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Systems Engineering

Book Description

For the past several decades, systems engineering has grown rapidly in its scope and application and shown significant benefits for the design of large, complex systems. However, current systems engineering textbooks are either too technical or at a high conceptual level. Written by an expert with more than ten years of teaching experience, Systems Engineering: Design Principles and Models not only gives students exposure to the concepts of systems and systems engineering, but also provides enough technical expertise for them to immediately use and apply what they learn.

The book covers systems and systems engineering, systems methods, models, and analytical techniques as well as systems management and control methods. It discusses systems concepts, emphasizing system life cycle, and includes coverage of systems design processes and the major activities involved. It offers hands-on exercises after each chapter, giving students a solid understanding of system requirements, and uses a software package (CORE) to introduce the requirement management process.

Designed for readers with a wide range of backgrounds, the book enables students to learn about systems and systems engineering, and, more specifically, to be able to use and apply the models and methods in the systems engineering field. The author has integrated feedback from students with materials used in teaching for many years, making the book especially approachable to non-engineering students with no prior exposure to this subject. Engineering students, on the other hand, will also benefit from the clear, concise coverage this book provides as well as the relevant analysis models and techniques.

Table of Contents

  1. Preface
  2. Author
  3. Section I: Systems and Systems Engineering Concepts
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction
    2. Systems and Systems Engineering
      1. 1.1 Systems
      2. 1.2 Systems Classification
        1. 1.2.1 Natural Systems versus Man-Made Systems
        2. 1.2.2 Static Systems versus Dynamic Systems
        3. 1.2.3 Conceptual Systems versus Physical Systems
        4. 1.2.4 Open Systems versus Closed Systems
      3. 1.3 Systems Engineering
      4. 1.4 Brief History of Systems Engineering
        1. 1.4.1 From Reductionism to System Thinking
        2. 1.4.2 Early Practices
        3. 1.4.3 Government Role
        4. 1.4.4 Information Age
      5. 1.5 Summary
    3. Chapter 2: Systems Life Cycle and Design Processes
      1. 2.1 System Life Cycle
        1. 2.1.1 Operational Need
        2. 2.1.2 System Concept
        3. 2.1.3 Systems Concept Exploration and Validation
        4. 2.1.4 Engineering Model Development
        5. 2.1.5 System Production, Distribution, and Deployment
        6. 2.1.6 System Operations and Maintenance
        7. 2.1.7 System Phase-Out and Retirement
      2. 2.2 Systems Engineering Processes
        1. 2.2.1 Definition of Systems Engineering Process
        2. 2.2.2 Basic Concepts and Terminologies for Design Process
        3. 2.2.3 Systems User Classes
      3. 2.3 Systems Engineering Design Processes
        1. 2.3.1 Conceptual Design
          1. 2.3.1.1 Identification of Needs
          2. 2.3.1.2 Feasibility Analysis
          3. 2.3.1.3 System Planning
          4. 2.3.1.4 Requirement Analysis
          5. 2.3.1.5 Functional Analysis at the Systems Level
          6. 2.3.1.6 System Specification Type A
          7. 2.3.1.7 Conceptual Design Review and Evaluation
        2. 2.3.2 Preliminary Design
          1. 2.3.2.1 Functional Analysis and Function Allocation
          2. 2.3.2.2 Design Tools and Analytical Models
          3. 2.3.2.3 Design Reviews
        3. 2.3.3 Detailed Design
          1. 2.3.3.1 Detailed Design Requirements and Specifications
          2. 2.3.3.2 CAD Tools and Prototypes in Detailed Design
          3. 2.3.3.3 Component Selection
          4. 2.3.3.4 Detailed Design Review
        4. 2.3.4 System Installation and Deployment, Operation, and Maintenance
      4. 2.4 System Engineering Design Process Models
        1. 2.4.1 Waterfall Model
        2. 2.4.2 Spiral Model
        3. 2.4.3 Vee Model
      5. 2.5 Summary
  4. Section II: Systems Methods, Models, and Analytical Techniques
    1. Chapter 3: Systems Requirement Analysis
      1. 3.1 What Is a System Requirement?
        1. 3.1.1 Types of Requirements
