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Strength of Materials

Book Description

Strength of Materials deals with the study of the effect of forces and moments on the deformation of a body. This book follows a simple approach along with numerous solved and unsolved problems to explain the basics followed by advanced concepts such as three dimensional stresses, the theory of simple bending, theories of failure, mechanical properties, material testing and engineering materials.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Simple Stresses and Strains
    1. Introduction
    2. Tensile and Compressive Stresses
    3. Shear Stress and Shear Strain
    4. Complementary Shear Stresses
    5. Stresses on an Inclined Plane
    6. Bars of Varying Cross-sections
    7. Longitudinal Strain, Lateral Strain and Poisson’s Ratio
    8. Tapered Bar
    9. Tapered Flat
    10. Bars Subjected to Various Forces
    11. Extension in Bar Due to Self-weight
    12. Bar of Uniform Strength
    13. Volumetric Stress and Volumetric Strain
    14. Statically Indeterminate Problems
    15. Strain Energy and Resilience
    16. Sudden Load
    17. Impact Load
    18. Tensile Test on Mild Steel
    19. Stress Concentration
    20. Factor of Safety
    21. Key Points to Remember
    22. Review Questions
    23. Multiple Choice Questions
    24. Practice Problems
    25. Special Problems
  8. Chapter 2. Composite Bars and Temperature Stresses
    1. Introduction
    2. Stresses in a Composite Bar
    3. Composite System
    4. Bars of Different Lengths
    5. Bolt and Tube Assembly
    6. Temperature Stresses in a Single Bar
    7. Temperature Stresses in a Composite Bar
    8. Key Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Practice Problems
    12. Special Problems
  9. Chapter 3. Principal Stresses and Strains
    1. Introduction
    2. Stresses on an Inclined Plane (I)
    3. Stresses on Inclined Plane (II)
    4. Principal Stresses
    5. Practical Cases of Principal Planes
    6. Graphical Solution
    7. Ellipse of Stresses
    8. Strain Components
    9. Strain Components on an Inclined Plane
    10. Mohr’s Strain Circle
    11. Three-Dimensional Stresses
    12. Principal Strains in Terms of Principal Stresses
    13. Strain Gauge Rosettes
    14. Rosettes
    15. Key Points to Remember
    16. Review Questions
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Practice Problems
    19. Special Problems
  10. Chapter 4. Elastic Constants
    1. Introduction
    2. Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio
    3. Determination of Modulus of Rigidity
    4. Relation Between Young’s Modulus and Modulus of Rigidity
    5. Relation Between Young’s Modulus and Bulk Modulus
    6. Key Points to Remember
    7. Review Questions
    8. Multiple Choice Questions
    9. Practice Problems
    10. Special Problems
  11. Chapter 5. Thin Cylindrical and Spherical Shells
    1. Introduction
    2. Thin Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure
    3. Thin Spherical Shell
    4. Cylindrical Shell with Hemispherical Ends
    5. Wire Winding of Thin Cylindrical Shells
    6. Pressure Vessel with a Double Curved Wall
    7. Conical Water Tank
    8. Key Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Practice Problems
    12. Special Problems
  12. Chapter 6. Thick Shells
    1. Introduction
    2. Lame’s Equations
    3. Thick Cylindrical Shell Subjected to External Pressure
    4. Compound Cylinder
    5. Shrinkage Allowance
    6. Hub and Shaft Assembly
    7. Thick Spherical Shell
    8. Key Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Practice Problems
    12. Special Problems
  13. Chapter 7. Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams
    1. Introduction
    2. Different Types of Beams
    3. Shear Force (Positive and Negative)
    4. Bending Moments (Positive and Negative)
    5. SF Diagrams of Beams/Cantilevers Carrying Point Loads
    6. SF Diagrams of Cantilevers and Beams with UDL
    7. SF Diagrams of Beam/Cantilevers with Applied Moment
    8. BM Diagrams of Cantilevers/Beams with Point Loads
    9. BM Diagrams of Cantilevers/Beams with UDL
    10. SF and BM Diagrams of Beam/Cantilever with Load Through a Crank
