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Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetry

Book Description

This book describes the application of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar to earth remote sensing based on research at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). This book synthesizes all current research to provide practical information for both the newcomer and the expert in radar polarimetry. The text offers a concise description of the mathematical fundamentals illustrated with many examples using SAR data, with a main focus on remote sensing of the earth.

The book begins with basics of synthetic aperture radar to provide the basis for understanding how polarimetric SAR images are formed and gives an introduction to the fundamentals of radar polarimetry. It goes on to discuss more advanced polarimetric concepts that allow one to infer more information about the terrain being imaged. In order to analyze data quantitatively, the signals must be calibrated carefully, which the book addresses in a chapter summarizing the basic calibration algorithms. The book concludes with examples of applying polarimetric analysis to scattering from rough surfaces, to infer soil moisture from radar signals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Series
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. NOTE FROM THE SERIES EDITOR
  7. FOREWORD
  8. PREFACE
  9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  10. AUTHORS
  11. CHAPTER 1: SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR) IMAGING BASICS
    1. 1.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF RADAR IMAGING
    2. 1.2 RADAR RESOLUTION
    3. 1.3 RADAR EQUATION
    4. 1.4 REAL APERTURE RADAR
    5. 1.5 SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR
    6. 1.6 RADAR IMAGE ARTIFACTS AND NOISE
    7. 1.7 SUMMARY
  12. CHAPTER 2: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SAR POLARIMETRY
    1. 2.1 POLARIZATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
    2. 2.2 MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF SCATTERERS
    3. 2.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF A RADAR POLARIMETER
    4. 2.4 POLARIZATION RESPONSE
    5. 2.5 OPTIMUM POLARIZATIONS
    6. 2.6 CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT
    7. 2.7 SUMMARY
  13. CHAPTER 3: ADVANCED POLARIMETRIC CONCEPTS
    1. 3.1 VECTOR-MATRIX DUALITY OF SCATTERER REPRESENTATION
    2. 3.2 EIGENVALUE- AND EIGENVECTOR-BASED POLARIMETRIC PARAMETERS
    3. 3.3 DECOMPOSITION OF POLARIMETRIC SCATTERING
    4. 3.4 IMAGE CLASSIFICATION
    5. 3.5 POLARIMETRIC SAR INTERFEROMETRY
    6. 3.6 SUMMARY
  14. CHAPTER 4: POLARIMETRIC SAR CALIBRATION
    1. 4.1 POLARIMETRIC RADAR SYSTEM MODEL
    2. 4.2 CROSS TALK ESTIMATION AND REMOVAL
    3. 4.3 COPOLARIZED CHANNEL IMBALANCE CALIBRATION
    4. 4.4 ABSOLUTE RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION
    5. 4.5 FARADAY ROTATION
    6. 4.6 SUMMARY
  15. CHAPTER 5: APPLICATIONS: MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE
    1. 5.1 SURFACE ELECTRICAL AND GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES
    2. 5.2 SCATTERING FROM BARE ROUGH SURFACES
    3. 5.3 EXAMPLE BARE SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE INVERSION MODELS
    4. 5.4 COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF BARE SURFACE INVERSION MODELS
    5. 5.5 PARAMETERIZING SCATTERING MODELS
    6. 5.6 INVERTING THE IEM MODEL
    7. 5.7 SCATTERING FROM VEGETATED TERRAIN
    8. 5.8 SIMULATION RESULTS
    9. 5.9 TIME SERIES ESTIMATION OF SOIL MOISTURE
    10. 5.10 SUMMARY
  16. APPENDIX A: TILTED SMALL-PERTURBATION MODEL DETAILS
  17. APPENDIX B: BISTATIC SCATTERING MATRIX OF A CYLINDER WITH ARBITRARY ORIENTATION
  18. APPENDIX C: NOMENCLATURE
    1. C.1 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
    2. C.2 COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS
  19. Plates
  20. Index