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Sustainable Operations and Closed-Loop Supply Chains by Gilvan C. Souza

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Chapter 1

Introduction to Sustainability and Closed-Loop Supply Chains

Motivation and Trends

According to Esty and Winston,1 the top 10 environmental issues facing humanity include: climate change; energy; water; biodiversity and land use; chemicals toxins and heavy metals; air pollution; waste management; ozone layer depletion; sustainability of oceans and fisheries; and deforestation. A quick scan of the popular press reveals that the top two issues (climate change and energy) receive considerable attention, whereas landfill and depletion of natural resources only indirectly make Esty and Winston’s top 10 list, under “waste management.” Landfilling and depletion of natural resources, however, are critical to the sustainability of manufacturing ...

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