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String Theory and Particle Physics by Angel M. Uranga, Luis E. Ibáñez

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1

The Standard Model and beyond

In this chapter we overview the structure of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, its shortcomings, and different ideas for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) devised to address them. We discuss the three fine-tuning puzzles of the SM (the cosmological constant, strong CP and hierarchy problems) and several ideas put forward to solve them. Among the extensions of the SM, this chapter overviews Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), which explore the embedding of the SM gauge symmetry into a larger unified gauge group like SU(5) or SO(10), and models with extra spatial dimensions beyond the observed three. These ideas, along with supersymmetry, studied in Chapter 2, will reappear in the study of particle physics ...

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