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Structural Health Monitoring with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

Book Description

Structural Health Monitoring with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors, 2nd Edition provides an authoritative theoretical and experimental guide to this fast-paced, interdisciplinary area with exciting applications across a range of industries.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1. Introduction
    1. 1.1 Structural Health Monitoring Principles and Concepts
    2. 1.2 Structural Fracture and Failure
    3. 1.3 Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP)
    4. 1.4 Improved Diagnosis and Prognosis through Structural Health Monitoring
    5. 1.5 About this Book
    6. References
  7. Chapter 2. Electroactive and Magnetoactive Materials
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Piezoelectricity
    3. 2.3 Piezoelectric Phenomena
    4. 2.4 Perovskite Ceramics
    5. 2.5 Piezopolymers
    6. 2.6 Magnetostrictive Materials
    7. 2.7 Summary and Conclusions
    8. 2.8 Problems and Exercises
    9. References
  8. Chapter 3. Vibration Fundamentals
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Single Degree of Freedom Vibration Analysis
    3. 3.3 Axial Vibration of a Bar
    4. 3.4 Flexural Vibration of a Beam
    5. 3.5 Torsional Vibration of a Shaft
    6. 3.6 Shear-Horizontal (SH) Vibration of an Elastic Strip
    7. 3.7 Shear-Vertical (SV) Vibration of a Beam
    8. 3.8 Summary and Conclusions
    9. 3.9 Problems and Exercises
    10. References
  9. Chapter 4. Vibration of Plates
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Elasticity Equations for Plate Vibration
    3. 4.3 Axial Vibration of Rectangular Plates
    4. 4.4 Axial Vibration of Circular Plates
    5. 4.5 Flexural Vibration of Rectangular Plates
    6. 4.6 Flexural Vibration of Circular Plates
    7. 4.7 Summary and Conclusions
    8. 4.8 Problems and Exercises
    9. References
  10. Chapter 5. Elastic Waves
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Overview of Elastic Wave Propagation in Solids and Structures
    3. 5.3 Axial Waves in a Bar
    4. 5.4 Flexural Waves in a Beam
    5. 5.5 Torsional Waves in a Shaft
    6. 5.6 Shear-Horizontal (SH) waves in a Strip
    7. 5.7 Shear-Vertical (SV) Waves in a Beam
    8. 5.8 Plate Waves
    9. 5.9 Plane, Spherical, and Circular Wave Fronts
    10. 5.10 Bulk Waves in an Infinite Elastic Medium
    11. 5.11 Summary and Conclusions
    12. 5.12 Problems and Exercises
    13. References
  11. Chapter 6. Guided Waves
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Rayleigh Surface Waves
    3. 6.3 SH Plate Waves
    4. 6.4 Lamb Waves
    5. 6.5 Circular-Crested Lamb Waves
    6. 6.6 General Formulation of Guided Waves in Plates
    7. 6.7 Guided Waves in Tubes and Shells
    8. 6.8 Summary and Conclusions
    9. 6.9 Problems and Exercises
    10. References
  12. Chapter 7. Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors – PWAS Transducers
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 PWAS Actuators
    3. 7.3 PWAS Stress and Strain Sensors
    4. 7.4 Thickness Effects on PWAS Excitation and Sensing
    5. 7.5 Vibration Sensing with PWAS Transducers
    6. 7.6 Wave Sensing with PWAS Transducers
    7. 7.7 Installation and Quality Check of PWAS Transducers
    8. 7.8 Durability and Survivability of Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors
    9. 7.9 Typical Use of PWAS Transducers in SHM Applications
    10. 7.10 Summary and Conclusions
    11. 7.11 Problems and Exercises
    12. References
  13. Chapter 8. Coupling of PWAS Transducers to the Monitored Structure
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 1-D Shear-Layer Coupling Analysis
    3. 8.3 2-D Shear-Layer Anaysis for a Rectangular PWAS
    4. 8.4 Shear-Layer Anaysis for a Circular PWAS
    5. 8.5 Energy Transfer between PWAS and Structure
    6. 8.6 Summary and Conclusions
    7. 8.7 Problems and Exercises
    8. References
  14. Chapter 9. PWAS Resonators
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 1-D PWAS Resonators
    3. 9.3 Circular PWAS Resonators
    4. 9.4 Coupled-Field Analysis of PWAS Resonators
    5. 9.5 Constrained PWAS
    6. 9.6 Summary and Conclusions
