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Systems of Systems

Book Description

In recent years, the systems designed to support activity in the fields of banking, health, transportation, space, aeronautics, defense, etc. have become increasingly larger and more complex. With the growing maturity of information and communication technologies, systems have been interconnected within growing networks, yielding new capabilities and services through the combination of system functionalities. This has led to a further increasing complexity that has to be managed in order to take advantage of these system integrations.

The book is divided into two parts. The first part addresses the concept and practical illustrations of a "system of systems" and is a multidisciplinary introduction to the notion of a "systems of systems" that is discussed extensively in the current scientific and technical literature. After a critical comparison of the different definitions and a range of various practical illustrations, this part provides answers to key questions such as what a system of systems is and how its complexity can be mastered. The second part, described as "systems-of-systems engineering: methods and tools", focuses on both engineering and modeling, and standardization issues that are critical to deal with the key steps in systems of systems engineering: namely eliciting stakeholder needs, architecture optimization, integration of constituent systems, qualification, and utilization.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Author Biographies
  5. Introduction
  6. PART 1: Systems of Systems, Concepts and Practical Illustrations
    1. Chapter 1: Systems of Systems: From Concept to Actual Development
      1. 1.1. Network omnipresence creating a worldwide environment
      2. 1.2. Increasing complexity of the environment
      3. 1.3. Towards a definition of the concept of system of systems
      4. 1.4. Control of the system of systems
      5. 1.5. Tools for the control of the system of systems
      6. 1.6. The need for standardization
      7. 1.7. The human factor in systems of systems
      8. 1.8. Budgetary aspects of the systems of systems
      9. 1.9. The need for governance
      10. 1.10. Conclusion
      11. 1.11. Appendix: system of systems’ definitions in literature
      12. 1.12. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 2: Emergence and Complexity of Systems of Systems
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. Matter and shape
      3. 2.3. Systems
      4. 2.4. Genesis of concrete systems
      5. 2.5. Complexity of systems of systems
      6. 2.6. Systems of systems engineering
      7. 2.7. Conclusion
      8. 2.8. Bibliography
    3. Chapter 3: Contractual Aspects of the Acquisition and Use of Systems of Systems
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. An integrated set of components of various natures
      3. 3.3. Combining people with diversified skills and their contributions
      4. 3.4. Commitments to coordinate
      5. 3.5. Ownership rights
      6. 3.6. The most adapted legal strategies
      7. 3.7. Conclusion
    4. Chapter 4: The Human Factor within the Context of Systems of Systems
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Definition and epistemological aspects
      3. 4.3. The issue
      4. 4.4. Current human factors in systems engineering
      5. 4.5. The organizations’ complexity from the standpoint of social sciences: impacts on the systems of systems.
      6. 4.6. Social sciences implemented within the context of systems of systems
      7. 4.7. Recognizable good practices in the field of organizations
      8. 4.8. Conclusion
      9. 4.9. Acknowledgments
      10. 4.10. Bibliography
    5. Chapter 5: Space Communication and Observation System of Systems
      1. 5.1. The dual context of omnipresent information and the commoditization of space
      2. 5.2. The technical view: an interconnection of ground-based and space-borne systems
      3. 5.3. Search for functionality and capacity
      4. 5.4. A logic of exchange on an international scale
      5. 5.5. Conclusion
      6. 5.6. Bibliography
    6. Chapter 6: Intelligent Transport Systems
      1. 6.1. The field of intelligent transport
      2. 6.2. ACTIF
      3. 6.3. Practical application
      4. 6.4. Conclusion
      5. 6.5. Bibliography
    7. Chapter 7: Systems of Systems in the Healthcare Field
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. From capability challenges to the design of systems of systems
      3. 7.3. Personal service, the main characteristic of systems within the healthcare field
