design Example
        2. Class B Subnetting Design Example
      3. IP Subnetting Step 3: Determining the Custom Subnet Mask
        1. Calculating the Custom Subnet Mask
          1. Class C Custom Subnet Mask Calculation Example
          2. Class B Custom Subnet Mask Calculation Example
        2. Determining the Custom Subnet Mask Using Subnetting Tables
      4. IP Subnetting Step 4: Determining Subnet Identifiers and Subnet Addresses
        1. Class C Subnet ID and Address Determination Example
        2. Class B Subnet ID and Address Determination Example
        3. Using Subnet Address Formulas to Calculate Subnet Addresses
      5. IP Subnetting Step 5: Determining Host Addresses for Each Subnet
        1. Class C Host Address Determination Example
        2. Class B Host Address Determination Example
        3. Shortcuts for Computing Host Addresses
    6. 20. IP CLASSLESS ADDRESSING—CLASSLESS INTER-DOMAIN ROUTING (CIDR)/SUPERNETTING
      1. IP Classless Addressing and Supernetting Overview
        1. The Main Problem with Classful Addressing
        2. The Solution: Eliminate Address Classes
        3. The Many Benefits of Classless Addressing and Routing
      2. IP Supernetting: CIDR Hierarchical Addressing and Notation
        1. CIDR (Slash) Notation
        2. Supernetting: Subnetting the Internet
        3. Common Aspects of Classful and Classless Addressing
      3. IP Classless Addressing Block Sizes and Classful Network Equivalents
      4. IP CIDR Addressing Example
        1. First Level of Division
        2. Second Level of Division
        3. Third Level of Division
    7. 21. INTERNET PROTOCOL DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION AND FORMATTING
      1. IP Datagram Encapsulation
      2. IP Datagram General Format
        1. IP Datagram Time to Live (TTL) Field
        2. IP Datagram Type of Service (TOS) Field
      3. IP Datagram Options and Option Format
    8. 22. IP DATAGRAM SIZE, FRAGMENTATION, AND REASSEMBLY
      1. IP Datagram Size, MTU, and Fragmentation Overview
        1. IP Datagram Size and the Underlying Network Frame Size
        2. MTU and Datagram Fragmentation
        3. Multiple-Stage Fragmentation
        4. Internet Minimum MTU: 576 Bytes
        5. MTU Path Discovery
      2. IP Message Fragmentation Process
        1. The IP Fragmentation Process
        2. Fragmentation-Related IP Datagram Header Fields
      3. IP Message Reassembly
    9. 23. IP ROUTING AND MULTICASTING
      1. IP Datagram Delivery
        1. Direct Datagram Delivery
        2. Indirect Datagram Delivery (Routing)
        3. The Relationship Between Datagram Routing and Addressing
      2. IP Routing Concepts and the Process of Next-Hop Routing
      3. IP Routes and Routing Tables
      4. IP Routing in a Subnet or Classless Addressing (CIDR) Environment
      5. IP Multicasting
        1. Multicast Addressing
        2. Multicast Group Management
        3. Multicast Datagram Processing and Routing
  11. II-4. INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 (IPV6)
    1. 24. IPV6 OVERVIEW, CHANGES, AND TRANSITION
      1. IPv6 Motivation and Overview
        1. IPv6 Standards
        2. Design Goals of IPv6
      2. Major Changes and Additions in IPv6
      3. Transition from IPv4 to IPv6
        1. IPv4 to IPv6 Transition: Differences of Opinion
        2. IPv4 to IPv6 Transition Methods
    2. 25. IPV6 ADDRESSING
      1. IPv6 Addressing Overview: Addressing Model, Address Types, and Address Size
        1. IPv6 Addressing Model Characteristics
        2. IPv6 Supported Address Types
        3. IPv6 Address Size and Address Space
      2. IPv6 Address and Address Notation and Prefix Representation
        1. IPv6 Address Hexadecimal Notation
        2. Zero Compression in IPv6 Addresses
        3. IPv6 Mixed Notation
        4. IPv6 Address Prefix Length Representation
      3. IPv6 Address Space Allocation
      4. IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format
        1. Rationale for a Structured Unicast Address Block
        2. Generic Division of the Unicast Address Space
        3. IPv6 Implementation of the Unicast Address Space
        4. Original Division of the Global Routing Prefix: Aggregators
        5. A Sample Division of the Global Routing Prefix into Levels
      5. IPv6 Interface Identifiers and Physical Address Mapping
      6. IPv6 Special Addresses: Reserved, Private, Unspecified, and Loopback
        1. Special Address Types
        2. IPv6 Private Addresses Type Scopes
      7. IPv6/IPv4 Address Embedding
      8. IPv6 Multicast and Anycast Addressing
        1. IPv6 Multicast Addresses
          1. Multicast Scopes
          2. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
          3. Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses
        2. IPv6 Anycast Addresses
      9. IPv6 Autoconfiguration and Renumbering
        1. IPv6 Stateless Autoconfiguration
        2. IPv6 Device Renumbering
    3. 26. IPV6 DATAGRAM ENCAPSULATION AND FORMATTING
      1. IPv6 Datagram Overview and General Structure
      2. IPv6 Datagram Main Header Format
        1. IPv6 Next Header Field
        2. Key Changes to the Main Header Between IPv4 and IPv6
      3. IPv6 Datagram Extension Headers
        1. IPv6 Header Chaining Using the Next Header Field
        2. Summary of IPv6 Extension Headers
        3. IPv6 Routing Extension Header
        4. IPv6 Fragment Extension Header
        5. IPv6 Extension Header Order
      4. IPv6 Datagram Options
    4. 27. IPV6 DATAGRAM SIZE, FRAGMENTATION, REASSEMBLY, AND ROUTING
      1. Overview of IPv6 Datagram Sizing and Fragmentation
      2. Implications of IPv6's Source-Only Fragmentation Rule
      3. The IPv6 Fragmentation Process
      4. IPv6 Datagram Delivery and Routing
  12. II-5. IP-RELATED FEATURE PROTOCOLS
    1. 28. IP NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (NAT) PROTOCOL
      1. IP NAT Overview
        1. Advantages of IP NAT
        2. Disadvantages of IP NAT
      2. IP NAT Address Terminology
      3. IP NAT Static and Dynamic Address Mappings
        1. Static Mappings
        2. Dynamic Mappings
        3. Choosing Between Static and Dynamic Mapping
      4. IP NAT Unidirectional (Traditional/Outbound) Operation
      5. IP NAT Bidirectional (Two-Way/Inbound) Operation
      6. IP NAT Port-Based (Overloaded) Operation
      7. IP NAT Overlapping/Twice NAT Operation
      8. IP NAT Compatibility Issues and Special Handling Requirements
    2. 29. IP SECURITY (IPSEC) PROTOCOLS
      1. IPsec Overview, History, and Standards
        1. Overview of IPsec Services and Functions
        2. IPsec Standards
      2. IPsec General Operation, Components, and Protocols
        1. IPsec Core Protocols
        2. IPsec Support Components
      3. IPsec Architectures and Implementation Methods
        1. Integrated Architecture
        2. Bump in the Stack (BITS) Architecture
        3. Bump in the Wire (BITW) Architecture
      4. IPsec Modes: Transport and Tunnel
        1. Transport Mode
        2. Tunnel Mode
        3. Comparing Transport and Tunnel Modes
      5. IPsec Security Constructs
        1. Security Policies, Security Associations, and Associated Databases
        2. Selectors
        3. Security Association Triples and Security Parameter Index (SPI)
      6. IPsec Authentication Header (AH)
        1. AH Datagram Placement and Linking
          1. IPv6 AH Placement and Linking
          2. IPv4 AH Placement and Linking
        2. AH Format
      7. IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
        1. ESP Fields
        2. ESP Operations and Field Use
          1. Header Calculation and Placement
          2. Trailer Calculation and Placement
          3. ESP Authentication Field Calculation and Placement
        3. ESP Format
      8. IPsec Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
        1. IKE Overview
        2. IKE Operation
    3. 30. INTERNET PROTOCOL MOBILITY SUPPORT (MOBILE IP)
      1. Mobile IP Overview, History, and Motivation
        1. The Problem with Mobile Nodes in TCP/IP
        2. The Solution: Mobile IP
        3. Limitations of Mobile IP
      2. Mobile IP Concepts and General Operation
        1. Mobile IP Device Roles
        2. Mobile IP Functions
      3. Mobile IP Addressing: Home and Care-Of Addresses
        1. Foreign Agent Care-Of Address