    7. 9.7 Problems and Exercises
    8. References
  15. Chapter 10. High-Frequency Vibration SHM with PWAS Modal Sensors – the Electromechanical Impedance Method
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 1-D PWAS Modal Sensors
    3. 10.3 2-D Circular PWAS Modal Sensors
    4. 10.4 Damage Detection with PWAS Modal Sensors
    5. 10.5 Coupled-Field FEM Analysis of PWAS Modal Sensors
    6. 10.6 Summary and Conclusions
    7. 10.7 Problems and Exercises
    8. References
  16. Chapter 11. Wave Tuning with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Axial Wave Tuning with PWAS Transducers
    3. 11.3 Flexural Wave Tuning with PWAS Transducers
    4. 11.4 Lamb Wave Tuning with 1-D PWAS Transducers
    5. 11.5 Lamb Wave Tuning with Circular PWAS Transducers
    6. 11.6 Hankel Transform for Circular PWAS Tuning Analysis
    7. 11.7 Experimental Validation of PWAS Lamb Wave Tuning
    8. 11.8 Directivity of Rectangular PWAS
    9. 11.9 Summary and Conclusions
    10. 11.10 Problems and Exercises
    11. References
  17. Chapter 12. Wave Propagation SHM with PWAS Transducers
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 1-D Modeling and Experiments
    3. 12.3 2-D PWAS Wave Propagation Experiments
    4. 12.4 Embedded Pitch-Catch Ultrasonics with PWAS transducers
    5. 12.5 Embedded Pulse-Echo Ultrasonics with PWAS Transducers
    6. 12.6 PWAS Time-Reversal Method
    7. 12.7 The Migration Technique
    8. 12.8 PWAS Passive Sensors of Acoustic Waves
    9. 12.9 Summary and Conclusions
    10. 12.10 Problems and Exercises
    11. References
  18. Chapter 13. In Situ Phased Arrays with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Phased Arrays in Conventional Ultrasonic NDE
    3. 13.3 1-D Linear PWAS Phased Arrays
    4. 13.4 Further Experiments with Linear PWAS Arrays
    5. 13.5 Optimization of PWAS Phased-Array Beamforming
    6. 13.6 Generic PWAS Phased-Array Formulation
    7. 13.7 2-D Planar PWAS Phased-Array Studies
    8. 13.8 The 2-D Embedded Ultrasonics StructuralRadar(2D-EUSR)
    9. 13.9 Damage Detection Experiments Using RectangularPWAS Arrays
    10. 13.10 Phased Array Analysis Using Fourier Transform
    11. 13.11 Summary and Conclusions
    12. 13.12 Problems and Exercises
    13. References
  19. Chapter 14. Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition for Structural Health Monitoring with PWAS Transducers
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Damage Identification Concepts and Approaches
    3. 14.3 From Fourier Transform to Short-Time Fourier Transform
    4. 14.4 Wavelet Analysis
    5. 14.5 Neural Nets
    6. 14.6 Feature Extraction
    7. 14.7 Algorithm for PWAS Damage Detection with the E/M Impedance Method
    8. 14.8 Summary and Conclusions
    9. 14.9 Problems and Exercises
    10. References
  20. Chapter 15. Case Studies of Multi-Method SHM with PWAS Transducers: Damage ID in Experimental Signals
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Case Study 1: Damage Detection with E/M Impedance on Circular Plates
    3. 15.3 Case Study 2: Damage Detection in Aging Aircraft-Like Panels
    4. 15.4 Summary and Conclusions
    5. References
  21. Appendix A. Mathematical Prerequisites
    1. A.1 Fourier Analysis
    2. A.2 Sampling Theory
    3. A.3 Convolution
    4. A.4 Hilbert Transform
    5. A.5 Correlation Method
    6. A.6 Time-Averaged Product of Two Harmonic Variables
    7. A.7 Orthonormal Properties of Harmonic Functions
    8. A.8 Bessel and Hankel Functions
    9. A.9 Matrix and Linear Systems
    10. References
  22. Appendix B. Elasticity Notations and Equations
    1. B.1 Basic Notations
    2. B.2 3–D Strain-Displacement Relations
    3. B.3 Dilatation and Rotation
    4. B.4 3-D Stress-Strain Relations in Engineering Constants
    5. B.5 3-D Stress-Strain Relations in Lamé Constants
    6. B.6 3-D Stress-Displacement Relations
    7. B.7 3-D Equations of Motion
    8. B.8 3-D Governing Equations–Navier-Lamé Equations
    9. B.9 Tractions
    10. B.10 Boundary Conditions
    11. B.11 2-D Elasticity
    12. B.12 Plane-Stress Elasticity in Polar Coordinates
    13. B.13 Cylindrical Coordinates
    14. B.14 Axisymmetric Polar and Cylindrical Coordinates
    15. B.15 Spherical Coordinates
    16. References
  23. Index