You are previewing Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms.
O'Reilly logo
Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms

Book Description

An up-to-date analysis of the SAR wavefront reconstruction signal theory and its digital implementation With the advent of fast computing and digital information processing techniques, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology has become both more powerful and more accurate. Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing with MATLAB Algorithms addresses these recent developments, providing a complete, up-to-date analysis of SAR and its associated digital signal processing algorithms. This book introduces the wavefront reconstruction signal theory that underlies the best SAR imaging methods and provides clear guidelines to system design, implementation, and applications in diverse areas-from airborne reconnaissance to topographic imaging of ocean floors to surveillance and air traffic control to medical imaging techniques, and numerous others. Enabling professionals in radar signal and image processing to use synthetic aperture technology to its fullest potential, this work:

  • Includes M-files to supplement this book that can be retrieved from The MathWorks anonymous FTP server at ftp://ftp.mathworks.com/pub/books/soumekh

  • Provides practical examples and results from real SAR, ISAR, and CSAR databases

  • Outlines unique properties of the SAR signal that cannot be found in other information processing systems

  • Examines spotlight SAR, stripmap SAR, circular SAR, and monopulse SAR modalities

  • Discusses classical SAR processing issues such as motion compensation and radar calibration

  • Table of Contents

    1. Coverpage
    2. Titlepage
    3. Copyright
    4. Dedication
    5. Contents
    6. Preface
    7. Introduction
      1. Synthetic Aperture Radar
      2. The Book
      3. Organization
      4. SAR and ISAR Databases
    8. 1 Range Imaging
      1. 1.1 System Model
      2. 1.2 Reconstruction via Matched Filtering
      3. 1.3 Range Solution
      4. 1.4 Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
        1. Time Domain Sampling
        2. Time Interval of Sampling
        3. Number of Time Samples
      5. 1.5 Reconstruction Algorithm
      6. 1.6 Reconstruction via Pulse Compression for Chirp Signals
        1. Signal Model
        2. Reconstruction
        3. Range Resolution
        4. Time Domain Sampling
        5. Residual Video Phase Error
        6. Upsampling to Recover Alias-Free Echoed Signal
        7. Electronic Counter-Countermeasure (ECCM) via Amplitude Modulation of Chirp Signals
      7. 1.7 Frequency-Dependent Target Reflectivity
        1. Reconstruction via Target Signature Matched Filtering
      8. 1.8 MATLAB Algorithms
    9. 2 Cross-range Imaging
      1. 2.1 System Model
      2. 2.2 Spherical PM Signal within an Infinite Aperture
      3. 2.3 Reconstruction via Matched Filtering: Infinite Aperture
        1. Synthetic Aperture (Slow-time) Sampling
        2. Cross-range Resolution
      4. 2.4 Spherical PM Signal within a Finite Aperture
        1. Instantaneous Frequency
        2. Slow-time Fourier Transform
        3. Slow-time Angular Doppler Spectrum
      5. 2.5 Reconstruction via Matched Filtering: Finite Aperture
      6. 2.6 Cross-range Resolution
      7. 2.7 Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
        1. Synthetic Aperture Sampling for a Broadside Target Area
        2. Synthetic Aperture Sampling for a Squint Target Area
        3. Reducing PRF via Slow-time Compression
        4. Cross-range Gating via Slow-time Compression
      8. 2.8 Reconstruction Algorithm
        1. Baseband Conversion of Target Area
        2. Zero-padding in Synthetic Aperture Domain
        3. Slow-time Doppler Domain Subsampling
        4. Reducing Bandwidth of Reconstructed Image
      9. 2.9 Synthetic Aperture-Dependent Target Reflectivity
        1. AM-PM Signal Model
        2. Slow-time Fourier Transform of AM-PM Signal
        3. Reconstruction
        4. Representation in Slow-time Angular Doppler Domain
      10. 2.10 Reconstruction via Target Signature Slow-time Matched Filtering
        1. Type 1 : Generalization of Spotlight SAR