        2. Co-Located Care-Of Address
        3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Care-Of Address Types
      4. Mobile IP Agent Discovery
        1. Agent Discovery Process
        2. Agent Advertisement and Agent Solicitation Messages
          1. Agent Solicitation Message Format
          2. Agent Advertisement Message Format
      5. Mobile IP Home Agent Registration and Registration Messages
        1. Mobile Node Registration Events
        2. Registration Request and Registration Reply Messages
        3. Registration Process
        4. Registration Request Message Format
        5. Registration Reply Message Format
      6. Mobile IP Data Encapsulation and Tunneling
        1. Mobile IP Conventional Tunneling
        2. Mobile IP Reverse Tunneling
      7. Mobile IP and TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Operation
      8. Mobile IP Efficiency Issues
      9. Mobile IP Security Considerations
  13. II-6. IP SUPPORT PROTOCOLS
    1. 31. ICMP CONCEPTS AND GENERAL OPERATION
      1. ICMP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
      2. ICMP General Operation
        1. The ICMP Message-Passing Service
        2. ICMP Error Reporting Limited to the Datagram Source
      3. ICMP Message Classes, Types, and Codes
        1. ICMP Message Classes
        2. ICMP Message Types
        3. ICMP Message Codes
        4. ICMP Message Class and Type Summary
      4. ICMP Message Creation and Processing Conventions and Rules
        1. Limitations on ICMP Message Responses
        2. ICMP Message Processing Conventions
      5. ICMP Common Message Format and Data Encapsulation
        1. ICMP Common Message Format
        2. Original Datagram Inclusion in ICMP Error Messages
        3. ICMP Data Encapsulation
    2. 32. ICMPV4 ERROR MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
      1. ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Message Format
        2. ICMPv4 Destination Unreachable Message Subtypes
        3. Interpretation of Destination Unreachable Messages
      2. ICMPv4 Source Quench Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Source Quench Message Format
        2. Problems with Source Quench Messages
      3. ICMPv4 Time Exceeded Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Time Exceeded Message Format
        2. Applications of Time Exceeded Messages
      4. ICMPv4 Redirect Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Redirect Message Format
        2. Redirect Message Interpretation Codes
        3. Limitations of Redirect Messages
      5. ICMPv4 Parameter Problem Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Parameter Problem Message Format
        2. Parameter Problem Message Interpretation Codes and the Pointer Field
    3. 33. ICMPV4 INFORMATIONAL MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
      1. ICMPv4 Echo (Request) and Echo Reply Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Echo and Echo Reply Message Format
        2. Application of Echo and Echo Reply Messages
      2. ICMPv4 Timestamp (Request) and Timestamp Reply Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Timestamp and Timestamp Reply Message Format
        2. Issues Using Timestamp and Timestamp Reply Messages
      3. ICMPv4 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
        1. The Router Discovery Process
        2. ICMPv4 Router Advertisement Message Format
        3. ICMPv4 Router Solicitation Message Format
        4. Addressing and Use of Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
      4. ICMPv4 Address Mask Request and Reply Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply Message Format
        2. Use of Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply Messages
      5. ICMPv4 Traceroute Messages
        1. ICMPv4 Traceroute Message Format
        2. Use of Traceroute Messages
    4. 34. ICMPV6 ERROR MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
      1. ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Message Format
        2. ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable Message Subtypes
        3. Processing of Destination Unreachable Messages
      2. ICMPv6 Packet Too Big Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Packet Too Big Message Format
        2. Applications of Packet Too Big Messages
      3. ICMPv6 Time Exceeded Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Time Exceeded Message Format
        2. Applications of Time Exceeded Messages
      4. ICMPv6 Parameter Problem Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Parameter Problem Message Format
        2. Parameter Problem Message Interpretation Codes and the Pointer Field
    5. 35. ICMPV6 INFORMATIONAL MESSAGE TYPES AND FORMATS
      1. ICMPv6 Echo Request and Echo Reply Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Echo and Echo Reply Message Format
        2. Application of Echo and Echo Reply Messages
      2. ICMPv6 Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Router Advertisement Message Format
        2. ICMPv6 Router Solicitation Message Format
        3. Addressing of Router Advertisement and Router Solicitation Messages
      3. ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement and Neighbor Solicitation Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Neighbor Advertisement Message Format
        2. ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation Message Format
        3. Addressing of Neighbor Advertisement and Neighbor Solicitation Messages
      4. ICMPv6 Redirect Messages
        1. ICMPv6 Redirect Message Format
        2. Application of Redirect Messages
      5. ICMPv6 Router Renumbering Messages
        1. IPv6 Router Renumbering
        2. ICMPv6 Router Renumbering Message Format
        3. Addressing of Router Renumbering Messages
      6. ICMPv6 Informational Message Options
        1. Source Link-Layer Address Option Format
        2. Target Link-Layer Address Option Format
        3. Prefix Information Option Format
        4. Redirected Header Option Format
        5. MTU Option Format
    6. 36. IPV6 NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY (ND) PROTOCOL
      1. IPv6 ND Overview
        1. Formalizing Local Network Functions: The Neighbor Concept
        2. Neighbor Discovery Standards
      2. IPv6 ND General Operational Overview
        1. Host-Router Discovery Functions
        2. Host-Host Communication Functions
        3. Redirect Function
        4. Relationships Between Functions
        5. ICMPv6 Messages Used by ND
      3. IPv6 ND Functions Compared to Equivalent IPv4 Functions
      4. IPv6 ND Host-Router Discovery Functions
        1. Host-Router Discovery Functions Performed by Routers
        2. Host-Router Discovery Functions Performed by Hosts
      5. IPv6 ND Host-Host Communication Functions
        1. Next-Hop Determination
        2. Address Resolution
        3. Updating Neighbors Using Neighbor Advertisement Messages
        4. Neighbor Unreachability Detection and the Neighbor Cache
        5. Duplicate Address Detection
      6. IPv6 ND Redirect Function
  14. II-7. TCP/IP ROUTING PROTOCOLS (GATEWAY PROTOCOLS)
    1. 37. OVERVIEW OF KEY ROUTING PROTOCOL CONCEPTS
      1. Routing Protocol Architectures
        1. Core Architecture
        2. Autonomous System (AS) Architecture
        3. Modern Protocol Types: Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols
      2. Routing Protocol Algorithms and Metrics
        1. Distance-Vector (Bellman-Ford) Routing Protocol Algorithm
        2. Link-State (Shortest-Path First) Routing Protocol Algorithm
        3. Hybrid Routing Protocol Algorithms
      3. Static and Dynamic Routing Protocols
    2. 38. ROUTING INFORMATION PROTOCOL (RIP, RIP-2, AND RIPNG)
      1. RIP Overview
        1. RIP Standardization
        2. RIP Operational Overview, Advantages, and Limitations
        3. Development of RIP Version 2 (RIP-2) and RIPng for IPv6
      2. RIP Route Determination Algorithm and Metric
        1. RIP Routing Information and Route Distance Metric
        2. RIP Route Determination Algorithm
        3. RIP Route Determination and Information Propagation
        4. Default Routes
      3. RIP General Operation, Messaging, and Timers
        1. RIP Messages and Basic Message Types
        2. RIP Update Messaging and the 30-Second Timer
        3. Preventing Stale Information: The Timeout Timer
