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Structural Alloys for Power Plants

Book Description

Current fleets of conventional and nuclear power plants face increasing hostile environmental conditions due to increasingly high temperature operation for improved capacity and efficiency, and the need for long term service. Additional challenges are presented by the requirement to cycle plants to meet peak-load operation. This book presents a comprehensive review of structural materials in conventional and nuclear energy applications. Opening chapters address operational challenges and structural alloy requirements in different types of power plants. The following sections review power plant structural alloys and methods to mitigate critical materials degradation in power plants.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: Operational challenges and structural alloy requirements
    1. 1. Gas turbines: operating conditions, components and material requirements
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Overview of materials systems and their role in gas turbines
      4. 1.3 Operating conditions and materials selection
      5. 1.4 Critical degradation mechanisms, aging and monitoring
      6. 1.5 Materials performance assessment and life management
      7. 1.6 Materials limitations, challenges and future directions
      8. 1.7 Acknowledgements
      9. 1.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 1.9 References
    2. 2. Steam turbines: operating conditions, components and material requirements
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 High temperature cylinder components
      4. 2.3 Factors affecting the service life of high temperature components
      5. 2.4 Low temperature cylinder components
      6. 2.5 Factors affecting the service life of low temperature components
      7. 2.6 Conclusion
      8. 2.7 References
    3. 3. High temperature materials issues in the design and operation of coal-fired steam turbines and plant
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Recent power plant history and its lessons
      4. 3.3 Challenges of advanced plants
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamics and design of the steam and water circuits
      6. 3.5 Design and operation of furnace and boiler
      7. 3.6 Superheater design issues
      8. 3.7 Two shift cycling
      9. 3.8 Material issues in the development of advanced steam plants
      10. 3.9 Discussion
      11. 3.10 Conclusions
      12. 3.11 References
    4. 4. Nuclear power plants: types, components and material requirements
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 UK gas-cooled reactors: Magnox and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR)
      4. 4.3 The pressurised water reactor (PWR)
      5. 4.4 ‘Generation IV’ systems: the fusion reactor
      6. 4.5 Conclusion
      7. 4.6 References
  8. Part II: Structural alloys and their development
    1. 5. Austenitic steels and alloys for power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 The Fe-C phase diagram and austenitic steels
      4. 5.3 Microstructure and properties of austenitic steels
      5. 5.4 Other problems with the use of austenitics
      6. 5.5 Modern Japanese alloys
      7. 5.6 Discussion and future work
      8. 5.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 5.8 References
    2. 6. Bainitic steels and alloys for power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Transformations in steels
      4. 6.3 Tempering heat treatment and service
      5. 6.4 Desirable properties for high temperature components used in power plants
      6. 6.5 Developments of bainitic power plant steels
      7. 6.6 Conclusion
      8. 6.7 References
    3. 7. Ferritic and martensitic steels for power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Metallurgical background
      4. 7.3 Power plant ferritic, bainitic and martensitic steels
      5. 7.4 Steam oxidation
      6. 7.5 Production and fabrication of power plant components
      7. 7.6 Power plant experience with most recently developed steels
      8. 7.7 Further development of power plant steels
      9. 7.8 Sources of further information and advice
      10. 7.9 References and further reading
    4. 8. Structural materials containing nanofeatures for advanced energy plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS)
      4. 8.3 Ferritic-martensitic ODS steels
      5. 8.4 ODS materials based on a non-ferrous matrix
      6. 8.5 Production of nanoparticles containing alloys and components
      7. 8.6 Components manufactured from ODS alloys
      8. 8.7 Properties of nanoparticle-containing steels
      9. 8.8 Other nanofeatures used to strengthen alloys for high temperature applications
      10. 8.9 Conclusion
      11. 8.10. Acknowledgement
      12. 8.11.References
    5. 9. Development of creep-resistant steels and alloys for use in power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Basic methods of strengthening steels and alloys at elevated temperatures
      4. 9.3 Development progress of creep-resistant steels and alloys
      5. 9.4 Degradation in creep strength of components subjected to elevated temperature
      6. 9.5 Advanced alloy design of creep-resistant steels and Ni-base superalloys to mitigate materials degradation
      7. 9.6 Conclusion and future trends
      8. 9.7 References
    6. 10. Development of advanced alloys with improved resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Overview of corrosion and stress corrosion
      4. 10.3 Development of alloys
      5. 10.4 Creep-fatigue behaviour of steels and superalloys
      6. 10.5 Advanced design and use of alloys
      7. 10.6 Future trends
      8. 10.7 References and further reading
    7. 11. Design and material issues in improving fracture/fatigue resistance and structural integrity in power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Engineering design and brittle fracture
      4. 11.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics
      5. 11.4 Yielding fracture mechanics: the failure assessment diagram (FAD)
      6. 11.5 Brittle fracture in power plant steels
      7. 11.6 Inter-granular fracture in turbine disc steel
      8. 11.7 Potential concerns in nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels
      9. 11.8 Fatigue: S-N curves, Miner’s Law, stress concentrators
      10. 11.9 Fatigue crack propagation
      11. 11.10 Fatigue induced by thermal strain
      12. 11.11 Fatigue crack growth and interactions
      13. 11.12 Conclusion
      14. 11.13 References
    8. 12. Radiation damage to structural alloys in nuclear power plants: mechanisms and remediation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Overview: the radiation damage event
      4. 12.3 Physical degradation
      5. 12.4 Stress-related degradation
      6. 12.5 Environmental factors in cracking
      7. 12.6 Environmental factors in fracture
      8. 12.7 The response of stainless steel to irradiation
      9. 12.8 The response of pressure vessel steels to irradiation
      10. 12.9 The response of advanced alloys to irradiation
      11. 12.10 Conclusion
      12. 12.11 Sources of further information and advice
      13. 12.12 References
    9. 13. The use of advanced alloys to resolve welding problems in power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Parent steel behaviour and the analysis of creep rupture data
      4. 13.3 Welding and the resulting residual stresses
      5. 13.4 Advantages and limitations of particular alloys
      6. 13.5 Advanced design and use of newer alloys
      7. 13.6 Future trends
      8. 13.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 13.8 References and further reading
    10. 14. Modelling creep in nickel alloys in high temperature power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Empirical methods
      4. 14.3 Semi-empirical models
      5. 14.4 Neural network approaches
      6. 14.5 Physics-based approaches
      7. 14.6 Conclusion
      8. 14.7 References
  9. Index