        2. Type 2: Generalization of Stripmap SAR
        3. Type 3: Partial Observability
      11. 2.11 MATLAB Algorithms
    10. 3 SAR Radiation Pattern
      1. 3.1 Transmit Mode Radar Radiation Pattern
        1. Synthetic Aperture (Slow-time) Dependence
      2. 3.2 Radiation Pattern in Three-Dimensional Spatial Domain
        1. Radar Footprint
        2. Slant-Range
      3. 3.3 Transmit-Receive Mode Radar Radiation Pattern
      4. 3.4 Transmit-Receive Mode Radar-Target Radiation Pattern
      5. 3.5 Polarization
      6. 3.6 MATLAB Algorithms
    11. 4 Generic Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 4.1 System Model
      2. 4.2 Fast-time Fourier Transform
      3. 4.3 Slow-time Fourier Transform
      4. 4.4 Reconstruction
      5. 4.5 Digital Reconstruction via Spatial Frequency Interpolation
        1. Baseband Conversion of Target Area
        2. Interpolation from Evenly Spaced Data
        3. Interpolation from Unevenly Spaced Data
      6. 4.6 Digital Reconstruction via Range Stacking
      7. 4.7 Digital Reconstruction via Time Domain Correlation and Backprojection
        1. Time Domain Correlation Algorithm
        2. Backprojection Algorithm
      8. 4.8 Frequency and Synthetic Aperture Dependent Target Reflectivity
      9. 4.9 Motion Compensation Using Global Positioning System
        1. Spatial Frequency Modeling of Motion Errors
        2. Narrow-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
        3. Wide-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
        4. Three-Dimensional Wide-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
        5. Motion Compensation for Backprojection
      10. 4.10 Motion Compensation Using In-Scene Targets
        1. Narrow-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
        2. Wide-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
        3. Three-Dimensional Wide-Beamwidth Motion Compensation
      11. 4.11 Polar Format Processing
        1. Plane Wave Approximation-Based Reconstruction
        2. Narrow-Beamwidth Approximation
        3. Narrow-Bandwidth and Narrow-Beamwidth Approximation
        4. Wavefront Curvature Compensation
        5. Motion Compensation Using Global Positioning System
      12. 4.12 Conventional ISAR Modeling and Imaging
        1. ISAR Model
        2. Slow-time Compression or Motion Compensation
        3. Polar Format Processing
      13. 4.13 Range-Doppler Imaging
        1. Fresnel Approximation-Based Reconstruction
        2. Narrow-Bandwidth and Narrow-Beamwidth Approximation
      14. 4.14 Three-Dimensional Imaging with Two-Dimensional Azimuth and Elevation Synthetic Apertures
        1. System Model
        2. Reconstruction
      15. 4.15 Electronic Counter-Countermeasure via Pulse Diversity
    12. 5 Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 5.1 Mechanically Beam-Steered Spotlight SAR
        1. Mechanical Beam Steering
        2. System Model
        3. Reconstruction
      2. 5.2 Electronically Beam-Steered Spotlight SAR
        1. Electronic Beam Steering
        2. System Model
        3. Reconstruction
      3. 5.3 Bandwidth of Spotlight SAR Signal
        1. Single Target
        2. Target Area
      4. 5.4 Resolution and Point Spread Function
      5. 5.5 Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
        1. Fast-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        2. Slow-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        3. Reducing PRF via Slow-time Compression
        4. Digital Spotlighting
        5. Subaperture Digital Spotlighting
      6. 5.6 Reconstruction Algorithms and SAR Image Processing
        1. Digital Reconstruction via Spatial Frequency Interpolation
        2. Reconstruction in Squint Spatial Coordinates
        3. Slow-time Doppler Domain Subsampling
        4. Reducing Bandwidth of Reconstructed Image
        5. Digital Reconstruction via Range Stacking
        6. Digital Reconstruction via Time Domain Correlation and Backprojection
        7. Effect of Slow-time Doppler Filtering
        8. Effect of Motion Errors in Slow-time Doppler Spectrum
      7. 5.7 MATLAB Algorithms
    13. 6 Stripmap Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 6.1 System Model