        4. Removing Stale Information: The Garbage-Collection Timer
        5. Triggered Updates
      4. RIP Problems and Some Resolutions
        1. Issues with RIP's Algorithm
          1. Slow Convergence
          2. Routing Loops
          3. Counting to Infinity
          4. Small Infinity
        2. Issues with RIP's Metric
        3. RIP Special Features for Resolving RIP Algorithm Problems
          1. Split Horizon
          2. Split Horizon with Poisoned Reverse
          3. Triggered Updates
          4. Hold Down
      5. RIP Version-Specific Message Formats and Features
        1. RIP Version 1 (RIP-1) Message Format and Features
          1. RIP-1 Messaging
          2. RIP-1 Message Format
          3. RIP-1 Version-Specific Features
        2. RIP Version 2 (RIP-2) Message Format and Features
          1. RIP-2 Version-Specific Features
          2. RIP-2 Messaging
          3. RIP-2 Message Format
        3. RIPng (RIPv6) Message Format and Features
          1. RIPng Version-Specific Features
          2. RIPng Messaging
          3. RIPng Message Format
    3. 39. OPEN SHORTEST PATH FIRST (OSPF)
      1. OSPF Overview
        1. Development and Standardization of OSPF
        2. Overview of OSPF Operation
        3. OSPF Features and Drawbacks
      2. OSPF Basic Topology and the Link-State Database (LSDB)
        1. OSPF Basic Topology
        2. LSDB Information Storage and Propagation
      3. OSPF Hierarchical Topology
        1. OSPF Areas
        2. Router Roles in OSPF Hierarchical Topology
      4. OSPF Route Determination Using SPF Trees
        1. The SPF Tree
        2. OSPF Route Determination
          1. First Level
          2. Second Level
          3. Third Level
      5. OSPF General Operation
        1. OSPF Message Types
        2. OSPF Messaging
        3. OSPF Message Authentication
      6. OSPF Message Formats
        1. OSPF Common Header Format
        2. OSPF Hello Message Format
        3. OSPF Database Description Message Format
        4. OSPF Link State Request Message Format
        5. OSPF Link State Update Message Format
        6. OSPF Link State Acknowledgment Message Format
        7. OSPF Link State Advertisements and the LSA Header Format
    4. 40. BORDER GATEWAY PROTOCOL (BGP/BGP-4)
      1. BGP Overview
        1. BGP Versions and Defining Standards
        2. Overview of BGP Functions and Features
      2. BGP Topology
        1. BGP Speakers, Router Roles, Neighbors, and Peers
        2. BGP AS Types, Traffic Flows, and Routing Policies
          1. BGP Traffic Flow and Traffic Types
          2. BGP AS Types
          3. BGP AS Routing Policies
          4. Issues with Routing Policies and Internetwork Design
      3. BGP Route Storage and Advertisement
        1. BGP Route Information Management Functions
        2. BGP Routing Information Bases (RIBs)
      4. BGP Path Attributes and Algorithm Overview
        1. BGP Path Attribute Classes
        2. BGP Path Attribute Characteristics
      5. BGP Route Determination and the BGP Decision Process
        1. BGP Decision Process Phases
        2. Criteria for Assigning Preferences to Routes
        3. Limitations on BGP's Ability to Select Efficient Routes
        4. Originating New Routes and Withdrawing Unreachable Routes
      6. BGP General Operation and Messaging
        1. Speaker Designation and Connection Establishment
        2. Route Information Exchange
        3. Connectivity Maintenance
        4. Error Reporting
      7. BGP Detailed Messaging, Operation, and Message Formats
        1. BGP Message Generation and Transport
        2. BGP General Message Format
        3. BGP Connection Establishment: Open Messages
          1. BGP Open Message Functions
          2. BGP Open Message Format
        4. BGP Route Information Exchange: Update Messages
          1. BGP Update Message Contents
          2. BGP Update Message Format
        5. BGP Connectivity Maintenance: Keepalive Messages
          1. The BGP Keepalive Message Interval
          2. BGP Keepalive Message Format
        6. BGP Error Reporting: Notification Messages
          1. BGP Notification Message Functions
          2. BGP Notification Message Format
    5. 41. OTHER ROUTING PROTOCOLS
      1. TCP/IP Gateway-to-Gateway Protocol (GGP)
      2. The HELLO Protocol (HELLO)
      3. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)
      4. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
      5. TCP/IP Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
  15. II-8. TCP/IP TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOLS
    1. 42. OVERVIEW AND COMPARISON OF TCP AND UDP
      1. Two Protocols for TCP/IP Transport Layer Requirements
      2. Applications of TCP and UDP
        1. TCP Applications
        2. UDP Applications
      3. Summary Comparison of UDP and TCP
    2. 43. TCP AND UDP ADDRESSING: PORTS AND SOCKETS
      1. TCP/IP Processes, Multiplexing, and Client/Server Application Roles
        1. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing
        2. TCP/IP Client Processes and Server Processes
      2. TCP/IP Ports: TCP/UDP Addressing
        1. Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Using Ports
        2. Source Port and Destination Port Numbers
        3. Summary of Port Use for Datagram Transmission and Reception
      3. TCP/IP Application Assignments and Server Port Number Ranges
        1. Reserved Port Numbers
        2. TCP/UDP Port Number Ranges
      4. TCP/IP Client (Ephemeral) Ports and Client/Server Application Port Use
        1. Ephemeral Port Number Assignment
        2. Ephemeral Port Number Ranges
        3. Port Number Use During a Client/Server Exchange
      5. TCP/IP Sockets and Socket Pairs: Process and Connection Identification
      6. Common TCP/IP Applications and Well-Known and Registered Port Numbers
    3. 44. TCP/IP USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL (UDP)
      1. UDP Overview, History, and Standards
      2. UDP Operation
        1. What UDP Does
        2. What UDP Does Not Do
      3. UDP Message Format
      4. UDP Common Applications and Server Port Assignments
        1. Why Some TCP/IP Applications Use UDP
        2. Common UDP Applications and Server Port Use
        3. Applications That Use Both UDP and TCP
    4. 45. TCP OVERVIEW, FUNCTIONS, AND CHARACTERISTICS
      1. TCP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. TCP History
        2. Overview of TCP Operation
        3. TCP Standards
      2. TCP Functions
        1. Functions That TCP Performs
        2. Functions That TCP Doesn't Perform
      3. TCP Characteristics
      4. The Robustness Principle
    5. 46. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) FUNDAMENTALS AND GENERAL OPERATION
      1. TCP Data Handling and Processing
        1. Increasing the Flexibility of Application Data Handling: TCP's Stream Orientation
        2. TCP Data Packaging: Segments
        3. TCP Data Identification: Sequence Numbers
        4. The Need for Application Data Delimiting
      2. TCP Sliding Window Acknowledgment System
        1. The Problem with Unreliable Protocols: Lack of Feedback
        2. Providing Basic Reliability Using Positive Acknowledgment with Retransmission (PAR)
        3. Improving PAR
        4. TCP's Stream-Oriented Sliding Window Acknowledgment System
          1. Conceptual Division of TCP Transmission Stream into Categories
          2. Sequence Number Assignment and Synchronization
          3. The Send Window and Usable Window
          4. Changes to TCP Categories and Window Sizes After Sending Bytes in the Usable Window
          5. Processing Acknowledgments and Sliding the Send Window
          6. Dealing with Missing Acknowledgments
        5. More Information on TCP Sliding Windows
      3. TCP Ports, Connections, and Connection Identification
      4. TCP Common Applications and Server Port Assignments
    6. 47. TCP BASIC OPERATION: CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT, MANAGEMENT, AND TERMINATION
      1. TCP Operational Overview and the TCP Finite State Machine (FSM)
        1. Basic FSM Concepts
        2. The Simplified TCP FSM
      2. TCP Connection Preparation
        1. Storing Connection Data: The Transmission Control Block (TCB)
        2. Active and Passive Opens
        3. Preparation for Connection