      4. 7.4. Coordination of the medical and paramedical agents, in hospitals and in private practices
      5. 7.5. The development of information technologies and their interoperability, heart of the healthcare networks issue
      6. 7.6. Difficulties encountered
      7. 7.7. Conclusion
      8. 7.8. Acknowledgments
      9. 7.9. Bibliography
    8. Chapter 8: Critical Infrastructure Protection
      1. 8.1. General context of critical infrastructure protection
      2. 8.2. Protection requirements
      3. 8.3. Security systems of the future
      4. 8.4. The human factor
      5. 8.5. Conclusion
    9. Chapter 9: Globalization and Systemic Impacts
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. System of systems “globalization”
      3. 9.3. Beyond the concepts of systems
      4. 9.4. Globalization's impact on systems of systems engineering
      5. 9.5. Conclusion
      6. 9.6. Appendix: a summary of the properties of nonlinear dynamic systems
      7. 9.7. Bibliography
  7. PART 2: Systems of Systems Engineering, Methods, Standards and Tools
    1. Chapter 10: Methods and Tools for Systems of Systems Engineering
      1. 10.1. Systems of systems engineering: from the control of complexity to the necessity of a model-driven approach
      2. 10.2. Architecture
      3. 10.3. From architecture to detailed design: reference architectures
      4. 10.4. Requirement traceability and engineering tools
      5. 10.5. Reverse engineering and impact studies
      6. 10.6. Distributed simulation tools for model engineering
      7. 10.7. Global control of operational security via testability
      8. 10.8. Towards a virtuous circle of simulation-tests to control the tests
      9. 10.9. Collaborative work tools
      10. 10.10. Conclusion
      11. 10.11. Acknowledgements
      12. 10.12. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 11: Model-driven Design and Simulation
      1. 11.1. General points
      2. 11.2. A few definitions
      3. 11.3. Model-driven engineering
      4. 11.4. Feedback
      5. 11.5. Conclusion and perspectives
      6. 11.6. Bibliography
    3. Chapter 12: Standardization in the Field of Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Example of the importance of standards in the interoperability of systems and systems of systems
      3. 12.3. Standards used in the field of systems and systems of systems
      4. 12.4. Application and adaptation of system engineering standards in the context of systems of systems
      5. 12.5. Implementation of standards in the context of systems of systems
      6. 12.6. Conclusion
      7. 12.7. Acknowledgements
      8. 12.8. Appendix A. Standard relative to business process modeling
      9. 12.9. Appendix B. Standard relative to the Web services business process execution language
      10. 12.10. Appendix C. Ontology definition metamodel specification
      11. 12.11. Appendix D. UML profile for DoDAF/MODAF (USA Department of Defense and UK Ministry of Defense Architecture Framework)
      12. 12.12. Appendix E. Standard relative to software-intensive systems architecture
      13. 12.13. Appendix F. Unified modeling language
      14. 12.14. Appendix G. Systems modeling language
      15. 12.15. Appendix H. Good practices of IT service management, ITIL
      16. 12.16. Appendix I. Standard relative to IT services management
      17. 12.17. Appendix J. Software engineering - Product quality
      18. 12.18. Appendix J.1. Standard ISO 9126, part 1, quality model
      19. 12.19. Appendix J.2. Standard ISO 9126, part 3, internal metrics
      20. 12.20. Appendix K. Standard on software product quality requirements and evaluation
      21. 12.21. Appendix L. Standard on the common criteria for IT security evaluation
      22. 12.22. Appendix M. Standard relative to a system’s life cycle process
      23. 12.23. Appendix N. Standard relative to the processes for engineering a system
      24. 12.24. Appendix O. Standard for the application and management of the systems engineering process
      25. 12.25. Appendix P. Standard relative to software life cycle processes
      26. 12.26. Appendix Q. Standard relative to software measurement process
      27. 12.27. Appendix R. Standard relative to software product evaluation
      28. 12.28. Appendix S. Standard on systems engineering, product and design data exchange
      29. 12.29. Appendix T. Standard on the exchange of product model data, products life cycle support
      30. 12.30. Bibliography
  8. Conclusion
  9. List of Authors
  10. Index