        1. Radar Radiation Pattern
        2. Stripmap SAR Signal Model
      2. 6.2 Reconstruction
      3. 6.3 Bandwidth of Stripmap SAR Signal
        1. Planar Radar Aperture
        2. Curved Radar Aperture
      4. 6.4 Resolution and Point Spread Function
      5. 6.5 Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
        1. Fast-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        2. Slow-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        3. Slow-time Compression and Processing
        4. Subaperture Digital Spotlighting
        5. Reducing Side Lobes Doppler Aliasing via Slow-time Upsampling
      6. 6.6 Reconstruction Algorithms and SAR Image Processing
        1. Digital Reconstruction via Spatial Frequency Interpolation
        2. Slow-time Doppler Domain Subsampling
        3. Reducing Bandwidth of Reconstructed Image
        4. Digital Reconstruction via Range Stacking
        5. Digital Reconstruction via Time Domain Correlation and Backprojection
        6. Effect of Beamwidth (Slow-time Dappler) Filtering
        7. Effect of Motion Errors in Slow-time Doppler Spectrum
        8. Subpatch “Mosaic” Digital Reconstruction with Subaperture Data
      7. 6.7 Moving Target Detection and Imaging
        1. SAR Signal Model for a Moving Target with a Constant Velocity
        2. Three-Dimensional Imaging in Motion-Transformed Spatial Domain and Relative Speed Domain
        3. Moving Target Indicator: SAR Ambiguity Function
      8. 6.8 MATLAB Algorithms
    14. 7 Circular Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 7.1 System Model
        1. CSAR Signal Model
        2. Fourier Properties of Slant Plane Green’s Function
      2. 7.2 Reconstruction
        1. Slant Plane to Ground Plane Transformation
        2. Ground Plane CSAR Reconstruction
      3. 7.3 Bandwidth of CSAR Signal
      4. 7.4 Resolution and Point Spread Function
        1. Full Rotation Aspect Angle Measurement
        2. Partial Rotation Aspect Angle Measurement
      5. 7.5 Data Acquisition and Signal Processing
        1. Fast-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        2. Slow-time Domain Sampling and Processing
        3. Digital Spotlighting and Clutter Filtering
      6. 7.6 Reconstruction Algorithms and CSAR Image Processing
        1. Digital Reconstruction via Spatial Frequency Interpolation
        2. Reducing Bandwidth of Reconstructed Image
        3. Digital Reconstruction via Time Domain Correlation and Backprojection
      7. 7.7 Three-Dimensional Imaging
        1. Target Resolvability from Single-Tone Fringe Patterns
      8. 7.8 Three-Dimensional Imaging with Two-Dimensional Circular and Elevation Synthetic Apertures
        1. System Model
        2. Reconstruction
        3. Digital Reconstruction
    15. 8 Monopulse Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 8.1 Along-Track Moving Target Detector Monopulse SAR
        1. Along-Track Monopulse SAR System Geometry
        2. Monostotic SAR Signal Model
        3. Bistatic SAR Signal Model
        4. Synthesis of Monostotic SAR Signal from Bistatic SAR Signal
        5. Moving Target Indicator
        6. Effect of Variations in Altitude and Nonlinear Motion
      2. 8.2 Effect of Uncalibrated and Unstable Radars
        1. Amplitude Patterns of Monopulse Radars
        2. Instability of Monopulse Radars
        3. Wide-Beamwidth Monopulse Radars
      3. 8.3 Signal Subspace Registration of Uncalibrated SAR Images
        1. System Model
        2. Signal Subspace Processing
        3. Estimating Calibration Error Impulse Function
        4. Application in MTD Monopulse SAR
        5. Application in Automatic Target Recognition SAR
      4. 8.4 Slant Plane Topographic Mapper Monopulse SAR
        1. Slant Plane Monopulse SAR System Geometry
        2. Monostotic and Bistatic SAR Signal Models
        3. Narrow-Bandwidth and Narrow-Beamwidth Approximation: Interferometric SAR (IF-SAR)
        4. Wide-Bandwidth and Wide-Beamwidth Model
        5. Estimating Slant-range Shift via Signal Subspace Processing
      5. 8.5 Multistatic Monopulse ISAR
        1. Multistatic ISAR Model
        2. Motion Tracking via Signal Subspace Processing
      6. 8.6 MATLAB Algorithms
    16. Bibliography
    17. Index