      3. TCP Connection Establishment Process: The Three-Way Handshake
        1. Connection Establishment Functions
        2. Control Messages Used for Connection Establishment: SYN and ACK
        3. Normal Connection Establishment: The Three-Way Handshake
        4. Simultaneous Open Connection Establishment
      4. TCP Connection Establishment Sequence Number Synchronization and Parameter Exchange
        1. Initial Sequence Number Selection
        2. TCP Sequence Number Synchronization
        3. TCP Parameter Exchange
      5. TCP Connection Management and Problem Handling
        1. The TCP Reset Function
        2. Handling Reset Segments
        3. Idle Connection Management and Keepalive Messages
      6. TCP Connection Termination
        1. Requirements and Issues In Connection Termination
        2. Normal Connection Termination
        3. The TIME-WAIT State
        4. Simultaneous Connection Termination
    7. 48. TCP MESSAGE FORMATTING AND DATA TRANSFER
      1. TCP Message (Segment) Format
      2. TCP Checksum Calculation and the TCP Pseudo Header
        1. Detecting Transmission Errors Using Checksums
        2. Increasing the Scope of Detected Errors: The TCP Pseudo Header
        3. Advantages of the Pseudo Header Method
      3. TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS)
        1. MSS Selection
        2. TCP Default MSS
        3. Nondefault MSS Value Specification
      4. TCP Sliding Window Data Transfer and Acknowledgment Mechanics
        1. Sliding Window Transmit and Receive Categories
        2. Send (SND) and Receive (RCV) Pointers
        3. TCP Segment Fields Used to Exchange Pointer Information
        4. An Example of TCP Sliding Window Mechanics
        5. Real-World Complications of the Sliding Window Mechanism
      5. TCP Immediate Data Transfer: Push Function
      6. TCP Priority Data Transfer: Urgent Function
    8. 49. TCP RELIABILITY AND FLOW CONTROL FEATURES
      1. TCP Segment Retransmission Timers and the Retransmission Queue
        1. Managing Retransmissions Using the Retransmission Queue
        2. Recognizing When a Segment Is Fully Acknowledged
      2. TCP Noncontiguous Acknowledgment Handling and Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)
        1. Policies for Dealing with Outstanding Unacknowledged Segments
        2. A Better Solution: Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)
      3. TCP Adaptive Retransmission and Retransmission Timer Calculations
        1. Adaptive Retransmission Based on RTT Calculations
        2. Acknowledgment Ambiguity
        3. Refinements to RTT Calculation and Karn's Algorithm
      4. TCP Window Size Adjustment and Flow Control
        1. Reducing Send Window Size to Reduce the Rate Data Is Sent
        2. Reducing Send Window Size to Stop the Sending of New Data
        3. Closing the Send Window
      5. TCP Window Management Issues
        1. Problems Associated with Shrinking the TCP Window
        2. Reducing Buffer Size Without Shrinking the Window
        3. Handling a Closed Window and Sending Probe Segments
      6. TCP Silly Window Syndrome
        1. How Silly Window Syndrome Occurs
        2. Silly Window Syndrome Avoidance Algorithms
          1. Receiver SWS Avoidance
          2. Sender SWS Avoidance and Nagle's Algorithm
      7. TCP Congestion Handling and Congestion Avoidance Algorithms
        1. Congestion Considerations
        2. TCP Congestion-Handling Mechanisms
          1. Slow Start
          2. Congestion Avoidance
          3. Fast Retransmit
          4. Fast Recovery
  16. III-1. NAME SYSTEMS AND TCP/IP NAME REGISTRATION AND NAME RESOLUTION
    1. 50. NAME SYSTEM ISSUES, CONCEPTS, AND TECHNIQUES
      1. Name System Overview
        1. Symbolic Names for Addressing
        2. A Paradox: Name Systems Are Both Essential and Unnecessary
        3. Factors That Determine the Necessity of a Name System
        4. Basic Name System Functions: Name Space, Name Registration, and Name Resolution
      2. Name Spaces and Name Architectures
        1. Name Space Functions
        2. Flat Name Architecture (Flat Name Space)
        3. Hierarchical Name Architecture (Structured Name Space)
        4. Comparing Name Architectures
      3. Name Registration Methods, Administration, and Authorities
        1. Name Registration Functions
        2. Hierarchical Name Registration
        3. Name Registration Methods
        4. Table Name Registration
        5. Broadcast Name Registration
        6. Database Registration
      4. Name Resolution Techniques and Elements
        1. Name Resolution Methods
        2. Table-Based Name Resolution
        3. Broadcast Name Resolution
        4. Client/Server Name Resolution
        5. Client/Server Name Resolution Functional Elements
      5. Efficiency, Reliability, and Other Name Resolution Considerations
        1. Efficiency Considerations
        2. Reliability Considerations
        3. Other Considerations
    2. 51. TCP/IP NAME SYSTEMS OVERVIEW AND THE HOST TABLE NAME SYSTEM
      1. A Brief History of TCP/IP Host Names and Name Systems
        1. Developing the First Name System: ARPAnet Host Name Lists
        2. Storing Host Names in a Host Table File
        3. Outgrowing the Host Table Name System and Moving to DNS
      2. The TCP/IP Host Table Name System
        1. Host Table Name Resolution
        2. Host Table Name Registration
        3. Weaknesses of the Host Table Name System
        4. Use of the Host Table Name System in Modern Networking
          1. Small "Island" Networks
          2. Local Name Mappings to Supplement DNS
    3. 52. DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS) OVERVIEW, FUNCTIONS, AND CHARACTERISTICS
      1. DNS Overview, History, and Standards
        1. Early DNS Development and the Move to Hierarchical Domains
        2. Standardization of DNS and Initial Defining Standards
        3. DNS Evolution and Important Additional Standards
        4. DNS Adaptation for Internet Protocol Version 6
      2. DNS Design Goals, Objectives, and Assumptions
        1. DNS Design Goals and Objectives
        2. DNS Design Assumptions
      3. DNS Components and General Functions
        1. DNS Name Space
        2. Name Registration (Including Administration and Authorities)
        3. Name Resolution
    4. 53. DNS NAME SPACE, ARCHITECTURE, AND TERMINOLOGY
      1. DNS Domains and the DNS Hierarchical Name Architecture
        1. The Essential Concept in the DNS Name Space: Domains
        2. The DNS Hierarchical Tree Structure of Names
      2. DNS Structural Elements and Terminology
        1. DNS Tree-Related Terminology
        2. DNS Domain-Related Terminology
        3. DNS Family-Related Terminology
      3. DNS Labels, Names, and Syntax Rules
        1. DNS Labels and Label Syntax Rules
        2. Domain Name Construction
      4. Absolute (Fully Qualified) and Relative (Partially Qualified) Domain Name Specifications
        1. Fully Qualified Domain Names
        2. Partially Qualified Domain Names
    5. 54. DNS NAME REGISTRATION, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, ZONES, AND AUTHORITIES
      1. DNS Hierarchical Authority Structure and the Distributed Name Database
        1. The DNS Root Domain Central Authority
        2. TLD Authorities
        3. Lower-Level Authority Delegation
        4. Authority Hierarchy's Relationship to the Name Hierarchy
        5. The DNS Distributed Name Database
      2. DNS Organizational (Generic) TLDs and Authorities
        1. Original Generic TLDs
        2. New Generic TLDs
      3. DNS Geopolitical (Country Code) TLDs and Authorities
        1. Country Code Designations
        2. Country Code TLD Authorities
        3. Leasing/Sale of Country Code Domains
        4. Drawbacks of the Geopolitical TLDs
      4. Public Registration for Second-Level and Lower Domains
        1. Registration Authority
        2. Registration Coordination
      5. DNS Public Registration Disputes and Dispute Resolution
        1. Public Registration Disputes
        2. Methods of Registration Dispute Resolution
        3. The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
      6. DNS Name Space Administrative Hierarchy Partitioning: DNS Zones of Authority
        1. Methods of Dividing a Name Space into Zones of Authority
        2. The Impact of Zones on Name Resolution: Authoritative Servers
