Growing public pressures, stricter enforcement of environmental laws, costly cleanup costs, limited resources, and less disposal options are creating the need for research and development (R&D) departments to rethink plans, policies, and procedures. The unique nature of R&D activities makes planning sustainable efforts extremely difficult. This chapter discusses several concepts (cradle to cradle, biomimicry, life cycle assessment, and crowdsourcing) that facilitate meaningful R&D for sustainability.
Cradle to Cradle
Products and processes have historically been designed for cradle to grave. That is, design has only considered the product from the point of manufacture to disposal. With growing awareness of ...