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Systems Performance: Enterprise and the Cloud by Brendan Gregg

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10. Network

As systems become more distributed, especially with cloud computing environments, the network plays a bigger role in performance. Apart from improving network latency and throughput, another common task is to eliminate latency outliers, which can be caused by dropped packets.

Network analysis spans hardware and software. The hardware is the physical network, which includes the network interface cards, switches, routers, and gateways (these typically have software too). The system software is the kernel protocol stack, typically TCP/IP, and the behavior of each protocol involved.

The network is often blamed for poor performance, given the potential for congestion. This chapter will show how to figure out what is really happening, which ...

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