      7. DNS Private Name Registration
        1. Using Publicly Accessible Private Names
        2. Using Private Names for Internal Use
        3. Using Private Names on Networks Not Connected to the Internet
    6. 55. DNS NAME SERVER CONCEPTS AND OPERATION
      1. DNS General Operation
        1. DNS Name Server Architecture and the Distributed Name Database
        2. DNS Server Support Functions
        3. The Logical Nature of the DNS Name Server Hierarchy
      2. DNS Name Server Data Storage
        1. Binary and Text Representations of Resource Records
        2. Use of RRs and Master Files
        3. Common RR Types
        4. RR Classes
      3. DNS Name Server Types and Roles
        1. Master (Primary)/Slave (Secondary) Servers
        2. Name Server Roles
        3. Caching-Only Name Servers
      4. DNS Zone Management, Contacts, and Zone Transfers
        1. Domain Contacts
        2. Zone Transfers
          1. Control of When Zone Transfers Occur
          2. Zone Transfer Mechanism
      5. DNS Root Name Servers
        1. Root Name Server Redundancy
        2. Current Root Name Servers
      6. DNS Name Server Caching
        1. Name Server Caching
        2. Caching Data Persistence and the Time to Live Interval
        3. Negative Caching
      7. DNS Name Server Load Balancing
        1. Using Multiple Address Records to Spread Out Requests to a Domain
        2. Using Multiple DNS Servers to Spread Out DNS Requests
      8. DNS Name Server Enhancements
        1. Automating Zone Transfers: DNS Notify
        2. Improving Zone Transfer Efficiency: Incremental Transfers
        3. Dealing with Dynamic IP Addresses: DNS Update/Dynamic DNS
    7. 56. DNS RESOLUTION CONCEPTS AND RESOLVER OPERATIONS
      1. DNS Resolver Functions and General Operation
        1. Name Resolution Services
        2. Functions Performed by Name Resolvers
      2. DNS Name Resolution Techniques: Iterative and Recursive Resolution
        1. Iterative Resolution
        2. Recursive Resolution
        3. Contrasting Iterative and Recursive Resolution
      3. DNS Name Resolution Efficiency Improvements: Caching and Local Resolution
        1. The Motivation for Caching: Locality of Reference
        2. Name Resolver Caching
        3. Local Resolution
      4. DNS Name Resolution Process
        1. A Simple Example of DNS Name Resolution
        2. Changes to Resolution to Handle Aliases (CNAME Records)
      5. DNS Reverse Name Resolution Using the IN-ADDR.ARPA Domain
        1. The Original Method: Inverse Querying
        2. The IN-ADDR.ARPA Name Structure for Reverse Resolution
        3. RR Setup for Reverse Resolution
      6. DNS Electronic Mail Support and Mail Exchange (MX) Resource Records
        1. Special Requirements for Email Name Resolution
        2. The Mail Exchange (MX) Record and Its Use
    8. 57. DNS MESSAGING AND MESSAGE, RESOURCE RECORD, AND MASTER FILE FORMATS
      1. DNS Message Generation and Transport
        1. DNS Client/Server Messaging Overview
        2. DNS Message Transport Using UDP and TCP
        3. DNS Message Processing and General Message Format
      2. DNS Message Header Format
      3. DNS Question Section Format
      4. DNS Message Resource Record Field Formats
        1. DNS Common RR Format
        2. RData Field Formats for Common RRs
          1. A (Address) RR (Type Value 1)
          2. NS (Name Server) RR (Type Value 2)
          3. CName (Canonical Name) RR (Type Value 5)
          4. SOA (Start Of Authority) RR (Type Value 6)
          5. PTR (Pointer) RR (Type Value 12)
          6. MX (Mail Exchange) RR (Type Value 15)
          7. TXT (Text) RR (Type Value 16)
      5. DNS Name Notation and Message Compression
        1. Standard DNS Name Notation
        2. DNS Electronic Mail Address Notation
        3. DNS Message Compression
          1. Using Message Compression to Avoid Duplication of a Full Name
          2. Using Message Compression to Avoid Duplication of Part of a Name
      6. DNS Master File Format
        1. DNS Common Master File Record Format
        2. Use and Interpretation of Partially Qualified Domain Names (PQDNs)
        3. Master File Directives
        4. Syntax Rules for Master Files
        5. Specific RR Syntax and Examples
          1. A (Address) RR
          2. NS (Name Server) RR
          3. CName (Canonical Name) RR
          4. SOA (Start Of Authority) RR
          5. PTR (Pointer) RR
          6. MX (Mail Exchange) RR
          7. TXT (Text) RR
        6. Sample Master File
      7. DNS Changes to Support IPv6
        1. IPv6 DNS Extensions
        2. Proposed Changes to the IPv6 DNS Extensions
  17. III-2. NETWORK FILE AND RESOURCE SHARING PROTOCOLS
    1. 58. NETWORK FILE AND RESOURCE SHARING AND THE TCP/IP NETWORK FILE SYSTEM (NFS)
      1. File and Resource Sharing Concepts and Components
        1. The Power of File and Resource Sharing Protocols
        2. Components of a File and Resource Sharing Protocol
      2. NFS Design Goals, Versions, and Standards
        1. NFS Design Goals
        2. NFS Versions and Standards
      3. NFS Architecture and Components
        1. NFS Main Components
        2. Other Important NFS Functions
      4. NFS Data Definition with the External Data Representation (XDR) Standard
        1. A Method of Universal Data Exchange: XDR
        2. XDR Data Types
      5. NFS Client/Server Operation Using Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs)
        1. RPC Operation and Transport Protocol Usage
        2. Client and Server Responsibilities in NFS
        3. Client and Server Caching
      6. NFS Server Procedures and Operations
        1. NFS Version 2 and Version 3 Server Procedures
        2. NFS Version 4 Server Procedures and Operations
      7. NFS File System Model and the Mount Protocol
        1. The NFS File System Model
        2. The Mount Protocol
  18. III-3. HOST CONFIGURATION AND TCP/IP HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOLS
    1. 59. HOST CONFIGURATION CONCEPTS, ISSUES, AND MOTIVATION
      1. The Purpose of Host Configuration
      2. The Problems with Manual Host Configuration
      3. Automating the Process: Host Configuration Protocols
      4. The Role of Host Configuration Protocols in TCP/IP
    2. 60. TCP/IP BOOTSTRAP PROTOCOL (BOOTP)
      1. BOOTP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. BOOTP: Correcting the Weaknesses of RARP
        2. Vendor-Specific Parameters
        3. Changes to BOOTP and the Development of DHCP
      2. BOOTP Client/Server Messaging and Addressing
        1. BOOTP Messaging and Transport
        2. BOOTP Use of Broadcasts and Ports
        3. Retransmission of Lost Messages
      3. BOOTP Detailed Operation
        1. BOOTP Bootstrapping Procedure
        2. Interpretation of the Client IP Address (CIAddr) Field
      4. BOOTP Message Format
      5. BOOTP Vendor-Specific Area and Vendor Information Extensions
        1. BOOTP Vendor Information Extensions
        2. BOOTP Vendor Information Fields
      6. BOOTP Relay Agents (Forwarding Agents)
        1. The Function of BOOTP Relay Agents
        2. Normal BOOTP Operation Using a Relay Agent
        3. Relaying BOOTP Requests Using Broadcasts
    3. 61. DHCP OVERVIEW AND ADDRESS ALLOCATION CONCEPTS
      1. DHCP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. DHCP: Building on BOOTP's Strengths
        2. Overview of DHCP Features
      2. DHCP Address Assignment and Allocation Mechanisms
        1. DHCP Address Allocation
        2. DHCP Manual Allocation
        3. DHCP Dynamic Allocation
        4. DHCP Automatic Allocation
      3. DHCP Leases
        1. DHCP Lease Length Policy
        2. Issues with Infinite Leases
      4. DHCP Lease Life Cycle and Lease Timers
        1. DHCP Lease Life Cycle Phases
        2. Renewal and Rebinding Timers
      5. DHCP Lease Address Pools, Ranges, and Address Management
        1. Address Pool Size Selection
        2. Lease Address Ranges (Scopes)
        3. Other Issues with Address Management
    4. 62. DHCP CONFIGURATION AND OPERATION
      1. DHCP Overview of Client and Server Responsibilities
        1. DHCP Server Responsibilities
        2. DHCP Client Responsibilities
        3. DHCP Client/Server Roles
        4. DHCP Relay Agents
      2. DHCP Configuration Parameters, Storage, and Communication
        1. Configuration Parameter Management