    11. Variable Loading on a Beam
    12. Relation Between Rate of Loading, SF and BM in a Beam
    13. Key Points to Remember
    14. Review Questions
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Practice Problems
    17. Special Problems
  14. Chapter 8. Theory of Simple Bending
    1. Introduction
    2. Assumptions in Theory of Simple Bending
    3. Theory of Simple Bending
    4. Neutral Axis
    5. Moment of Resistance
    6. Perpendicular Axes and Parallel Axes Theorems
    7. Symmetrical I-Section
    8. T-Section
    9. Channel Section
    10. Unequal I-Section
    11. Modulus of Rupture
    12. Built Up Sections
    13. Beams of Uniform Strength
    14. Composite Beams
    15. Reinforced Cement Concrete Beam
    16. RCC Beams (Rectangular Section)
    17. Stress Concentration in Bending
    18. Key Points to Remember
    19. Review Questions
    20. Multiple Choice Questions
    21. Practice Problems
    22. Special Problems
  15. Chapter 9. Shear Stresses in Beams
    1. Introduction
    2. Shear Stress Distribution
    3. Shear Stress Distribution in a Rectangular Section of a Beam
    4. Shear Stress Distribution in a Circular Section of a Beam
    5. Curves of Principal Stresses in a Beam
    6. Directional Distribution of Shear Stresses
    7. Key Points to Remember
    8. Review Questions
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Practice Problems
    11. Special Problems
  16. Chapter 10. Combined Bending and Direct Stresses
    1. Introduction
    2. Eccentric Axial Thrust on a Column
    3. Load Eccentric to Both Axes (Rectangular Section)
    4. Core of Rectangular Section
    5. Core of Circular Section
    6. Core of Any Section
    7. Wind Pressure on Walls
    8. Wind Pressure on Chimney Shafts
    9. Key Points to Remember
    10. Review Questions
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Practice Problems
    13. Special Problems
  17. Chapter 11. Deflection in Beams
    1. Introduction
    2. Relation Between Bending Moment and Curvature
    3. Sign Conventions
    4. Simply Supported Beam with a Central Point Load
    5. A Beam Carrying UDL with Simply Supported Ends
    6. A Cantilever with the Point Load at Free End
    7. A Cantilever with a UDL
    8. Macaulay’s Method
    9. Eccentric Load on a Beam
    10. Impact Loading of a Beam
    11. Propped Cantilevers
    12. Stepped Beam
    13. Slope and Deflection by Area Moment Method
    14. Conjugate Beam Method
    15. Deflection
    16. Slope and Deflection of Stepped Beams
    17. Key Points to Remember
    18. Review Questions
    19. Multiple Choice Questions
    20. Practice Problems
    21. Special Problems
  18. Chapter 12. Torsion
    1. Introduction
    2. Development of Shear Stress and Angular Twist in a Shaft Due to Twisting Moment
    3. Modulus of Rupture
    4. Horse-Power Transmitted by a Shaft
    5. Shafts of Varying Diameters
    6. Compound Shaft
    7. Stresses in a Shaft Subjected to Twisting Moment
    8. Shafts Subjected to T and M
    9. Torsional Resilience of a Shaft
    10. Stresses Developed in a Key
    11. Stress Concentration in Torsional Loading
    12. Key Points to Remember
    13. Review Questions
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Practice Problems
    16. Special Problems
  19. Chapter 13. Springs
    1. Introduction
    2. Helical Springs
    3. Wahl’s Factor
    4. Close-coiled Helical Spring Subjected to an Axial Load
    5. Closed-coiled Helical Spring Subjected to an Axial Moment
    6. Open-coiled Helical Spring
    7. Open-coiled Helical Spring Subjected to Axial Moment
    8. Open-coiled Helical Spring—Stresses Developed in Spring Wire
    9. Plane Spiral Spring
    10. Conical Spring
    11. Leaf Spring
    12. Cantilever Leaf Spring (Quarter Elliptic Spring)
    13. Key Points to Remember
    14. Review Questions
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Practice Problems
    17. Special Problems
  20. Chapter 14. Struts and Columns
    1. Introduction
    2. Euler’s Theory of Buckling
    3. Equivalent Length
    4. Limitations of Euler’s Theory of Buckling
    5. Higher-order Differential Equation
    6. Rankine Gordon Formula
    7. Johnson’s Parabolic Formula