      2. 3.2 Characteristics of Systems Requirements
      3. 3.3 Requirements Capture Technique
      4. 3.4 Requirements Analysis (RA)
        1. 3.4.1 Affinity Diagram
        2. 3.4.2 Scenarios and Use Cases
        3. 3.4.3 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
      5. 3.5 Requirements Management
        1. 3.5.1 What Is Requirements Management?
        2. 3.5.2 Why Requirements Management?
        3. 3.5.3 Requirements Management Using CORE
          1. 3.5.3.1 Requirements Management Software Tools
          2. 3.5.3.2 Requirements Management Example Using CORE
      6. 3.6 Summary
    2. Chapter 4: Functional Analysis and System Design Models
      1. 4.1 What Is a Model?
        1. 4.1.1 Characteristics of Systems Models
      2. 4.2 Model Categorization
        1. 4.2.1 Classification Based on Model Format
          1. 4.2.1.1 Physical Models
          2. 4.2.1.2 Analogue Models
          3. 4.2.1.3 Schematic Models
          4. 4.2.1.4 Mathematical Models
        2. 4.2.2 Classification Based on the Nature of the Variables
          1. 4.2.2.1 Deterministic Models
          2. 4.2.2.2 Stochastic Models
        3. 4.2.3 Other Types of System Model Classification
      3. 4.3 System Design Models
        1. 4.3.1 Functional Models
          1. 4.3.1.1 What Is a Function?
          2. 4.3.1.2 Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD)
        2. 4.3.2 Functional Allocation
          1. 4.3.2.1 Resource Requirements for Functions
          2. 4.3.2.2 Allocation of TPMs
          3. 4.3.2.3 A CORE Example of Detailed Functional Analysis
        3. 4.3.3 Task Analysis Model
          1. 4.3.3.1 Input Requirements
          2. 4.3.3.2 Procedure
          3. 4.3.3.3 Output Product
        4. 4.3.4 Timeline Analysis Model
        5. 4.3.5 Link Analysis Based on Network and Graph Model
          1. 4.3.5.1 Input
          2. 4.3.5.2 Procedure
        6. 4.3.6 Center of Gravity Model for Facility Location Planning
      4. 4.4 Summary
    3. Chapter 5: System Technical Performance Measures
      1. 5.1 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs)
      2. 5.2 Systems Reliability
        1. 5.2.1 Reliability Definition
        2. 5.2.2 Mathematical Formulation of Reliability
          1. 5.2.2.1 Reliability Function
          2. 5.2.2.2 Failure Rate and Hazard Function
          3. 5.2.2.3 Reliability with Independent Failure Event
        3. 5.2.3 Reliability Analysis Tools: FMEA and Faulty Trees
          1. 5.2.3.1 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)
          2. 5.2.3.2 Faulty Tree Analysis (FTA)
      3. 5.3 System Maintainability
        1. 5.3.1 Maintainability Definition
        2. 5.3.2 Measures of System Maintainability
          1. 5.3.2.1 Mean Corrective Time
          2. 5.3.2.2 Preventive Maintenance Time (Mpt)
          3. 5.3.2.3 Mean Active Maintenance Time
          4. 5.3.2.4 Mean Down Time (MDT)
        3. 5.3.3 System Availability
        4. 5.3.4 System Design for Maintainability
      4. 5.4 System Supportability
        1. 5.4.1 Definition of Supportability
        2. 5.4.2 Supply Chain and System Supportability
        3. 5.4.3 Inventory Management: EOQ Model
          1. 5.4.3.1 Ordering and Setup Cost
          2. 5.4.3.2 Unit Purchasing Cost
          3. 5.4.3.3 Unit Holding Cost
      5. 5.5 Human Factors and Usability Engineering
        1. 5.5.1 Definition of Human Factors
        2. 5.5.2 Work System Design
        3. 5.5.3 Application of Anthropometric Data
        4. 5.5.4 Usability Engineering
      6. 5.6 Summary
    4. Chapter 6: Decision-Making Models in Systems Engineering
      1. 6.1 Elements of Decision Making
      2. 6.2 Decision-Making Models under Risks and Uncertainty
        1. 6.2.1 Decision Making under Uncertainty
          1. 6.2.1.1 Laplace Criterion
          2. 6.2.1.2 Maximax Criterion
          3. 6.2.1.3 Maximin Criterion
          4. 6.2.1.4 Hurwicz Criterion
          5. 6.2.1.5 Minimax Regret
      3. 6.3 Decision Making under Risks
      4. 6.4 Utility Theory
      5. 6.5 Decision Tree
        1. 6.5.1 Expected Value of Sample Information
        2. 6.5.2 Expected Value of Perfect Information
      6. 6.6 Decision Making for Multiple Criteria: AHP Model
        1. 6.6.1 AHP Algorithms
      7. 6.7 Summary
    5. Chapter 7: System Optimization Models
      1. 7.1 What Is Optimization?
      2. 7.2 Unconstrained Optimization Models