        2. Parameter Storage
        3. Configuration Parameter Communication
      3. DHCP General Operation and the Client Finite State Machine
      4. DHCP Lease Allocation, Reallocation, and Renewal
        1. Initial Lease Allocation Process
        2. DHCP Lease Reallocation Process
        3. DHCP Lease Renewal and Rebinding Processes
        4. DHCP Early Lease Termination (Release) Process
      5. DHCP Parameter Configuration Process for Clients with Non-DHCP Addresses
    5. 63. DHCP MESSAGING, MESSAGE TYPES, AND FORMATS
      1. DHCP Message Generation, Addressing, Transport, and Retransmission
        1. Message Generation and General Formatting
        2. Message Transport
        3. Retransmission of Lost Messages
      2. DHCP Message Format
      3. DHCP Options
        1. Options and Option Format
        2. Option Categories
        3. Option Overloading
      4. Summary of DHCP Options/BOOTP Vendor Information Fields
        1. RFC 1497 Vendor Extensions
        2. IP Layer Parameters per Host
        3. IP Layer Parameters per Interface
        4. Link Layer Parameters per Interface
        5. TCP Parameters
        6. Application and Service Parameters
        7. DHCP Extensions
    6. 64. DHCP CLIENT/SERVER IMPLEMENTATION, FEATURES, AND IPV6 SUPPORT
      1. DHCP Server and Client Implementation and Management Issues
        1. DHCP Server Implementations
          1. DHCP Server Software Features
          2. Choosing the Number of Servers
          3. Server Placement, Setup, and Maintenance
        2. DHCP Client Implementations
      2. DHCP Message Relaying and BOOTP Relay Agents
        1. BOOTP Relay Agents for DHCP
        2. DHCP Relaying Process
      3. DHCP Autoconfiguration/Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
        1. APIPA Operation
        2. APIPA Limitations
      4. DHCP Server Conflict Detection
      5. DHCP and BOOTP Interoperability
        1. BOOTP Clients Connecting to a DHCP Server
        2. DHCP Clients Connecting to a BOOTP Server
      6. DHCP Security Issues
        1. DHCP Security Concerns
        2. DHCP Authentication
      7. DHCP for IP Version 6 (DHCPv6)
        1. Two Methods for Autoconfiguration in IPv6
        2. DHCPv6 Operation Overview
        3. DHCPv6 Message Exchanges
  19. III-4. TCP/IP NETWORK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND PROTOCOLS
    1. 65. TCP/IP INTERNET STANDARD MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW
      1. Overview and History of the TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
        1. Early Development of SNMP
        2. The Two Meanings of SNMP
        3. Design Goals of SNMP
        4. Further Development of SNMP and the Problem of SNMP Variations
      2. TCP/IP SNMP Operational Model, Components, and Terminology
        1. SNMP Device Types
        2. SNMP Entities
          1. Managed Node Entities
          2. Network Management Station Entities
        3. SNMP Operational Model Summary
      3. TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework Architecture and Protocol Components
        1. SNMP Framework Components
        2. SNMP Framework Architecture
      4. TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and SNMP Versions (SNMPv1, SNMPv2 Variants, and SNMPv3)
        1. SNMPv1
        2. SNMPsec
        3. SNMPv2
        4. SNMPv2 Variants
        5. SNMPv3
      5. TCP/IP Internet Standard Management Framework and SNMP Standards
    2. 66. TCP/IP STRUCTURE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION (SMI) AND MANAGEMENT INFORMATION BASES (MIBS)
      1. TCP/IP SMI and MIBs Overview
        1. SNMP's Information-Oriented Design
        2. MIB and MIB Objects
        3. Defining MIB Objects: SMI
      2. TCP/IP MIB Objects, Object Characteristics, and Object Types
        1. MIB Object Characteristics
        2. SMI Data Types
      3. TCP/IP MIB Object Descriptors and Identifiers and the Object Name Hierarchy
        1. Object Descriptors
        2. Object Identifiers
        3. Structure of the MIB Object Name Hierarchy
        4. Recursive Definition of MIB Object Identifiers
      4. TCP/IP MIB Modules and Object Groups
        1. The Organization of MIB Objects into Object Groups
        2. MIB Modules
        3. MIB Module Format
    3. 67. TCP/IP SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL (SNMP) CONCEPTS AND OPERATION
      1. SNMP Protocol Overview
        1. Early Development of SNMPv1
        2. SNMPv2 and the Division of SNMP into Protocol Operations and Transport Mappings
        3. SNMP Communication Methods
      2. SNMP Protocol Operations
        1. SNMP PDU Classes
        2. Basic Request/Response Information Poll Using GetRequest and (Get)Response Messages
        3. Table Traversal Using GetNextRequest and GetBulkRequest Messages
          1. SNMPv1 Table Traversal Using GetNextRequest
          2. SNMPv2/v3 Table Traversal Using GetBulkRequest
        4. Object Modification Using SetRequest Messages
        5. Information Notification Using Trap and InformRequest Messages
          1. Use of SNMP Trap and Trapv2 Messages
          2. Use of the SNMPv2 InformRequest Message
      3. SNMP Protocol Security Issues and Methods
        1. Problems with SNMPv1 Security
        2. SNMPv2/v3 Security Methods
    4. 68. SNMP PROTOCOL MESSAGING AND MESSAGE FORMATS
      1. SNMP Protocol Message Generation
      2. SNMP Transport Mappings
        1. UDP Message Size Issues
        2. Lost Transmission Issues
      3. SNMP General Message Format
        1. The Difference Between SNMP Messages and PDUs
        2. General PDU Format
      4. SNMP Version 1 (SNMPv1) Message Format
        1. SNMPv1 General Message Format
        2. SNMPv1 PDU Formats
      5. SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2) Message Formats
        1. SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2p) Message Format
        2. Community-Based SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2c) Message Format
        3. User-Based SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2u) Message Format
        4. SNMPv2 PDU Formats
      6. SNMP Version 3 (SNMPv3) Message Format
    5. 69. TCP/IP REMOTE NETWORK MONITORING (RMON)
      1. RMON Standards
      2. RMON MIB Hierarchy and Object Groups
      3. RMON Alarms, Events, and Statistics
  20. III-5. TCP/IP APPLICATION LAYER ADDRESSING AND APPLICATION CATEGORIES
    1. 70. TCP/IP APPLICATION LAYER ADDRESSING: UNIFORM RESOURCE IDENTIFIERS, LOCATORS, AND NAMES (URIS, URLS, AND URNS)
      1. URI Overview and Standards
        1. URI Categories: URLs and URNs
        2. URI Standards
      2. URL General Syntax
        1. Common Internet Scheme Syntax
        2. Omission of URL Syntax Elements
        3. URL Fragments
        4. Unsafe Characters and Special Encodings
      3. URL Schemes and Scheme-Specific Syntaxes
        1. World Wide Web/Hypertext Transfer Protocol Syntax (http)
        2. File Transfer Protocol Syntax (ftp)
        3. Electronic Mail Syntax (mailto)
        4. Gopher Protocol Syntax (gopher)
        5. Network News/Usenet Syntax (news)
        6. Network News Transfer Protocol Syntax (nttp)
        7. Telnet Syntax (telnet)
        8. Local File Syntax (file)
        9. Special Syntax Rules
      4. URL Relative Syntax and Base URLs
        1. Interpretation Rules for Relative URLs
        2. Practical Interpretation of Relative URLs
      5. URL Length and Complexity Issues
        1. URL Wrapping and Delimiting
        2. Explicit URL Delimiting and Redirectors
        3. URL Abbreviation
      6. URL Obscuration, Obfuscation, and General Trickery
      7. URNs
        1. The Problem with URLs
        2. Overview of URNs
        3. URN Namespaces and Syntax
        4. URN Resolution and Implementation Difficulties
    2. 71. FILE AND MESSAGE TRANSFER OVERVIEW AND APPLICATION CATEGORIES
      1. File Concepts
      2. Application Categories
        1. General File Transfer Applications
        2. Message Transfer Applications
          1. Electronic Mail (Email)
          2. Network News (Usenet)
          3. Hypertext (World Wide Web)
        3. The Merging of File and Message Transfer Methods
  21. III-6. TCP/IP GENERAL FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOLS
    1. 72. FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)