    8. Eccentric Loading of Columns
    9. Professor Perry’s Approximate Formula
    10. Long Columns with Eccentricity in Geometry
    11. Professor Perry Robertson Formula
    12. Lateral Loading of Strut with Point Load
    13. Strut with an Uniformly Distributed Lateral Load
    14. Energy Approach
    15. Key Points to Remember
    16. Review Questions
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Practice Problems
  21. Chapter 15. Theories of Failure
    1. Introduction
    2. Maximum Principal Stress Theory (Rankine’s Theory)
    3. Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca Theory)
    4. Maximum Principal Strain Theory (St. Venant’s Theory)
    5. Strain Energy Theory (Beltrami, Haigh Theory)
    6. Shear Strain Energy or Distortional Strain Energy Theory (Von Mises Theory)
    7. Mohr’s Theory of Failure
    8. Key Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Practice Problems
    12. Special Problems
  22. Chapter 16. Strain Energy Methods
    1. Introduction
    2. Castigliano’s First Theorem
    3. Strain Energy Due to Axial Force
    4. Strain Energy Due to Shear Stress
    5. Strain Energy Due to Bending
    6. Strain Energy Due to Twisting Moment
    7. Maxwell’s Reciprocal Theorem
    8. Principle of Virtual Forces Applied to Trusses
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Practice Problems
  23. Chapter 17. Bending of Curved Bars
    1. Introduction
    2. Stresses in a Curved Bar
    3. Ah2 for a Rectangular Section
    4. Value of h2 for Sections Made Up of Rectangular Strips
    5. Ah2 for a Trapezoidal Section
    6. Ah2 for a Circular Section
    7. Ring Subjected to a Diametral Load
    8. Chain Link Subjected to a Tensile Load
    9. Deflection of Curved Bar
    10. Deflection of a Chain Link
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Practice Problems
  24. Chapter 18. Unsymmetrical Bending and Shear Centre
    1. Introduction
    2. Principal Axes
    3. Parallel Axes Theorem for Product of Inertia
    4. Determination of Principal Axes
    5. Stresses Due to Unsymmetrical Bending
    6. Deflection of Beams Due to Unsymmetrical Bending
    7. Shear Centre
    8. Key Points to Remember
    9. Multiple Choice Questions
    10. Practice Problems
  25. Chapter 19. Three-Dimensional Stresses
    1. Introduction
    2. Stress Tensor
    3. Stress at a Point
    4. Plane Stress Condition
    5. Strain Tensor
    6. Deformations
    7. Generalized Hooke’s Law
    8. Elastic Constants K and G
    9. Equilibrium Equations
    10. Second-degree Polynomial
    11. A Beam Subjected to Pure Bending
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Practice Problems
  26. Chapter 20. Mechanical Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials Behaviour Under Static Tension
    3. Behaviour of Materials Under Static Compression
    4. Behaviour of Materials Under Bending
    5. Behaviour of Materials Under Torsion
    6. Behaviour of Materials Under Impact
    7. Hardness
    8. Fatigue
    9. Creep
    10. Review Questions
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
  27. Chapter 21. Material Testing
    1. Tensile Test on a Specimen Using a Tensometer
    2. Shear Punching Test on Sheet Sample
    3. Tensile Test on a Sample Using UTM
    4. Double Shear Test on a Specimen Using UTM
    5. Compression Test on a Cast Iron Specimen Using UTM
    6. Deflection Test on a Bar Using UTM
    7. Compression Test on Brick
    8. Compression Test on a Wooden Sample
    9. Hardness Test—Brinell Hardness Number
    10. Hardness Test—Rockwell Hardness Number
    11. Hardness Test—Vickers Pyramid Number
    12. Izod Impact Test
    13. Charpy Impact Test
    14. Torsion Test
    15. Stiffness of a Helical Spring
    16. Stiffness of a Leaf Spring
  28. Chapter 22. Engineering Materials
    1. Introduction
    2. Carbon Steels
    3. Alloy Steels
    4. Cast Iron
    5. Aluminium, Magnesium, Titanium and Their Alloys
    6. Copper and its Alloys
    7. Nickel, Cobalt and Their Alloys
    8. Babbits
    9. Plastics
    10. Rubber
    11. Ceramic Materials
    12. Glasses
    13. Polymorph of Carbon
    14. Review Questions
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
  29. Copyright