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String Theory and Particle Physics

Book Description

String theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions. This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters. The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. 1. The Standard Model and beyond
    1. 1.1 The Standard Model of particle physics
    2. 1.2 Grand Unified Theories
    3. 1.3 The SM fine-tuning puzzles
    4. 1.4 Extra dimensions
  9. 2. Supersymmetry
    1. 2.1 Four-dimensional N = 1 supersymmetry
    2. 2.2 SUSY breaking
    3. 2.3 N = 1 Supergravity
    4. 2.4 Extended supersymmetry and supergravity
    5. 2.5 Non-perturbative dynamics in supersymmetric theories
    6. 2.6 Low-energy supersymmetry and the MSSM
  10. 3. Introduction to string theory: the bosonic string
    1. 3.1 Generalities
    2. 3.2 Closed bosonic string
    3. 3.3 Open bosonic string
    4. 3.4 Unoriented bosonic string theory
  11. 4. Superstrings
    1. 4.1 Fermions on the worldsheet
    2. 4.2 Type II string theories
    3. 4.3 Heterotic string theories
    4. 4.4 Type I string theory
    5. 4.5 Summary
  12. 5. Toroidal compactification of superstrings
    1. 5.1 Type II superstrings
    2. 5.2 Heterotic superstrings
    3. 5.3 Type I toroidal compactification and D-branes
  13. 6. Branes and string duality
    1. 6.1 D-branes in string theory
    2. 6.2 Supergravity description of non-perturbative states
    3. 6.3 Strings at strong coupling and 10d string duality
    4. 6.4 AdS/CFT and gauge/gravity dualities
    5. 6.5 Brane–antibrane systems and non-BPS D-branes
  14. 7. Calabi–Yau compactification of heterotic superstrings
    1. 7.1 A road map for string compactifications
    2. 7.2 Generalities on Calabi–Yau compactification
    3. 7.3 Heterotic CY compactifications: standard embedding
    4. 7.4 Heterotic CY compactifications: non-standard embedding
    5. 7.5 CY compactifications of Horava–Witten theory
  15. 8. Heterotic string orbifolds and other exact CFT constructions
    1. 8.1 Toroidal orbifolds
    2. 8.2 Heterotic compactification on toroidal orbifolds
    3. 8.3 Non-standard embeddings and Wilson lines
    4. 8.4 Asymmetric orbifolds
    5. 8.5 The fermionic construction
    6. 8.6 Gepner models
  16. 9. Heterotic string compactifications: effective action
    1. 9.1 A first look at the heterotic 4d N = 1 effective action
    2. 9.2 Heterotic M-theory effective action
    3. 9.3 Effective action of orbifold models
    4. 9.4 Gauge couplings and Kac–Moody level
    5. 9.5 Anomalous U(1)s and Fayet–Illiopoulos terms
    6. 9.6 T-duality and the effective action
    7. 9.7 Orbifold model building revisited
    8. 9.8 Higher Kac–Moody level models and string GUTs
  17. 10. Type IIA orientifolds: intersecting brane worlds
    1. 10.1 Type II on CY and orientifolding
    2. 10.2 Intersecting D6-branes in flat 10d space
    3. 10.3 Compactification and an example of a toroidal model
    4. 10.4 Introducing O6-planes
    5. 10.5 Non-supersymmetric particle physics models
    6. 10.6 Supersymmetric particle physics models in T6/Z2 × Z2 orientifolds
    7. 10.7 Generalizations and related constructions
  18. 11. Type IIB orientifolds
    1. 11.1 Generalities of type IIB orientifold actions
    2. 11.2 Type IIB toroidal orientifolds
    3. 11.3 D-branes at singularities
    4. 11.4 Magnetized D-brane models
    5. 11.5 F-theory model building
  19. 12. Type II compactifications: effective action
    1. 12.1 The closed string moduli in type II orientifolds
    2. 12.2 Kähler metrics of matter fields in toroidal orientifolds
    3. 12.3 The gauge kinetic function
    4. 12.4 U(1)’s and FI terms
    5. 12.5 Superpotentials and Yukawa couplings in type II orientifolds
    6. 12.6 Effective action of an MSSM-like example
    7. 12.7 Yukawa couplings in local F-theory models
  20. 13. String instantons and effective field theory
    1. 13.1 Instantons in field theory and string theory
    2. 13.2 Fermion zero modes for D-brane instantons
    3. 13.3 Phenomenological applications
  21. 14. Flux compatifications and moduli stabilization
    1. 14.1 Type IIB with 3-form fluxes
    2. 14.2 Fluxes in type II toroidal orientifolds
    3. 14.3 D-branes and fluxes
    4. 14.4 Mirror symmetry, T-duality, and non-geometric fluxes
    5. 14.5 Fluxes in other string constructions
  22. 15. Moduli stabilization and supersymmetry breaking in string theory
    1. 15.1 SUSY and SUSY breaking in string compactifications
    2. 15.2 SUSY breaking and moduli fixing in heterotic models
    3. 15.3 SUSY breaking and moduli fixing in type II orientifolds
    4. 15.4 Soft terms from fluxes in type IIB orientifolds
    5. 15.5 General parametrization of moduli/dilaton induced SUSY breaking
    6. 15.6 Modulus/dilaton dominated SUSY breaking spectra and the LHC
    7. 15.7 Other mediation mechanisms in string theory
  23. 16. Further phenomenological properties. Strings and cosmology
    1. 16.1 Scales and unification in string theory
    2. 16.2 Axions in string theory
    3. 16.3 R-parity and B/L-violation
    4. 16.4 Extra U(1) gauge bosons
    5. 16.5 Strings at the weak scale
    6. 16.6 Strings and cosmology
  24. 17. The space of string vacua
    1. 17.1 General properties of the massless spectrum in string compactifications
    2. 17.2 The flavour landscape
    3. 17.3 The flux landscape
    4. 17.4 Outlook
  25. Appendix A: Modular functions
  26. Appendix B: Some topological tools
    1. B.1 Forms and cycles: cohomology and homology
    2. B.2 Hodge dual
    3. B.3 Application: p-form gauge fields
    4. B.4 Homotopy groups
  27. Appendix C: Spectrum and charges of a semi-realistic Z3 heterotic orbifold
  28. Appendix D: Computation of RR tadpoles
    1. D.1 RR tadpoles in type I theory
    2. D.2 Tadpoles for T6/ZN type IIB orientifolds
  29. Appendix E: CFT toolkit
    1. E.1 Conformal symmetry and conformal fields
    2. E.2 Vertex operators and structure of scattering amplitudes
    3. E.3 Kac–Moody algebras
    4. E.4 N = 2 superconformal field theories
    5. E.5 Rational conformal field theory and simple currents
  30. Bibliography
  31. References
  32. Index