      1. FTP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. FTP Development and Standardization
        2. Overview of FTP Operation
      2. FTP Operational Model, Protocol Components, and Key Terminology
        1. The Server-FTP Process and User-FTP Process
        2. FTP Control Connection and Data Connection
        3. FTP Process Components and Terminology
        4. Server-FTP Process Components
        5. User-FTP Process Components
        6. Third-Party File Transfer (Proxy FTP)
      3. FTP Control Connection Establishment, User Authentication, and Anonymous FTP Access
        1. FTP Login Sequence and Authentication
        2. FTP Security Extensions
        3. Anonymous FTP
      4. FTP Data Connection Management
        1. Normal (Active) Data Connections
        2. Passive Data Connections
        3. Efficiency and Security Issues Related to the Connection Methods
      5. FTP General Data Communication and Transmission Modes
        1. Stream Mode
        2. Block Mode
        3. Compressed Mode
      6. FTP Data Representation: Data Types, Format Control, and Data Structures
        1. FTP Data Types
        2. ASCII Data Type Line-Delimiting Issues
        3. FTP Format Control
        4. FTP Data Structures
      7. FTP Internal Command Groups and Protocol Commands
        1. FTP Command Groups and Commands
      8. FTP Replies
        1. Advantages of Using Both Text and Numeric Replies
        2. Reply Code Structure and Digit Interpretation
        3. FTP Multiple-Line Text Replies
      9. FTP User Interface and User Commands
        1. Command-Line and Graphical FTP Interfaces
        2. Typical FTP User Commands
      10. Sample FTP Session
    2. 73. TRIVIAL FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (TFTP)
      1. TFTP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. Why TFTP Was Needed
        2. Comparing FTP and TFTP
        3. Overview of TFTP Operation
      2. TFTP General Operation, Connection Establishment, and Client/Server Communication
        1. Connection Establishment and Identification
        2. Lock-Step Client/Server Messaging
        3. Difficulties with TFTP's Simplified Messaging Mechanism
      3. TFTP Detailed Operation and Messaging
        1. Initial Message Exchange
        2. Data Block Numbering
        3. TFTP Read Process Steps
        4. TFTP Write Process Steps
      4. TFTP Options and Option Negotiation
        1. TFTP Option Negotiation Process
        2. TFTP Options
      5. TFTP Message Formats
        1. Read Request and Write Request Messages
        2. Data Messages
        3. Acknowledgment Messages
        4. Error Messages
        5. Option Acknowledgment Messages
  22. III-7. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM: CONCEPTS AND PROTOCOLS
    1. 74. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND CONCEPTS
      1. TCP/IP Electronic Mail System Overview and History
        1. The Early Days of Email
        2. History of TCP/IP Email
        3. Overview of the TCP/IP Email System
      2. TCP/IP Email Communication Overview
      3. TCP/IP Email Message Communication Model
      4. Protocol Roles in Email Communication
    2. 75. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL ADDRESSES AND ADDRESSING
      1. TCP/IP Email Addressing and Address Resolution
        1. Standard DNS-Based Email Addresses
        2. Special Requirements of Email Addresses
      2. TCP/IP Historical and Special Email Addressing
        1. FidoNet Addressing
        2. UUCP-Style Addressing
        3. Addressing for Gatewaying
      3. TCP/IP Email Aliases and Address Books
      4. Multiple Recipient Addressing
      5. Mailing Lists
    3. 76. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL MESSAGE FORMATS AND MESSAGE PROCESSING: RFC 822 AND MIME
      1. TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Overview
        1. Development of the RFC 822 Message Format Standard
        2. Overview of RFC 822 Messages
        3. General RFC 822 Message Structure
      2. TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Header Fields and Groups
        1. Header Field Structure
        2. Header Field Groups
        3. Common Header Field Groups and Header Fields
      3. TCP/IP Email RFC 822 Standard Message Format Processing and Interpretation
      4. MIME Overview
        1. The Motivation for MIME
          1. The Motivation for MIME
        2. MIME Capabilities
        3. MIME Standards
      5. MIME Basic Structures and Headers
        1. Basic Structures
        2. MIME Entities
        3. Primary MIME Headers
        4. Additional MIME Headers
      6. MIME Content-Type Header and Discrete Media
        1. Content-Type Header Syntax
        2. Discrete Media Types and Subtypes
          1. Text Media Type (text)
          2. Image Media Type (image)
          3. Audio Media Type (audio)
          4. Video Media Type (video)
          5. Model Media Type (model)
          6. Application Media Type (application)
      7. MIME Composite Media Types: Multipart and Encapsulated Message Structures
        1. MIME Multipart Message Type
          1. MIME Multipart Message Subtypes
        2. Multipart Message Encoding
        3. MIME Encapsulated Message Type
        4. MIME Content-Transfer-Encoding Header and Encoding Methods
        5. 7-Bit and 8-Bit Encoding
        6. Quoted-Printable Encoding
        7. Base64 Encoding
      8. MIME Extension for non-ASCII Mail Message Headers
    4. 77. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL DELIVERY PROTOCOL: THE SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL (SMTP)
      1. SMTP Overview, History, and Standards
        1. SMTP Standards
        2. SMTP Communication and Message Transport Methods
          1. Early Email Communication Using Relaying
          2. Modern Email Communication Using DNS and Direct Delivery
        3. Terminology: Client/Server and Sender/Receiver
      2. SMTP Connection and Session Establishment and Termination
        1. Overview of Connection Establishment and Termination
        2. Connection Establishment and Greeting Exchange
        3. Connection Establishment Using SMTP Extensions
        4. Connection Termination
      3. SMTP Mail Transaction Process
        1. Overview of SMTP Mail Transaction
        2. SMTP Mail Transaction Details
      4. SMTP Special Features, Capabilities, and Extensions
        1. SMTP Special Features and Capabilities
        2. SMTP Extensions
      5. SMTP Security Issues
      6. SMTP Commands
      7. SMTP Replies and Reply Codes
        1. Reply Code Structure and Digit Interpretation
        2. SMTP Multiple-Line Text Replies
        3. Enhanced Status Code Replies
    5. 78. TCP/IP ELECTRONIC MAIL ACCESS AND RETRIEVAL PROTOCOLS AND METHODS
      1. TCP/IP Email Mailbox Access Model, Method, and Protocol Overview
        1. Email Access and Retrieval Models
      2. TCP/IP Post Office Protocol (POP/POP3)
        1. POP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
        2. POP3 General Operation
        3. POP3 Session States
          1. POP3 Authorization State: User Authentication Process and Commands
          2. POP3 Transaction State: Mail and Information Exchange Process and Commands
          3. POP3 Update State: Mailbox Update and Session Termination Process and Commands
      3. TCP/IP Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP/IMAP4)
        1. IMAP Overview, History, Versions, and Standards
          1. IMAP Features
          2. IMAP History and Standards
        2. IMAP General Operation
        3. IMAP Session States
          1. Session Establishment and Greeting
          2. Preauthentication
        4. IMAP Commands, Results, and Responses
          1. Command Groups
          2. "Any State" Commands
          3. Results and Responses
          4. Result Codes
          5. Response Codes
        5. IMAP Not Authenticated State: User Authentication Process and Commands
          1. IMAP Authentication Methods
        6. IMAP Authenticated State: Mailbox Manipulation/Selection Process and Commands
          1. Authenticated State Commands
        7. IMAP Selected State: Message Manipulation Process and Commands
          1. Selected State Commands
      4. TCP/IP Direct Server Email Access
      5. TCP/IP World Wide Web Email Access
  23. III-8. TCP/IP WORLD WIDE WEB AND THE HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP)
