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String Theory

Book Description

String Theory comprises two volumes which provide a comprehensive and pedagogic account of the subject. Volume 2 begins with an introduction to supersymmetric string theories and presents the important advances of recent years. The first three chapters introduce the type I, type II, and heterototic superstring theories and their interactions. The next two chapters present important recent discoveries about strongly coupled strings, beginning with a detailed treatment of D-branes and their dynamics, and covering string duality, M-theory, and black hole entropy. The final chapters are concerned with four-dimensional string theories, showing how some of the simplest string models connect with previous ideas for unifying the Standard Model. They collect many important results on world-sheet and spacetime symmetries. An appendix summarizes the necessary background on fermions and supersymmetry. An essential text and reference for graduate students and researchers interested in modern superstring theory.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Notation
  9. 10 Type I and type II superstrings
    1. 10.1 The superconformal algebra
    2. 10.2 Ramond and Neveu–Schwarz sectors
    3. 10.3 Vertex operators and bosonization
    4. 10.4 The superconformal ghosts
    5. 10.5 Physical states
    6. 10.6 Superstring theories in ten dimensions
    7. 10.7 Modular invariance
    8. 10.8 Divergences of type I theory
    9. Exercises
  10. 11 The heterotic string
    1. 11.1 World-sheet supersymmetries
    2. 11.2 The SO(32) and E8 × E8 heterotic strings
    3. 11.3 Other ten-dimensional heterotic strings
    4. 11.4 A little Lie algebra
    5. 11.5 Current algebras
    6. 11.6 The bosonic construction and toroidal compactification
    7. Exercises
  11. 12 Superstring interactions
    1. 12.1 Low energy supergravity
    2. 12.2 Anomalies
    3. 12.3 Superspace and superfields
    4. 12.4 Tree-level amplitudes
    5. 12.5 General amplitudes
    6. 12.6 One-loop amplitudes
    7. Exercises
  12. 13 D-branes
    1. 13.1 T-duality of type II strings
    2. 13.2 T-duality of type I strings
    3. 13.3 The D-brane charge and action
    4. 13.4 D-brane interactions: statics
    5. 13.5 D-brane interactions: dynamics
    6. 13.6 D-brane interactions: bound states
    7. Exercises
  13. 14 Strings at strong coupling
    1. 14.1 Type IIB string and SL(2, Z) duality
    2. 14.2 U-duality
    3. 14.3 SO(32) type I–heterotic duality
    4. 14.4 Type IIA string and M-theory
    5. 14.5 The E8 × E8 heterotic string
    6. 14.6 What is string theory?
    7. 14.7 Is M for matrix?
    8. 14.8 Black hole quantum mechanics
    9. Exercises
  14. 15 Advanced CFT
    1. 15.1 Representations of the Virasoro algebra
    2. 15.2 The conformal bootstrap
    3. 15.3 Minimal models
    4. 15.4 Current algebras
    5. 15.5 Coset models
    6. 15.6 Representations of the N = 1 superconformal algebra
    7. 15.7 Rational CFT
    8. 15.8 Renormalization group flows
    9. 15.9 Statistical mechanics
    10. Exercises
  15. 16 Orbifolds
    1. 16.1 Orbifolds of the heterotic string
    2. 16.2 Spacetime supersymmetry
    3. 16.3 Examples
    4. 16.4 Low energy field theory
    5. Exercises
  16. 17 Calabi–Yau compactification
    1. 17.1 Conditions for N = 1 supersymmetry
    2. 17.2 Calabi–Yau manifolds
    3. 17.3 Massless spectrum
    4. 17.4 Low energy field theory
    5. 17.5 Higher corrections
    6. 17.6 Generalizations
  17. 18 Physics in four dimensions
    1. 18.1 Continuous and discrete symmetries
    2. 18.2 Gauge symmetries
    3. 18.3 Mass scales
    4. 18.4 More on unification
    5. 18.5 Conditions for spacetime supersymmetry
    6. 18.6 Low energy actions
    7. 18.7 Supersymmetry breaking in perturbation theory
    8. 18.8 Supersymmetry beyond perturbation theory
    9. Exercises
  18. 19 Advanced topics
    1. 19.1 The N = 2 superconformal algebra
    2. 19.2 Type II strings on Calabi–Yau manifolds
    3. 19.3 Heterotic string theories with (2,2) SCFT
    4. 19.4 N = 2 minimal models
    5. 19.5 Gepner models
    6. 19.6 Mirror symmetry and applications
    7. 19.7 The conifold
    8. 19.8 String theories on K3
    9. 19.9 String duality below ten dimensions
    10. 19.10 Conclusion
    11. Exercises
  19. Appendix B: Spinors and SUSY in various dimensions
    1. B.1 Spinors in various dimensions
    2. B.2 Introduction to supersymmetry: d = 4
    3. B.3 Supersymmetry in d = 2
    4. B.4 Differential forms and generalized gauge fields
    5. B.5 Thirty-two supersymmetries
    6. B.6 Sixteen supersymmetries
    7. B.7 Eight supersymmetries
    8. Exercises
  20. References
  21. Glossary
  22. Index