        1. 7.2.1 Derivatives and Rate of Change
        2. 7.3.1 Linear Programming
          1. 7.3.1.1 Formulation
          2. 7.3.1.2 Solving LP Models Using Graphical Method
          3. 7.3.1.3 Simplex Algorithm
        3. 7.3.2 Solving LP Using a Spreadsheet
          1. 7.3.2.1 Step 1. Activation of Solver Function in Excel
          2. 7.3.2.2 Step 2. Set-Up of LP Model in Excel
          3. 7.3.2.3 Step 3. Solving the LP Model
      3. 7.4 Summary
    6. Chapter 8: Process Modeling Using Queuing Theory and Simulation
      1. 8.1 Basic Queuing Theory
        1. 8.1.1 Queuing System
          1. 8.1.1.1 Arrival Process
          2. 8.1.1.2 Queue
          3. 8.1.1.3 Service Process
        2. 8.1.2 M/M/1 Queuing System
          1. 8.1.2.1 Exponential Time Arrival and Poisson Process
          2. 8.1.2.2 Birth-Death Process
          3. 8.1.2.3 Measures of M/M/1 Queue
        3. 8.1.3 Multiserver Queuing Systems
        4. 8.1.4 Queuing Systems with Finite Population
      2. 8.2 Application of Queuing Theory
        1. 8.3.1 Introduction to Simulation
        2. 8.3.2 Discrete Event Simulation (DES)
        3. 8.3.3 Data Analysis Using Goodness of Fit
        4. 8.3.4 DES Model Using Arena
          1. 8.3.4.1 Entity
          2. 8.3.4.2 Attribute
          3. 8.3.4.3 Resources
          4. 8.3.4.4 Queue
          5. 8.3.4.5 Variable
          6. 8.3.4.6 Step 1: Generate Parts Arrival and Assign Parts Attributes
          7. 8.3.4.7 Step 2: Drilling Process
          8. 8.3.4.8 Step 3: Decide for Rework
          9. 8.3.4.9 Step 4: Collect Time in System and System Exit
          10. 8.3.4.10 Step 5: Execute the Model and Obtain Results
      3. 8.4 Summary
    7. Chapter 9: Engineering Economy in Systems Engineering
      1. 9.1 Interests and Time Value of Money
      2. 9.2 Economic Equivalence
        1. 9.2.1 Present Value (P) and Future Value (F)
        2. 9.2.2 Annual Value (A) and Future Value (F)
        3. 9.2.3 Annual Value (A) and Present Value (P)
      3. 9.3 Decision Making Using Interest Formula
        1. 9.3.1 Present Value, Future Value, and Annual Value Comparison
          1. 9.3.1.1 Present Value Equivalence (PE) Criterion
          2. 9.3.1.2 Future Value Equivalence (FE) Criterion
          3. 9.3.1.3 Annual Value Equivalence (AE) Criterion
        2. 9.3.2 Rate of Return
      4. 9.4 Break-Even Analysis
        1. 9.4.1 Cost Volume Break-Even Analysis
        2. 9.4.2 Rent-or-Buy Break-Even Analysis
      5. 9.5 Summary
  5. III: Systems Management and Control Methods
    1. Chapter 10: Systems Management and Control
      1. 10.1 Systems Management Planning
        1. 10.1.1 Engineering Design Project Management and Design Teams
      2. 10.2 Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)
        1. 10.2.1 Cover Page
          1. 10.2.2 Table of Contents
          2. 10.2.3 Scope of Project
          3. 10.2.4 Applicable Documents
          4. 10.2.5 Systems Engineering Process
          5. 10.2.6 Transitioning Critical Technologies
          6. 10.2.7 Systems Integration Efforts
          7. 10.2.8 Additional Activities
          8. 10.2.9 Appendices
          9. 10.2.10 Systems Engineering Master Scheduling
      3. 10.3 Systems Control Models
        1. 10.3.1 Critical Path Method (CPM)
        2. 10.3.2 Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
      4. 10.4 Summary
    2. Bibliography
    3. Appendix I: Introduction to Probability and Statistics
      1. I.1 Basic Probability Concepts
        1. I.1.1 Experiment, Sample, Sample Space and Universe/Population
          1. I.1.1.1 Experiment
          2. I.1.1.2 Sample, Sample Space, and Event
          3. I.1.1.3 Probability
      2. I.2 Random Variables and Distribution Function
        1. I.2.1 Continuous Random Variables
          1. I.2.1.1 Expected Value and Variance of the Random Variable
      3. I.3 Some Commonly Used Probability Functions
        1. I.3.1 Discrete Random Variables
          1. I.3.1.1 Bernoulli Random Variable
          2. I.3.1.2 Binomial Random Variable
          3. I.3.1.3 Poisson Random Variable
        2. I.3.2 Continuous Random Variables
          1. I.3.2.1 Uniform Random Variable
          2. I.3.2.2 Exponential Random Variables
          3. I.3.2.3 Normal Random Variable
          4. I.3.2.4 Lognormal Random Variable
          5. I.3.2.5 Weibull Random Variable
  6. Appendix II: Cumulative Normal Distribution Table
  7. Appendix III: Interest Factor Tables