    1. 79. WORLD WIDE WEB AND HYPERTEXT OVERVIEW AND CONCEPTS
      1. World Wide Web and Hypertext Overview and History
        1. History of Hypertext
        2. The World Wide Web Today
      2. World Wide Web System Concepts and Components
        1. Major Functional Components of the Web
        2. Web Servers and Web Browsers
      3. World Wide Web Media and the Hypertext Markup Language
        1. Overview of HTML
        2. HTML Elements and Tags
        3. Common HTML Elements
        4. Common Text Formatting Tags
      4. World Wide Web Addressing: HTTP Uniform Resource Locators
        1. HTTP URL Syntax
        2. Resource Paths and Directory Listings
    2. 80. HTTP GENERAL OPERATION AND CONNECTIONS
      1. HTTP Versions and Standards
        1. HTTP/0.9
        2. HTTP/1.0
        3. HTTP/1.1
        4. Future HTTP Versions
      2. HTTP Operational Model and Client/Server Communication
        1. Basic HTTP Client/Server Communication
        2. Intermediaries and the HTTP Request/Response Chain
        3. The Impact of Caching on HTTP Communication
      3. HTTP Transitory and Persistent Connections and Pipelining
        1. Persistent Connections
        2. Pipelining
        3. HTTP Persistent Connection Establishment and Management
    3. 81. HTTP MESSAGES, METHODS, AND STATUS CODES
      1. HTTP Generic Message Format
      2. HTTP Request Message Format
        1. Request Line
          1. Method
          2. Request URI
          3. HTTP Version
        2. Headers
      3. HTTP Response Message Format
        1. Status Line
          1. HTTP Version
          2. Status Code and Reason Phrase
        2. Headers
      4. HTTP Methods
        1. Common Methods
          1. GET
          2. HEAD
          3. POST
        2. Other Methods
        3. Safe and Idempotent Methods
      5. HTTP Status Codes and Reason Phrases
        1. Status Code Format
        2. Reason Phrases
        3. The 100 (Continue) Preliminary Reply
    4. 82. HTTP MESSAGE HEADERS
      1. HTTP General Headers
        1. Cache-Control Headers
        2. Warning
        3. Other HTTP General Headers
      2. HTTP Request Headers
      3. HTTP Response Headers
      4. HTTP Entity Headers
    5. 83. HTTP Entities, Transfers, Coding Methods, and Content Management
      1. HTTP Entities and Internet Media Types
        1. Media Types and Subtypes
        2. HTTP's Use of Media Types
        3. Differences in HTTP and MIME Constructs
      2. HTTP Content and Transfer Encodings
        1. HTTP's Two-Level Encoding Scheme
        2. Use of Content and Transfer Encodings
      3. HTTP Data Length Issues, Chunked Transfers, and Message Trailers
        1. Dynamic Data Length
        2. Chunked Transfers and Message Trailers
      4. HTTP Content Negotiation and Quality Values
        1. Content Negotiation Techniques
        2. Quality Values for Preference Weights
    6. 84. HTTP FEATURES, CAPABILITIES, AND ISSUES
      1. HTTP Caching Features and Issues
        1. Benefits of HTTP Caching
        2. Cache Locations
          1. Caching on the Web Client
          2. Caching on the Intermediary
          3. Caching on the Web Server
        3. Cache Control
        4. Important Caching Issues
      2. HTTP Proxy Servers and Proxying
        1. Benefits of Proxies
        2. Comparing Proxies and Caches
        3. Important Proxying Issues
      3. HTTP Security and Privacy
        1. HTTP Authentication Methods
        2. Security and Privacy Concerns and Issues
        3. Methods for Ensuring Privacy in HTTP
      4. HTTP State Management Using Cookies
        1. Issues with Cookies
        2. Managing Cookie Use
  24. III-9. OTHER FILE AND MESSAGE TRANSFER APPLICATIONS
    1. 85. USENET (NETWORK NEWS) AND THE TCP/IP NETWORK NEWS TRANSFER PROTOCOL (NNTP)
      1. Usenet Overview, History, and Operation
        1. History of Usenet
        2. Usenet Operation and Characteristics
        3. Usenet Transport Methods
      2. Usenet Communication Model
        1. Usenet's Public Distribution Orientation
        2. Usenet Communication Process
        3. Message Propagation and Server Organization
        4. Usenet Addressing: Newsgroups
          1. The Usenet Newsgroup Hierarchies
          2. The "Big Eight" Newsgroup Hierarchies
          3. Alt and Other Newsgroup Hierarchies
          4. Unmoderated and Moderated Newsgroups
          5. Cross-Posting to Multiple Newsgroups
      3. Usenet Message Format and Special Headers
        1. Usenet Header Categories and Common Headers
        2. Additional Usenet Headers
        3. Usenet MIME Messages
      4. NNTP Overview and General Operation
      5. NNTP Interserver Communication Process: News Article Propagation
        1. The Usenet Server Structure
        2. Basic NNTP Propagation Methods
          1. Article Propagation Using the Push Model
          2. Improving Propagation Efficiency with Streaming Mode
          3. Article Propagation Using the Pull Model
      6. NNTP Client-Server Communication Process: News Posting and Access
        1. News Posting, Access, and Reading
        2. News Access Methods
        3. Other Client/Server Functions
        4. Article Threading
      7. NNTP Commands and Command Extensions
        1. Command Syntax
        2. Base Command Set
        3. NNTP Command Extensions
          1. NNTP Transport Extensions
          2. NNTP Newsreader Extensions
          3. Other NNTP Extensions
      8. NNTP Status Responses and Response Codes
    2. 86. GOPHER PROTOCOL (GOPHER)
      1. Gopher Overview and General Operation
        1. Information Storage on Gopher Servers
        2. Gopher Client/Server Operation
      2. Important Differences Between Gopher and the Web
      3. Gopher's Role in the Modern Internet
  25. III-10. INTERACTIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE UTILITIES AND PROTOCOLS
    1. 87. TCP/IP INTERACTIVE AND REMOTE APPLICATION PROTOCOLS
      1. Telnet Protocol
        1. Telnet Overview, History, and Standards
          1. Telnet History
          2. Fundamental Telnet Concepts
          3. Telnet Applications
        2. Telnet Connections and Client/Server Operation
          1. TCP Sessions and Client/Server Communication
          2. Use of Telnet to Access Other Servers
        3. Telnet Communications Model and the Network Virtual Terminal (NVT)
          1. The NVT
          2. NVT ASCII Control Codes
          3. Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex Modes
        4. Telnet Protocol Commands
        5. Telnet Interrupt Handling
        6. Telnet Options and Option Negotiation
          1. Common Telnet Options
          2. Telnet Option Negotiation
          3. Option Subnegotiation
      2. Berkeley Remote (r) Commands
        1. Berkeley Remote Login (rlogin)
        2. Berkeley Remote Shell (rsh)
        3. Other Berkeley Remote Commands
      3. Internet Relay Chat Protocol (IRC)
        1. IRC Communication Model and Client/Server Operation
        2. Messaging and IRC Channels
        3. IRC and the Modern Internet
    2. 88. TCP/IP ADMINISTRATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING UTILITIES AND PROTOCOLS
      1. TCP/IP Host Name Utility (hostname)
      2. TCP/IP Communication Verification Utility (ping)
        1. Operation of the ping Utility
        2. Basic Use of ping
        3. Methods of Diagnosing Connectivity Problems Using ping
        4. ping Options and Parameters
      3. TCP/IP Route Tracing Utility (traceroute)
        1. Operation of the traceroute Utility
        2. Basic Use of the traceroute Utility
        3. traceroute Options and Parameters
      4. TCP/IP Address Resolution Protocol Utility (arp)
      5. TCP/IP DNS Name Resolution and Lookup Utilities (nslookup, host, and dig)
        1. The nslookup Utility
        2. The host Utility
        3. The dig Utility
      6. TCP/IP DNS Registry Database Lookup Utility (whois/nicname)
      7. TCP/IP Network Status Utility (netstat)
        1. The UNIX netstat Utility
        2. The Windows netstat Utility
      8. TCP/IP Configuration Utilities (ifconfig, ipconfig, and winipcfg)
        1. The ifconfig Utility for UNIX
        2. The ipconfig for Windows NT, 2000, and XP
        3. The winipcfg Utility for Windows 95, 98, and Me
      9. Miscellaneous TCP/IP Troubleshooting Protocols
  26. COLOPHON